Cover Image
close this bookBanning Anti-Personnel Mines - The Ottawa Treaty Explained (International Committee of the Red Cross , 1998, 24 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
close this folder1. The landmine problem and progress towards a ban treaty
View the document1.1 The need for a ban treaty
View the document1.2 The existing law
View the document1.3 The Ottawa process
close this folder2. The Ottawa treaty
View the document(introduction...)
View the document2.1 What is an anti-personnel mine?
close this folder2.2 The elements of a comprehensive ban treaty
View the document(introduction...)
View the document2.2.1 An end to use
View the document2.2.2 A prohibition on development and production
View the document2.2.3 A prohibition on stockpiling
View the document2.2.4 A prohibition on transfer
View the document2.2.5 Other prohibited activities
close this folder2.3 Addressing the problem: mine clearance and assistance to victims
View the document(introduction...)
View the document2.3.1 Clearing mined areas
View the document2.3.2 Assisting the victims
View the document2.4 Entry into force
close this folder2.5 Ensuring compliance with the treaty
View the document(introduction...)
View the document2.5.1 Reporting on implementation
View the document2.5.2 Settling disputes
View the document2.5.3 Resolving doubts about compliance
View the document2.5.4 National efforts to prevent violations
View the document2.5.5 Reviewing implementation of the treaty
View the document2.5.6 Strengthening and updating the treaty
View the document2.6 Reservations
View the document2.7 Withdrawal
View the document3. Beyond the Ottawa treaty
View the documentAnnex I: Glossary of legal and technical terms
View the documentAnnex II: Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on Their Destruction
View the documentAnnex III: List of Signatories as at 1 March 1999*

3. Beyond the Ottawa treaty

While the negotiation of the Ottawa treaty is an historic landmark in the battle against the scourge of landmines, a tremendous amount of work remains to be done before the threat of these weapons and their appalling humanitarian consequences are effectively tackled. Countries must be encouraged (1) to adhere to the treaty and implement its provisions, and (2) to increase their support for mine-clearance and victim-assistance programmes. As has been seen, the Ottawa treaty requires a State Party to undertake a wide range of activities. Among other things, the country must ensure that anti-personnel mines are no longer used as weapons by its armed forces, end the development and production of these devices, destroy any stockpiles, and identify, mark, and clear mined areas. In many countries, implementing these obligations will require significant technical, legal and financial assistance.

On 9 December, the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 52/38A, which urged all States to sign and ratify the Convention and to contribute towards its full realization and effective implementation.

Although countries from all regions of the world supported the Ottawa process, some of the world’s major landmine producers, exporters and users did not actively participate in the negotiation of the Ottawa treaty and have not yet signed it. Every effort must be made to encourage these countries to join ranks with the rest of the international community and prohibit anti-personnel landmines so that the Ottawa treaty is universally respected in the near future.

The Ottawa treaty is only one of the essential measures needed to address the landmine contamination problem. Vast numbers of people continue to live in mine-affected areas under daily threat from these weapons. Most landmine victims continue to have unmet medical, rehabilitative, social, and economic needs which must be dealt with effectively. Landmines are a man-made epidemic. Similarly, the solutions to this epidemic lie in our own hands. The Ottawa treaty is an important step, but only a first one.