|Trainee's Manual on Disaster Preparedness (European Commission Humanitarian Office, 59 p.)|
LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACADEMY EUROPEAN COMMISSION HUMANITARIAN OFFICE
DRAFT FOR DISCUSSION
A. International Disasters
1. Types of Disasters
2. Statistics of Disaster Occurrences Worldwide
B. National Disasters
1. Types of Disasters in the Philippines
2. Statistics of Disaster Occurrences in the Country
C. Local Disasters (Regional/Municipal/Provincial)
1. Disaster Occurrences in the Area
2. Participants Sharing of Disaster Experiences
A. Natural Hazards
1. Types of Natural Hazards
a. Geological and Seismological Hazards
a.1 Structure of the Earth
a.2 Plate Tectonics
EARTHQUAKES are ground vibrations caused by rock failure or volcanic activity.
b.2 Types of Earthquakes
The most common type of earthquake is the TECTONIC earthquakes which are produced when rocks break suddenly in response to geological forces within the earth. Another is VOLCANIC quake which occurs in conjunction with volcanic activity.
TECTONIC earthquakes occur mainly because rocks are elastic and they store energy during tectonic deformation. When this strain builds to a level which is beyond that which can be sustained by weak fractures on the earths surface, these fractures suddenly slip thereby producing vibrating waves that are transmitted all over the earth.
VOLCANIC quakes are those recorded from within active volcanoes and sometimes, their mechanism may be similar to that of tectonic quakes. On many occasions, however, volcanic quakes are generated by the movement of molten rock materials inside a volcano, or when magma is being extruded to the outside.
b.3 Magnitude and Measurement
b.4 Intensity and Measurement
b.5 Associated Hazards
TSUNAMI - are large sea waves generated by underwater or near-shore earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. Not all submarine earthquakes or volcanic eruptions, however, cause tsunami. Tsunami occur only when the event is strong enough to cause sea floor displacement and disturb the mass of water over it such that a series of large waves are generated. Other sources of tsunami had been observed. These include submarine or coastal landslides, pyroclastic flows from oceanic or partly submerged volcanoes, caldera collapse and mudflows entering the sea.
SAND BOILS -
c. Volcanic Eruption
VOLCANIC ERUPTION is the process wherein molten rock materials (collectively called magma or lava) are emitted or ejected in the form of flowing masses (lava flows and pyroclastic flows), discrete particles (volcanic ash and pyroclastic) and steam (water vapor and gases) from a crater, vent or fissure.
c.2 Types of Volcanoes and Eruptive Activity
c.3 Warning Phases
Permanent Danger Zone
· Permanent habitation not
· Limited habitation
· Habitation allowed
· Evacuation and access limited according to intensity and character of eruption
c.4 Associated Hazards
There are several processes that occur on the slopes of the volcano that pose hazards to man and his environment. Most of the hazards are directly caused by volcanic eruptions which usually involve expressive flows of hot and usually molten materials out of the volcanos crater. Lava flows and pyroclastic flows are the main volcanic hazards. The effects that can be expected from these are the damage and injury or death by impact, incineration, burial and bulldozing.
Another hazard that is also directly related to volcanic eruption is the fall of volcanic materials ejected from the crater. The size of these materials vary and range from large volcanic bombs to small dust-sized particles called volcanic ash. The distance reached by these particles falling nearer the source and the smaller ones farther away, the intensity of the eruption, and wind velocity and direction. The effects that may be expected from these falling materials is hot, burial from substantial deposits and respiratory complications from inhalation of the fine particles.
Other hazards that may be directly associated to volcanic eruptions are the occurrence of strong earthquakes, fissuring of the ground and the generation of tsunami and seiches for volcanoes in or near the sea or lakes.
Some hazards are indirectly related to volcanic eruptions. These include the hazards from volcanic mudflows or lahars. Lahars occur when the loose materials on the volcanos slopes are mobilized by heavy rainfall causing a river of high density mud to flow. These lahars travel with velocities from 5 to 20 m per second and usually reach as far as the sea. Landslides and debris avalanches are the other hazards that may occur even without volcanic eruptions. The effects that can be expected from these debris flows and slides are damages and injuries resulting from the bulldozing effect of the flow or slide, burial by the deposit, erosion and impact of the large boulders that accompany the materials.
(Pyroclastic Flow, Ashfall, Mudflow Lahar, Ballistic Bombs, etc.)
B. Meteorological & Hydrological Hazards
b. Monsoon (NE and SW)
c. Fronts (Cold and Warm)
d. Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
e. Easterly Wave
f. Tropical Cyclones
f.2 Characteristics (Structure, Movement, Intensity)
f.3 Areas of Formation
f.4 Associated Hazards
f.4.1 Strong Winds
f.4.2 Heavy Rainfall
f.4.3 Strong Surge
f.5 Warning and Dissemination
h. Climate Change
FLOODS can be defined as an abnormal progressive rise in the water level of a stream that may result in the overflowing by the water of the normal confines of the stream with the subsequent inundation or flooding of the areas which are not normally submerged.
a. RIVERINE is due to overflowing of river banks and/or protective dikes and levees.
b. FLASH FLOOD is a condition which develops into flood in a very short period of time after a rainfall event
c. STANDING FLOOD cover a wide continuous area and rapidly spread to adjoining areas or relatively lower elevation.
d. DAM FLOODING is caused by the overflowing of rivers and lakes unexpected and serious breaks in dikes, levees and other protective structures or uncontrolled releases of dam water.
C. Man-made & Technological Hazards
1. FIRE is a chemical reaction known as combustion. It is frequently defined as the rapid oxidation of combustible material accompanied by a release of energy in the form of heat and light.
2. CIVIL STRIFE
3. OIL SPILL
4. RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT
5. BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Evaporating Vapor Explosion)
6. SEA AND AIR MISHAPS
7. POLLUTION is the undesirable change in the physical, chemical and biological conditions of the environment. It may or will harmfully affect human life, plants and animals, industrial, agricultural and commercial processes, recreational or cultural assets.
· Types of pollution
1. Meaning of Hazard Matrix and Content
2. Procedures in Hazard Matrix Preparation
B. Hazard Matrix Preparation
1. Data Gathering
2. Data Processing and Analysis
A. Definition of Disaster Management Terms
1. HAZARD is a phenomenon that pose threat(s) to people, structure or economic assets and which may cause a disaster. They could be either man-made or naturally occuring in our environment (natural).
2. NATURAL HAZARD
3. MAN-MADE HAZARD
4. TECHNOLOGICAL HAZARD
5. DISASTER is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope within its own resources.
6. DISASTER MANAGEMENT refers to the range of activities designed to maintain control over a disaster and emergency situation and to provide a framework for helping at risk persons to avoid or recover from the impact of the disaster.
7. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS includes measures taken to be able to deal with a threat when it occurs, e.g. warnings and evacuation. Such measures are usually aimed at minimizing loss of life, disruption of critical services and damage.
8. DISASTER PREVENTION refers to measures that are aimed at impending occurrence of a disaster and actually stop disasters from occuring, e.g. artificially producing rain to prevent drought.
9. DISASTER MITIGATION - measures to reduce the impacts of disaster, e.g. enforcement of building code and constructing sabo dams to control lahar flow.
11. ACCESS SURVEY
12. DISASTER RESPONSE refers to measures which are taken immediately prior to and following a disaster. Such measures are directed towards saving life, protecting property, and dealing with the immediate damage caused by the disaster. Such measures include the activation of emergency operations center, mobilization of task services, emergency relief assistance, warning notification, and post-disaster assessment.
13. DISASTER ASSESSMENT
14. REHABILITATION refers to activities that are undertaken to help the victims return to normal life and be re-integrated into the regular community functions. It includes restoration of repairable public utilities, housing and resettlement inclusive of provision of new livelihood activities. It provides the link between the disaster-related activities and national development and at the same time ensures that the results of the disaster are effectively reflected in future policies in the interest of national progress.
16. DAMAGE SURVEY
17. HAZARD MAPPING
18. RISK MAPPING
19. VULNERABILITY is the relationship between the severity of hazard and the degree of damage caused. Each element - a building, a person, an activity - will be affected differently by hazards of different severity. The more severe the hazard is, the more damage will be inflicted on the element.
20. EMERGENCY RESPONSE includes activities undertaken immediately following a disaster. It includes damage and needs assessment, immediate relief, rescue and debris clearance.
B. Disaster Cycle
1. Phases of Disaster e.g. of activities
2. Inter-relationship of the Phases
A. Objectives of Disaster Management
1. Save Lives
2. Reduce Suffering
3. Speed Recovery
4. Provide Protection
B. Elements of Disaster Management
1. Risk Management
This consists of identifying threats (hazards likely to occur), determining their probability of occurrence, estimating potential impact of the threat in the communities at risk, determining measures that can reduce the risk, and taking action to reduce the threat. This includes hazard mapping, vulnerability mapping, estimation of potential losses (housing and physical structures, agricultural, economic and infrastructures), and development of appropriate disaster prevention and mitigation strategies.
Risk management is achieved by taking action in development projects that will lessen the risks to an acceptable level. For example, if flooding is determined to be a major risk, the risk can be reduced by physical measures such as dams, flood control embankments or channeling of the streams. Risks can likewise be reduced by moving threatened communities from flood plains and/or restricting economic activities in the flood zone to those that could absorb flood losses such as forestry and agriculture.
2. Loss Management
This addresses the human, structural and economic losses through both pre-and post-disaster actions designed to keep the losses to a minimum. Pre-disaster loss management activities focus on reducing the communitys vulnerability to hazards. Actions include improving the resistance of buildings and physical structures, providing improved safety for the occupants of building or settlements situated in hazardous areas, and increasing/diversifying the network of social support mechanisms available to communities in threatened areas.
Post-disaster loss management focuses on improving the response and broadening the range of support given to victims that includes facilitating relief delivery and stimulating a rapid recovery.
3. Disaster Preparedness
4. Control of Events
This is the most critical element of disaster management. Control is maintained through the following measures:
· anticipation of a disaster and the cause-effect relationship generated by each type of event;
· mitigation or reduction of the scope of disaster;
· disaster preparedness;
· accurate information collection and assessment;
· balanced response;
· timely actions;
· effective leadership; and
· discipline among people involved in the relief and disaster management system.
5. Equity of Assistance
Disaster assistance should be provided in an equitable and fair manner. Fairness must underlie uniform relief and reconstruction policies in order to insure that disaster victims receive fair treatment and obtain adequate access to resources available.
6. Resource Management
In order to meet all competing needs and demands of a post-disaster environment, resource management becomes essential. The use of available resources should be maximized to the greatest advantage.
7. Impact Reduction
Disasters can have impact far beyond the immediate human, physical or economic losses. Disasters represent a loss of opportunity not only to individuals but also to the entire community. They can also be a serious setback to the countrys entire development program.
Disaster should be managed to reduce their impacts to the minimum and that recovery is accomplished quickly and their efforts contribute to the overall development needs of the country and its citizens.
C. Major Aspects of Disaster Management
2. Prediction and Warning
5. Hazard Analysis
6. Vulnerability Analysis
The process of estimating the vulnerability to potential disaster-causing hazard of specified elements-at-risk. Vulnerability analysis is an essential prelude to disaster management. The analysis results to the identification of disaster-potential areas that may be difficult to recognize because of the unusual combination of, as an example, population density, literacy and poorly constructed structure. It also allows the always inadequate resources for disaster mitigation to be applied to areas of disaster potential on a rational basis.
7. Mitigation and Prevention
A. Hazard Mapping
1. Importance of Hazard Map
2. Methodology in Hazard Map Preparation
B. Risk Mapping
1. Importance of Risk Map
2. Methodology in Risk Map Preparation
C. Hazard Mapping Workshop
1. Analysis of Hazard Matrix
2. Plotting of Hazard Data
A. 1946-1970 Reactive Approach
The countrys approach to disaster management from 1946 to 1970 was mainly reactive. The government responded to the emergency situation after the disaster have already affected a part of the country. Management efforts was highly centralized with minimum participation of local officials. Organizations of Civil Defense units at the local levels were mostly in paper only, and people were contended to wait for assistance coming from the national government.
B. 1969 - 1973 Development of the Natural Disasters & Calamities Plan
1. Disaster Management Planning
With the development of the Natural Disaster and Calamities Plan, a series of inter-agency meetings with participating agencies were conducted. The guiding principle was to use all available government resources and concerned agencies to work together to address the concerns relative to natural disasters and calamities. The Plan assigned specific tasks or emergency functions to government agencies in addition to their normal primary day-to-day activities. Lead agencies were identified to include the task responsibilities of the private sector. Each agency was to use its own budgeted resources and not to rely on the resources of the lead agencies.
2. Emergency Operations Facilities
The Plan also called for the establishment of a CENTRAL EMERGENCY OPERATING FACILITY (CEOF) in the National Civil Defense Administration (NCDA) under the Office of the President. Likewise, the Plan also called for the setting-up of Emergency Operations Center in each government department. The EOCs were to be provided with communications link with the central CEOF along Roxas Boulevard, Manila.
3. Plan Implementation
While waiting approval of the Plan, the EOC was set-up with communications link established with the different field government offices.
The heavy flooding in Manila as an aftermath of the typhoon that passed the Bicol region in October 1970, prompted the government to transfer the Central Operations Group to the IOC (Infrastructure Operations Center) of the Department of Public Works and Transportation which was then tasked to monitor the progress of infrastructure projects nationwide.
The idea was to operate on a higher ground and at the same time, utilize the communications facilities of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
The President, after being briefed on OPERATIONS BICOL, approved the Natural Disaster and Calamities Plan, and ordered that the NDCC as called for in the Plan, be located inside Camp Aguinaldo. The NDCC was to ensure the effective direction, control, coordination and supervision of the different government and private agencies, both local and foreign, in responding to disasters, natural and man-made.
Disaster Management during the period was reactive and centralized. In 1973, the Office of Civil Defense set up field stations in the 12 Administrative Regional Centers outside of Metro Manila. The field personnel started to convert the local civil defense units into local disaster coordinating councils and to retain the leaders and members of these councils.
D. 1973 - onwards Disaster Preparedness
In 1973, the governments disaster preparedness training started. Government agencies with training funds started conducting the disaster preparedness program with the aim of preparing the populace in responding to any emergency.
The Office of Civil Defense started organizing and training the members and chairmen of the respective councils. The DSWD trained community leaders on how to handle relief distribution, the PNRC trained community leaders on relief distribution and their volunteers on First Aid, while the DOH focused their training on barangay health workers.
E. 1978 Formal Birth of the National Disaster Coordinating Council
To further strengthen the system, the government decided to formalize the Ad Hoc organizations at the national, regional and local levels and to allocate emergency tasks to the different governmental units pursuant to their enabling laws. Presidential Decree 1566 was issued and the NDCC was created. The RDCC, PDCC, CDCC and MDCC were likewise created. From thereon, personalities of the councils evolved and as they continue to exist up to this date.
F. Late 1980s Disaster Mitigation
In the late 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR), with the objective of reducing through international concerted efforts, the loss of life, property damage, social and economic disruption caused by natural disasters.
In effect, the NDCC and member-agencies of the council assumed the IDNDR concerns without creating another national body as the IDNDR concerns fell within the scope of the NDCC.
The NDCC created four committees to support the UN objectives and these are the Committees on Structural Measures, on Non-Structural Measures, on Disaster Research, and on Disaster Legislation. At present, the scope of the countrys disaster management system, covers PREPAREDNESS, PREVENTION, MITIGATION AND RESPONSE.
A. Presidential Decree 1566
1. This Decree, which was promulgated in 1978, calls for the STRENGTHENING OF THE PHILIPPINE DISASTER CONTROL CAPABILITY AND ESTABLISHING THE NATIONAL PROGRAM ON COMMUNITY DISASTER PREPAREDNESS.
2. Salient Provisions
· State policy on self-reliance among local officials and their constituents in responding to disasters.
· Organization of the National, Regional and Local Disaster Coordinating Councils (DCC).
· Preparation of a National Calamities and Disaster Preparedness Plan by the Office of Civil Defense and implementing plans by the NDCC member-agencies and local DCCs.
· Conduct of periodic drills and exercises by concerned agencies and local DCCs.
· Authority for local government units to program funds for disaster preparedness activities such as the organization of DCCs, establishment of Disaster Operations Center and training and equipping of DCC response teams. This is in addition to the 5% under Sec. 324 (d) of the Local Government Code of 1991.
3. Rules & Regulations Implementing PD 1566
a. Pre-emergency phase
Activities to be undertaken under this phase include planning for disasters, organizing, training, drills, public information drive, stockpiling and communications and warning activities.
b. During Emergency phase
Mobilization of all emergency services shall be coordinated/orchestrated by the local Disaster Coordinating Council in the affected locality.
c. Post Emergency phase
· Cross-checking of data. All information gathered during an emergency shall be cross-checked with pre-emergency data obtained by local disaster coordinating councils to facilitate the location and whereabouts of the persons and to assess available community resources for rehabilitation purposes.
· Rehabilitation Requirements. The Local Disaster Coordinating Councils, within their respective levels, shall determine the nature and extent of the rehabilitation efforts to be undertaken and shall request for assistance from appropriate government agencies, private offices/agencies or individuals, if the situation goes beyond their capacity.
· Emergency Labor Supply. The DOLE shall coordinate with appropriate agencies, the hiring of labor from the affected population as may be needed for the restoration, repair and construction of public buildings, roads, bridges, dams, harbors, airports and such other public infrastructure damaged by disaster or calamities.
B. Other Disaster-related Laws
1. Republic Act 1190
Known as the CIVIL DEFENSE ACT OF 1954, this law created the National Civil Defense Administration (NDCA), the primary functions of which are to prepare and issue civil defense instructions and to furnish guidance to provinces, chartered cities in the organization, training and operation of civil defense units in the local governments during peacetime situations. As provided for in the law, NCDA will render eleven types of civil defense services through its unit in all chartered cities and provinces, namely; Warden, Police, Fire, Health, Rescue, Engineering, Emergency Welfare, Transportation, Communication, Evacuation, Fallout Warning, and Auxiliary Service.
· Basic Principles/Policies enumerated under RA 1190:
a. Civil Defense is civil preparedness.
b. Pre-emergency preparedness is necessary.
c. Organization of civil defense units at all governments levels.
d. Assignment of agency representatives at the CEOF.
e. Priority utilization of resources prescribed by national government.
f. Coordination among civil organization and civil defense organization and military units.
2. Rule 1040
The OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD (as amended/issued by the Secretary of Labor) provides for the organization of disaster control group/health safety committee in every place of employment and the conduct of periodic drills and exercises.
The administration and enforcement of this rule is reposed upon the Department of Labor and Employment. It requires the employer to:
a. Furnish his workers a place of employment free from hazardous conditions;
b. Give complete job safety instructions to all his workers;
c. Comply with the requirements of this standard; and
d. Use only approved devices and equipment in his workplace.
3. Presidential Decree 1185 (FIRE CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES)
Administrators or occupants of buildings, structures and other premises or facilities and other responsible persons are required to comply with the following:
a. Inspection requirement by the Bureau of Fire Protection as a prerequisite to the grant of permits and/or licenses by LGUs or other government agencies concerned.
b. Provisions for safety measures for hazardous materials as well as for hazardous operations/processes, and
c. Provision on fire walls, fire exit plan, etc.
4. Republic Act 7160
The LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE OF 1991 mandates local governments *****
5. Latest NDCC Memo Circulars
A. National Disaster Coordinating Council
The NDCC is headed by the Secretary of National Defense with the heads of 18 departments/agencies as members. These include the Armed Forces of the Philippines Chief of Staff, Director-General of the Philippine National Red Cross and other key officials of the Philippine government.
It is through the NDCC member-agencies that disaster response is carried out, each implementing its corresponding tasks and responsibilities under the NDCC system. The NDCC, unlike the other department coordinating bodies, does not have its own budget to disburse. It operates through its member-agencies and its local networks - the regional and local disaster coordinating councils. Its presence in the affected areas can be gleaned through the different agencies responding to the emergency which are part of the entire NDCC system operating from the national down to the local levels.
The members of the Council are the following:
Presidential Exec. Sec.
Chief of Staff, AFP
Member and Executive Officer
The establishment of the National Disaster Coordinating Council is embodied in Sec. 2 of P.D. 1566.
At the national level, the NDCC serves as the Presidents adviser on disaster preparedness programs, disaster operations and rehabilitation efforts undertaken by the government and the private sector. It acts as the top coordinator of all disaster management efforts. The NDCC also serves as the highest policy-making body and the highest allocator of resources in the country to support the efforts of the lower DCC level. In the discharge of its functions, the NDCC utilizes the facilities and services of the Office of Civil Defense as its operating arm.
B. Regional Disaster Coordinating Council
The Regional Disaster Coordinating Council:
a. Establishes a physical facility to be known as the Regional Disaster Operations Center (RDOC);
b. Coordinates the disaster operations activities in the region;
c. Implements within the region the guidelines set by the NDCC;
d. Advises the local disaster coordinating councils on disaster management; and,
e. Submits appropriate recommendations to the NDCC, as necessary.
C. Provincial Disaster Coordinating Council
The Provincial Disaster Coordinating Council:
a. Establishes a physical facility to be known as the Provincial Disaster Operations Center to be known as PDOC;
b. Coordinate from the PDOC the disaster operations activities of the municipalities within the province;
c. Implement within the city the guidelines set by the RDCC;
d. Advises the Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council regarding disaster management;
e. Submits recommendations to the RDCC as necessary; and,
f. Places the CDCC and its tasked units under the operational control of the PDCC during an emergency which affects the towns/cities.
D. Municipal Disaster Coordinating Council
The Municipal Disaster Coordinating Council:
a. Establishes a physical facility to be known as the Municipal Disaster Operations Center (MDOC);
b. Coordinate from he MDOC the disaster operations activities;
c. Implements within the municipality the guidelines set by the PDCC;
d. Advises the Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council regarding disaster management; and,
e. Submits recommendation to the PDCC, as necessary.
E. Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council
The Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council:
a. Establishes the Barangay Disaster Operations Center (BDOC);
b. Coordinates from the BDOC, the disaster operations activities of its tasked units;
c. Implements within the barangay the guidelines set by the MDCC;
d. Advises the members of the BDCC regarding disaster management; and,
e. Submits recommendations to the MDCC/CDCC, as necessary.
A. Staff Teams
1. Intelligence and Disaster Analysis Unit
Evaluates the disaster situation, determines courses of action to be followed in times of emergency and formulates guidelines to evaluating disaster situations.
2. Plans and Operations Unit
Recommends and supervises the implementation of existing operation plans and determines the appropriate courses of action to be taken in response to the disaster situation.
3. Resources Unit
Undertakes a survey of urgent items needed in helping the victims of disasters and calamities, gathers the necessary statistics on food, clothing, construction materials, medical supplies, transportation and other relief and rehabilitation requirement.
B. Operating/Task Teams
1. Communications and Warning
Disseminates timely and adequate warning information as well as precautionary measures to the general public. This unit shall be organized by OCD at the national and regional level, and the DCCs at the local level.
Makes available transportation units for use of the Disaster Operating teams. Organization of this unit lies with the Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC).
3. Rescue and Engineering
Responsible for the conduct of rescue and engineering activities within their areas of responsibility. The DILG shall be responsible for its organization at the national and regional levels, while the local DCCs shall be responsible in the organization of the DCC unit at their respective levels. Generally, the Bureau of Air Transportation Office (ATO) shall be responsible for rescue operations in case of air crashes, while the Philippine Coast Guard (PCG) shall be responsible for the coordination of rescue activities for sea mishaps.
Provides immediately medical care and attention to disaster victims and shall be organized by the Department of Health at all levels.
5. Auxiliary Fire
Assists the existing regular fire department in controlling fire and shall be organized by the PNP at all levels.
Assists the existing regular force in the disaster areas. This shall be organized by the PNP units at all levels.
Responsible for undertaking immediate survey of the disaster area and provide mass feeding, emergency housing, emergency clothing and tracing services as necessary. The DSWD is responsible for the organization of this emergency service at all levels.
Determines the nature and extent of the rehabilitation efforts to be undertaken in the affected areas and shall request for assistance from appropriate government agencies. The responsible government agency for its organization is the DSWD.
9. Public Information
Conducts public information campaign on disaster preparedness, prevention and mitigation. This operating unit of the DCC shall be organized by the Philippine Information Agency.
Under P.D 1566, the Secretary of DOLE, DECS and DTI are mandated to organize and train Disaster Control Groups in factories/industrial complexes, schools/learning institutions and large buildings used for commercial and recreational purposes and conduct periodic drills and exercises.
Under Rule 1040 of the Standard, the HSC/DCG is the planning and policy-making group in all matters pertaining to safety and health factories/industrial complexes.
The DCG is composed of a Chairman, Assistant Chairman, Staff Teams and Operating Teams. The Staff Teams include: Security, Supply, Transportation and Communications. The Operating Teams, on the other hand, include: Warning, Evacuation, Fire Brigade, Rescue, Medical and Damage Control.
B. Duties and Responsibilities
The principal duties of the Disaster Control Group are:
1. Plans and develops accident prevention programs for the establishment.
2. Directs the accident prevention efforts of the establishment with the safety programs/safety performance and government regulations in order to prevent accidents from occurring in the workplace.
3. Conducts safety meetings at least once a month.
4. Reviews reports of inspection, accident investigation and implementation of program.
5. Submits reports to the manager on its meetings and activities.
6. Provides necessary assistance to government inspecting authorities in the proper conduct of their activities such as the enforcement of the provisions of Rule 1040.
7. Initiates and supervises safety training from employees.
8. Develops and maintains a disaster contingency plan and organizes such emergency such units as may be necessary to handle disaster situations pursuant to the Emergency Preparedness Manual for Establishments of the Office of Civil Defense.
NETWORKING is not an old concept. Some of you might have already been practicing networking, but this portion is intended to add a few more ideas about it, to help you look at the concept in a clearer and more methodical manner or richer perspective.
The governments Disaster Preparedness Program is a complex one. For its effective implementation, many government agencies have been tasked to work together to bring the program into fruition. Likewise, it is hoped that the participation of peoples organizations in the governments Disaster Preparedness Program will be more meaningful and will be with impact. Such a wish can happen if all those who are tasked to work together will work harmoniously. It is important that the Disaster Preparedness Program and the conduct of disaster operation of various agencies, be closely coordinated to ensure proper delivery of technical assistance and guidance, specially in terms of organization, training and planning and response. During an emergency situation, operational linkages with the DCCs have to be established to avoid duplication of functions that may cause more injury and death and may result to more losses. Both the government and the private sector is important for effective and efficient response in the affected areas. The Disaster Preparedness Program is a shared responsibility of diverse government agencies whose task is to minimize the suffering of our affected countrymen.
NETWORKING is a process or strategy that brings together three or more diverse groups in response to a common goal, need, interest or objective.
a. Vertical - composed of individuals, groups, organization or committees that must cooperate with each other upon suggestion of a leader to attain objectives to which all are committed.
b. Lateral - a network among peers, the interest lies in network that are formed as organizations link up with each other to achieve a mutually acceptable objectives.
A network becomes functional if participating groups takes part in the network because they believe in the purpose of working together, rather than in merely trying to satisfy any institutional organization objectives.
4. Key Concepts
· Peer relationship
· Common Frame of Reference
· Shared Leadership
· Resources Sharing
· Information Sharing
· Democratization of Access to Resources/Information
Framework & Rationale for Planning for Disasters
A. Disaster Management in Relation to Development
DEVELOPMENT may be defined as the process through which people move from high vulnerability/low capacity situation toward a lower vulnerability/higher capacity situation. In the traditional relief assistance approach, a disaster is seen as an interruption of development. Emergency rescue, relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction are undertaken as successive phases of disaster recovery designed to get things back to normal. However, when efforts are focused on returning to normal, there is a high probability that other disasters will strike (because capacities remain low and vulnerabilities high), and the cycle can be endless.
On the other hand, to limit disasters and their damage by supporting peoples capacities and helping them reduce their vulnerabilities, every development effort should contain elements of disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness designed to address local vulnerabilities. If a disaster then strikes, its impact will be greatly reduced and rescue, relief and reconstruction efforts will follow which also rely on and promote local capacities and take account of deeper disaster vulnerabilities.
B. Traditional Relief Approach vs. Developmental Relief Approach
Based on past disaster experiences, people in disaster areas have come, in recent years, to expect a rapid relief response from their own governments and from outsiders. In the traditional relief approach, the basic goal of outside aid donors is to alleviate immediate suffering and get things back to normal. While the goal of disaster victims and their governments is also to get past the immediate suffering which the disaster has cause, they frequently try to ensure that as much aid as possible is promised and delivered - as if this aid can provide a basis for greater security and wealth.
On the other hand, when an agency that wishes to help disaster victims considers the peoples capacities and vulnerabilities even as it begins to respond to a crisis, the picture becomes very different. This is the developmental approach. For example, from the very beginning when immediate needs are being assessed, the involvement of the local victims is seen as necessary. They are encouraged to enumerate what they have with which to rebuild after the disaster as well as to think about what inputs they need. They assume responsibility for deciding priorities about what is needed and determining the closest available source of supply. Experience also shows that even when outside aid is essential for disaster sufferers survival, these victims can be involved in all phases of decision-making and management of the assistance, thus, retaining and strengthening their own competence for future development.
C. Rationale in Planning for Disaster
PLANNING is based on the assumption that there is hazardous risk or risks and the consequence of an emergency involving such risks would be detrimental to the people, structures and the economy. Even when disasters cannot be prevented by the elimination of the physical phenomena or by the permanent removal of a population at risk. In almost all cases, the effects of disasters can be reduced through planning and mitigation measures. For those disaster which cannot be prevented, the disaster planning objectives should be to minimize loss of life, physical destruction and social disruption; to alleviate the suffering of people who experience such disasters; and to assist disaster-affected communities to return to normal as soon as possible.
A. Review of Terms
1. Vulnerability vs. Capability
VULNERABILITY of a community is linked to the capacity of the community to deal with hazards and their attendant impact. Vulnerability is inversely proportional to capacities i.e., low vulnerability-high capacity or high vulnerability-low capacity.
CAPACITY can also be grouped under the same groupings as vulnerabilities. Therefore, capacities can be classified as physical capacity, social and economic capacities.
· Low level of awareness on hazards
· Fatalistic attitude
· Regular river flooding
· Presence of gate-keepers to conduct public awareness
· Ability to effect change
· Available human resources to construct dikes or dredge rivers
2. Hazard vs. Disaster
A HAZARD is an event or occurrence that has the potential for causing injury to life or damage to property or the environment. The magnitude of the phenomenon, the probability of its occurrence and the extent and severity of the impact can vary.
A DISASTER is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope within its own resources.
B. Capabilities & Vulnerabilities Assessment (CVA)
In doing vulnerabilities and capacities, consideration should be given to the different roles of men and women. The capacities and vulnerability (C/V) profiles of a community should also be done at different time periods and should be dynamic, changing over times. The vulnerabilities and capacities of a community before disasters will definitely differ from their C/V during and even after rehabilitation or reconstruction.
1. Significance of CVA to Disaster Management
In order to assess the disaster risk of an area. Data are required on natural hazard, vulnerability and elements at risk.
2. The CVA Matrix: How to Conduct CVA as a Disaster Preparedness Activity
Information on elements at risk such as population, housing, public utilities, industry, infrastructure, etc. is normally taken into account as standard planning and engineering practice, even when disaster prevention and mitigation are not specifically considered. The use of a disaster prevention and mitigation perspective in land-use planning, building and housing in particular, is a basic requirement of planning for reconstruction.
When planning physical development patterns, one of the most important initial steps will be evaluation of existing tectonic, geologic, physiographic and climatic conditions for the purpose of defining areas of potential risk. Information will serve as a fundamental guideline for land-use planning, for site selection in various development programs and for the location of buildings and other structures. Evaluation of existing conditions is a highly responsible task and must be performed under the highest available professional standards.
3. Preparation of Community CVA Matrix
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The need for a counter-disaster organization is imperative. It must be capable of coping with the stresses and pressures of disaster events. It is, therefore, important that its components (e.g., communications, warning systems and facilities) should function at the highest possible level of efficiency and that they should be safeguarded as far as possible from disaster effects. It is at this stage that an inventory of existing organizations responding to or not responding to disasters (missing?) is made which means that those organizations who are not responding to disasters may not be aware or find difficulty of extending assistance for reasons of whom to coordinate with.
For purposes of utilizing or availing of the resources and
capabilities of existing organizations in an area, they should be made to
· The DCC is structured in such a manner that almost all agencies of government have to perform certain functions as mandated; and,
· The organization does not:
* duplicate normal government organizations
* act independently of government
* control other government departments
* act outside the terms of reference given to it by government (except perhaps in cases of extreme urgency)
· Government policy will have a strong influence on the broad national organizational framework on disaster policies.
· (Operations Requirement) The type of operations required in response to the threat will also have a direct bearing on the organizational system.
· Availability of Resources is a major part of the planning process. This needs to cover all possible availability of government, non-government and international assistance resources.
· (Definition of Responsibilities and Functions) A much-needed prerequisite to the framing of a disaster management organization is that there should be clear definition of the responsibilities which the organization is required to cover and the function it is to perform.
· (Utilization of Existing Structures and Organization) A disaster management system should be an adjunct to the existing government structure. It should be capable of maximizing the utilization of existing organizations (both government and non-government) for disaster-related purposes.
· (Requirements for Direction and Management) Arrangements for the organizations direction and management are needed and these include adequate provision for:
* policy direction from government;
* ministerial responsibility;
* a central body responsible for implementing government policy and ensuring effective management during non-disaster and disaster times;
* a disaster action group responsible to the central body which undertakes the tasking of resources organizations;
* appropriate arrangements throughout the system for handling day-to-day disaster management activities;
* optimum coordination of counter-disaster effect; and,
* community involvement and participation
· (Incorporation of Organizational Components) All counter-disaster organizational systems need to contain and operate a number of different components covering aspects such as warning, information management and so on.
To ensure effective management of disasters, resources will have to be assessed. These are of primary importance during response operations. However, these also play a key role in recovery programs. Consequently, resources considerations need to be taken fully into account during preparedness assessment.
Operational response tasks usually require a considerable amount of movement by land, sea, and air. Action by counter-disaster units and teams much of which may be carried out on a deployed task force basis. In the context of response operations, it does need to be borne in mind that loss of commodities may occur due to disaster impact. Disaster management authorities therefore, need to ddp an ongoing operations check on the balance between assessment of commodity needs, availability and timing of local commodities and availability and timing of international assistance supplies.
- Activity: Metaplan
2. Assessment of Participants skills
3. Steps in Disaster Planning
4. Importance of Group, Participative Planning over Individual Planning
A COUNTER-DISASTER PLAN is a plan that outlines all the mitigating and possible courses of action not only when a disaster occurs but as well as when preparing for possible disasters so that its effect would not be immense.
B. Significance of CDP in DM
The purpose of planning is to anticipate future situations and requirements, thus, ensuring the application of effective and coordinated counter-measures. This is a useful suggestion to disaster management officials because it indicates the wide nature of requirements for counter-disaster planning. In other words, planning should not be confined merely to preparedness for and response to specific disaster events; it should cater, as far as possible, to the whole scope of the disaster management cycle.
C. Elements of CDP
This is the why of the plan. It states the reason why the plan is drafted and the circumstances surrounding the drafting of the Plan.
States the size of the problem/threat, probable effects to people and the environment.
This is an important step which serves as a background to guide the planning effort. This is resorted to if the situation changes later where there exists the need to revise the plan. Examples of planning assumptions are: (Earthquake)
· Earthquakes may occur without warning and at the time of day that will produce a maximum number of casualties. Access to and from the damaged area may be severely disrupted or destroyed.
· Damage resulting from a catastrophic earthquake will be widespread. Seismic-caused ground motions will vary within a geographical region and so will resulting damage. Complete facility shutdown may be required for some period of time. Personnel at work will want to return home to check on their families and property.
d. Concept of Operations
Talks of the mechanisms employed in responding or reacting to a disaster situation. It also defines the extent of operations by the responding units.
e. Legal Authorities
Discusses the legal aspects of disaster prevention and mitigation. It also highlights the legal tension between the interest of the individuals and the community which may arise from the adoption of the techniques discussed.
2. Organizational Structure
A suitable organizational structure is one with an Emergency Operations Center or centers and with all functional elements and organizations being given definite responsibilities and authority as appropriate. Provision must also be made for adequate liaison between key persons and organizations. Unless lines of responsibility and authority are clear before an emergency or disaster, effective coordination and control of counter-measures will prove difficult, if not impossible. Care should therefore be taken to establish the type of organization structure that will ensure coordination and control under the pressures of an emergency situation. At the same time, the structure must be sufficiently straight-forward to be operated by available personnel. In allocating roles and responsibilities within a plan, it is very important to do so clearly. Overlapping or duplication of roles causes friction between organizations and leads to loss of organizations involved and leads to loss of effectiveness. Gaps between the roles of organizations may mean that important, perhaps, vital measures are not undertaken.
3. Coordinative Tasks
· Integration of tasks especially those which are related
· Activation of the Disaster Coordinating Council
· Coordination with other task units. When a particular task unit coordinates with another unit, it either briefs, consults, considers, decides and plans for effective disaster management.
Resources are of two types: human and material. Again, they should be assessed in terms of:
It is a must for the implementors of disaster preparedness to know what resources are needed and where are they found and available to ensure smooth and spontaneous disaster response.
5. Reporting & Recording
These processes are paramount for easy locating and consulting by all concerned. It is a sad fact that a disaster is usually nasty and dirty, disruptive and unpleasant. As a result, crisis pressure generated by disaster impact has all kinds of unwanted effects like loss of vital communications, destruction or delayed availability of planned resources (transport, relief supplies), and disruption to the very system which has been designed to deal with disaster. All these effects will necessitate reporting and recording.
6. Updating of Plans
This stage will identify those persons responsible in updating the Plan and how often should a plan be updated.
D. Characteristics of an effective CDP
A disaster plan must be:
S - imple
M - easurable
A - ttainable
R - ealistic
T - ime-bound
Simple - the plan should be formulated in such a way that it is easy to use. References within the plan should be clear and readily identifiable. The body of the plan needs to be kept as clear and concise as possible with annexes being used for very detailed information.
Measurable - the plan should be measured in terms of effects being mitigated. How many were dead, injured, missing, etc. before and now. This calls for a comparative study of data of effects which will serve as basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the plan.
Attainable - the plan should answer the question: Were the objectives met? It should be fully viable for the purposes for which it is designed.
Realistic - the plan should relate to an accurate assessment of the disaster threat and take into account the scale and capability of counter-disaster resources which are available.
Time-bound - the plan should be able to meet the date targeted for the different activities to be undertaken like planning, training, organizing, stockpiling, establishment of EOC, etc.
E. Levels of Planning
The national disaster plan is likely to be the main plan. Therefore, it needs a broad scope, ranging from policy matters down to detailed action. This plan provides government and civilian agencies with a plan of action in the event of natural disaster or calamity. This plan also attempts to place in print all the conceivable actions that may be required of the agencies concerned, government or otherwise, prior to, during and after a disaster. It is by no means complete and its completion will depend on subsequent contributions learned in the future.
The regional level plan undertakes all possible contingencies in crisis management making use of all available resources, both government and private. This plan shall be made operational through the establishment of a regional organization (RDCC) for emergencies that will provide the vehicle for a concerted and coordinated disaster control efforts from the regional level down to the provincial, city/municipal and barangay levels. Also, this organization shall exercise direction and control, through the Office of Civil Defense, over all emergency operations from the province down to the lowest political subdivisions/councils. It shall likewise provide top executive political subdivisions/councils. It shall likewise provide top executive management and control over multi-departmental types of disaster-stabilization operations.
The provincial plan is a plan that addresses the contingencies obtaining in the province utilizing all its available resources, organizations and facilities. The provincial offices of the departments shall provide similar support/assistance to the provincial disaster coordinating councils organized at the provincial level.
This municipal/city disaster plan of the disaster coordinating council will be responding to the disasters frequenting the area. This council shall be established to compliment the Regional Disaster Coordinating Council.
One of the main requirements of the local plan is, therefore, to coordinate activities of various existing services (e.g., security, fire brigade, medical and voluntary organizations). Similarly, the plan needs to facilitate the participation of self-help groups and community members, utilizing traditional knowledge, skill, and previous disaster-related experiences. It is at this level that the members of the disaster coordinating organization/council draw up a one-year action plan which will consist of the different disaster-related activities during the three phases of disaster management - before, during and post disaster.
F. The CDP Format
1. How to Prepare CDP
2. Factors to consider
1. Who has had experience as:
a. Disaster victim
b. Member of a Disaster Team who responded to an emergency
2. What was the type of response?
3. (If a disaster victim) What were its effects on you?
4. (If a member of a disaster team) What were your roles/activities during the response phase?
5. What were your observations of the response?
6. How was the response carried out?
7. What were the problems/issues/concerns encountered?
8. How did you respond/solve the problem?
9. How can the responses to emergency be improved?
A. Definition of Responses
RESPONSES are measures taken immediately prior to and following disaster impact. Such measures are directed towards saving life and protecting property and to deal with the immediate damage caused by the disaster. The quality of response measures greatly varies in accordance with the nature and extent of preparatory measures undertaken.
B. Phases of Response
3. Post Response
C. Characteristics of Response
1. The type of disaster
Depending on its type, the onset of disaster may provide long warning, short warning or no warning at all. This will obviously influence the effectiveness of activation, mobilization and application of response effort.
2. The severity and extent of disaster
This represent the size and shape of the response problem and particularly affects aspects such as:
a. The ability of response effort to cope with the problem;
b. The urgency of response action and the priorities which are applied;
c. Exacerbation of disaster effects if appropriate action is not taken; and,
d. Requirements for external assistance.
3. The ability to take Pre-Impact Action
If warning time and other conditions permit pre-impact action to be taken (in the form of evacuation, shelter and other protective measures), this may have a major effect on the success of response overall.
4. The capability for sustained operations
A frequent requirement of response operations is that they must be sustained over a long enough period to be fully effective. Several factors are involved here, including:
a. Resource capacity
c. Community self-reliance
However, the capability to sustain operations relative to potential threats is a disaster management objective which needs to be carefully addressed both during preparedness and response action itself.
5. Identification of likely response requirements
It is generally possible to identify beforehand the kind of response action likely to be needed for any particular disaster. The threats likely to emanate from individual disasters are well established. Thus, the required response actions are also identifiable. This represents a considerable advantage in disaster management terms, in that it is possible to plan and prepare for well-defined response action in the face of potential threats. This again constitutes a tangible objective for disaster management.
It is suggested that an assessment of response needs in the light of the foregoing and similar factors has useful application to most circumstances.
D. Requirements for Effective Response
Experience has shown that effective response depends fundamentally on two factors, namely: information and resources. Without these two vital components, the best plans, management arrangements, experts staff and so on become virtually useless.
The Major Requirements for Effective Response are:
1. General Background of Preparedness
Response operations generally have to be carried out under disruptive and sometimes traumatic conditions. The effectiveness of response operations will depend vitally on the general background of preparedness which applies. This includes various aspects of policy direction, planning, organization and training.
2. Readiness of Resource Organization
The readiness of resource organizations (both government and non-government) to respond to disaster situations, often at very short notice, is a very important requirement for response operations. Sometimes, failure on the part of only one designated organization may seriously upset the total response effort. However, disaster management authorities do need to bear in mind that the response lead-time for resource organization can differ markedly.
An effective system of warning is vitally important for successful response operations, even though there are bound to be some occasions when little or no warning will be available. The main needs for warning are:
a. Initial detection, as early as possible of the likelihood that a disaster will occur;
b. Origination of the warning process as early as practicable, bearing in mind false or unnecessary warning needs to be avoided. In this regard however, precautions can be built into the warning sequence by ensuring that, where doubt exists only key officials are initially informed;
c. Effective means of transmitting warning information;
d. Facilities to receive and assess warning information;
e. Response decisions as a result of assessing warning information; and,
f. Dissemination of response decisions and as appropriate, broadcast of warning information to the public.
Preliminary reaction to warning, before a disaster actually strikes can save lives and property. This preliminary reaction might include:
a. Closing of schools, offices, and other public places;
b. Checking emergency power supplies and similar facilities; and,
c. Taking precautions in households to ensure supplies of food and drinking water.
It is re-emphasized that preliminary reaction of this kind usually needs to be planned beforehand and where necessary, the relevant information passed to disaster-related organization and the public.
The evacuation of communities, groups or individuals is a frequent requirement during response operations. Evacuation is usually:
a. Precautionary - in most cases undertaken on warning indicators, prior to impact, in order to protect disaster-threatened persons from the full effects of the disaster, or
b. Post-impact - in order to move persons from a disaster-stricken area into safer, better surrounding and conditions.
5. Activation of the Response System
For rapid and effective response, there usually needs to be a system for activating disaster management officials and resource organizations. It is useful to implement activation in stages. These might be Alert, Stand-by and Action.
The benefit of this arrangement is that if, after the initial warning, the disaster does not materialize, activation can be called off. Thus, full mobilization of resources can be avoided and the minimum of disruption is caused to normal life. It is advisable for government departments and other resource organizations to work this system of stages in their own internal plans.
6. Coordination of Response Operations
Coordination of the action taken in response operation is very important. Good coordination ensures that resource organizations are utilized to the best effect, therefore avoiding gaps or duplication in operational tasks.
Appropriate emergency operation centers are essential for achieving effective coordination, because the EOC system is designed to facilitate information management and accurate decision making.
Also, appropriate disaster management committees (usually at the national, intermediate and local government levels) are necessary in order to ensure that, as far as possible, there is overall coordination in decision-making and in the allocation of task.
As with all aspects of disaster management, a good communications system is essential for effective response. Also, since communications may be adversely affected by disaster impact, reserve communications (with their own power supplies) is a necessary part of response arrangements. The value of solar-powered communications, especially under severe disaster conditions, can be considerable.
8. Survey & Assessment
It is virtually impossible to carry out effective response operations without accurate survey of damage and consequent assessment of relief and other needs. To be fully effective, survey and assessment need to be carefully planned and organized beforehand. It usually calls for:
a. survey from the air
b. survey by field teams
c. accurate reporting from disaster management and other official authorities in or near the disaster area.
In most cases, a general survey needs to be made soon after impact, with follow-up surveys when necessary. Some training is usually required for personnel who are required to carry out survey and assessment duties. This is necessary in order to ensure the accuracy of information which is collected. The information gathered through survey and assessment is, of course, vitally important for the implementation of immediate relief measures. However, it should be noted that much of the information is also required for the formulation of recovery programs.
9. Information Management
In the confused circumstances which tend to exist following disaster impact, it is not easy to obtain accurate and complete information. However, without accurate and comprehensive information, it is difficult to ensure that response operations are focused upon the correct tasks, in the correct order of priority.
Emergency operations centers are essential for effective information management. EOCs ensure that information is correctly processed, according to the proven cycle:
a. acquisition of information
b. information assessment
c. decision making
d. dissemination of decisions and information
Therefore, even if there are limitations in obtaining information, the EOC system will make the best use of that which is available.
10. Major Emergency Response Aspects
Following the impact of disaster, there are usually varying degrees of damage to, or destruction of the systems which support everyday life. Communities therefore need help (usually urgently) in order to subsist through the emergency phase and beyond. Key aspects of this assistance include:
a. RESCUE - to rescue persons who may be trapped in buildings and under debris, isolated by flood waters, or need rescuing for any other reason;
b. TREATMENT & CARE OF VICTIMS - to dispose of the dead, to render first aid, to ensure identification tagging of casualties, to identify needs in terms of medical treatment, hospitalization and medical evacuation, and, to deal with these accordingly;
c. EVACUATION - to determine whether people need to be evacuated from the stricken area immediately, or whether such a requirement is likely to arise later.
d. SHELTER - to provide shelter for victims whose housing has been destroyed or rendered unusable. This may involve:
· making urgent repairs to some housing
· issuing tents and/or tarpaulins to provide means of temporary shelter.
e. FOOD - to organize and distribute food to disaster victims and emergency workers.
f. COMMUNICATION - to establish essential radio, telephone, telex and facsimile links.
g. CLEARANCE & ACCESS - to clear key roads, airfields and ports in order to allow access for vehicle, aircraft, and shipping.
h. WATER & POWER SUPPLIES - to re-establish water and power supplies, or to make temporary arrangements for them. The provision of potable water is often difficult, particularly in the early post-impact stages. Water purifying equipment might therefore have to be obtained and/or water purifying tablets issued.
i. TEMPORARY SUBSISTENCE SUPPLIES - to provide supplies, such as clothing, disaster kits, cooking utensils and plastic sheeting, so as to enable victims to subsist temporarily in their own area, thus helping to reduce the need for evacuation.
j. HEALTH & SANITATION - to take measures to safeguard the health of people in the stricken area and to maintain reasonable sanitation facilities.
k. PUBLIC INFORMATION - to keep the stricken community informed on what they should do, especially in terms of self-help, and on what action is in hand to assist them. To prevent speculation and rumor concerning the future situation.
l. SECURITY - to maintain law and order, especially to prevent looting and unnecessary damage.
m. CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS - to estimate high priority building repair and replacement requirements.
n. DISASTER WELFARE INQUIRY - to make arrangements to handle national and international inquiries concerning the welfare of citizens and residents, including tracing of missing persons.
o. MAINTENANCE OF PUBLIC MORALE - depending on cultural and other local circumstances, to make arrangements for counseling and spiritual support of the stricken community. This may involve religious bodies, welfare agencies and other appropriate organizations.
p. OTHER REQUIREMENTS - depending on individual circumstances, other requirements, additional to those above, may arise.
11. Allocation of Tasks
If planning and preparedness have been properly carried out, the majority of response tasks, as outlined in the foregoing paragraph, should have to be designated beforehand to appropriate government departments and other resource organizations such as:
a. Public Works Departments and the LGUs to undertake debris clearance tasks, etc.;
b. Medical and Health Department to implement health and sanitation measures;
c. Police to maintain law and order, and to assist with control of people and vehicle around the disaster area; and,
d. Red Cross to carry out first-aid and other emergency welfare assistance.
12. Availability of Relief Supplies & Commodities
The ready availability of relief supplies and commodities is an important factor in effective response. After disaster impact, there is usually an urgent need to provide and distribute food, drinking water, clothing, and shelter materials.
Disaster management action therefore needs to cover two main areas:
a. obtaining the various commodities from government stores, emergency stockpiles, commercial supplies and international assistance sources; and,
b. organizing the distribution of these commodities according to the best possible orders of priority.
13. International Assistance Resource
International assistance resources often play a valuable part in response operations. These resources mainly comprise relief commodities, especially food, shelter and medical supplies. However, specialist personnel and equipment are also available for damage. Authorities responsible for response operations should bear in mind that some international agencies and some countries hold stockpiles of relief supplies conveniently situated around the world.
14. Public Cooperation
Good cooperation between the disaster response authorities and the public is essential if response operations are to be successful. The foundation of cooperation should be laid down during the conduct of public awareness programs, a necessary part of preparedness. However, disaster response and coordinating authorities should remember that if the affected public is not kept as fully informed as possible, rumors and false reports are likely to be started, causing problems the response authorities.
15. Media Cooperation
Disaster, especially major disaster is news. Consequently, requests for information by local and international media are inevitable. It is clearly advisable to have organized arrangements to deal with this aspect. These arrangements are usually outlined in plans and standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are the responsibilities of government information and broadcasting agencies.
It is important that conditions in the stricken nation should be accurately reported internationally, with no misreporting or misrepresentation of international assistance efforts. Most events will be superseded by other events in the world scene in a fairly short time. To avoid possible misunderstanding and misinterpretation, it is important to give media representatives appropriate opportunities for briefing and gathering of information soon after disaster impact. Delays may lead to some media representatives making their own news, which may not be in the best interest of the affected nation.
Good relations with the local media is also important. Usually, two-way benefits are involved. The local media can also render invaluable services through dissemination of warning and evacuation announcements, and through stimulating public awareness of disasters.
During highly-pressured response operations, disaster management authorities may regard media information as low priority. However, this should and could be avoided if proper arrangements are in place.
16. Pattern of Response Management
It is important, especially in the interest of operational coherency, that disaster managers should try to develop and maintain a pattern of management during response operations.
Disaster Management deals with major requirements for coping with disaster, resource management depends on four major factors:
a. a capable EOC system;
b. a good information picture;
c. effective communication between the disaster management and individual resource organizations; and
d. sensible commitment of resource organizations to operational tasks, bearing in mind their capability and durability.
Given that these factors can be applied, it is useful if the response management authority works to a pattern of:
a. maintaining the best possible information picture (from surveys, situation reports and other information) concerning the disaster situation and the tasks which may need to be undertaken;
b. establishing priorities for tasks;
c. committing resources to tasks in the most effective manner, bearing in mind that personnel need time for meals and reasonable rest periods;
d. continuously assessing the situation in terms of:
· tasks completed
· tasks needing to be undertaken
· resources available
· possible reinforcement by additional resource, etc.;
e. maintaining close liaison with other relevant disaster management authorities (e.g. committees at higher and lower government levels);
f. maintaining close liaison with non-government organizations;
g. keeping the public as fully informed as practicable; and,
h. utilizing self-help from within the community.
17. Period of Response Operations
Broad international experience indicates that most governments find it expedient to keep the period of emergency response operations down to a fairly limited period. This period usually tends to be 2-3 weeks, after which remaining relief and associated needs are met through the normal system and processes of government. Undue extension of the emergency is usually regarded as undesirable. This is to avoid:
a. over-dependence on emergency aid (especially food supplies);
b. adverse effects on the local commercial system; and,
c. unnecessary delay in returning to normal community life.
It may be useful therefore, for disaster managers to bear this likely time frame in mind in formulating their overall concept of response operations.
E. Common Problems Encountered
1. Operationalizing the Disaster Operations Center
2. Communication and warning
3. Infrastructure and transportation
4. Search and rescue
5. First Aid
6. Health, nutrition and sanitation
7. Emergency Relief and Evacuation Center Management
2. During Disaster
3. Post Disaster
B. Communication & Warning Aspects during Disasters
C. Factors Influencing the Success of Disaster Warning Messages
D. Different Communication & Warning Strategies
A. Importance of Infrastructure & Transportation Support during Disasters
3. Post Emergency
B. Different Infrastructure & Transportation Supplies
1. By types of hazards
2. By extent of damage/effects
3. By nature of disaster victims
A. Procedures in the Activation of the DOC
B. Stages of Response
Emergency management in the response phase is concerned with implementing measures that will save lives, reduce injury and distress, and establish a control structure for rehabilitation of the community.
The true test of a Disaster Response Plan is how the community copes with the disaster and how the local Disaster Coordinating Council organization provides for the safety and well-being of individual citizen upon receiving official notification of the disaster threat until the emergency period is over.
Disaster researches generally accept that there are stages of response to a disaster: warning, threat, incident, assessment, rescue, and relief. While the stages will not all be distinct, and in some disasters, some of the stages will not occur, they provide a logical base for discussion.
1. The Warning Stage
At the local level, warning messages may be initiated by local warning agencies, police authorities, catchment authorities for small water impounding areas or canals, or other authorized agencies communicating directly with the local government authority. Warning messages at the national level emanate from warning agencies such as PAGASA for impending typhoons and other weather disturbances; PHIVOLCS for earthquake, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis; DOH for epidemics; DENR for environmental pollution; PNRI for radiological emergencies; AFP for external threats; and, PNP for civil disturbance.
It is at the warning stage when the Disaster Operations Center for the more likely affected localities are activated. Key DCC staff members are on stand-by for possible response activities and the DCC communications and warning system are tested.
2. The Threat Stage
The threat stage begins with changes in conditions which indicate the likelihood of a disaster. Although the scope of the possible impact is unknown, previous knowledge or historical records may provide a reasonable likelihood.
Success of the disaster response measure to be implemented will rely heavily on the efforts previously put in during the mitigation and preparedness phase. The threat stage of the response entails full involvement of the Chairman, DCC or key staff.
Some of the actions that might be initiated are:
a. Convene the disaster action group or DCC members;
b. Request situation reports from emergency service or agencies already involved e.g. regional council or lower council;
c. Liaison with chairman of local DCC of threatened areas;
d. Declare state of civil defense emergency;
e. Activate all civil defense operation center/different DCCs;
f. Activate appropriate government and other agencies;
g. Issue information to media;
h. Issue warnings to public;
i. Send situation reports to supporting agencies/chairman, DCCs and OP;
j. Activate resource plan; and,
k. Evacuate critical areas.
3. The Incident Stage
The incident stage may consist of a single event of limited duration such as an explosion, building collapse, flash flood or transport accident, or may be multiple, extending over a period of time, such as a series of earthquakes. The nature of the incident will greatly affect the disaster organizations ability to carry out life-saving measures and to establish control in the disaster area.
Individuals in the community must be forewarned that there will be a period during which they will have to fend for themselves. With the best will in the world, it is unlikely that the emergency services or the DCCs organization will be able to help everyone. If, during the preparedness phase, the emphasis in public education programs has been on teaching survival, the community will be better able to survive.
4. The Assessment Stage
This is a period of adjustment and taking stock after the disaster. Individuals and organizations in the disaster area attempt to evaluate the event and determine what to do next.
Problems in making accurate assessment will be compounded by the disruption to normal communications. The collection and passage of information will have to operate through one or both of the following:
a. Planned Flow - where information is relayed between civil defense control points: headquarters, sector posts, welfare centers and local DCC units.
b. Contingency Reconnaissance by the use of resources from the local government and voluntary agencies to establish mobile information-gathering teams.
Outside the disaster area, Civil Defense/DCC authorities at the province/region/national levels will begin to receive information on the disaster from a variety of sources and will be making assessments on what resources are needed. The passing of information in the first few hours after a disaster is critical and controllers must recognize that they have a prime responsibility to keep the DCC Chairman fully informed.
Where communication difficulties prevent the flow of information to higher headquarters, it is the responsibility of the NDCC at the higher headquarters to assist by establishing additional links with the disaster-stricken areas. For example, the NDCC Chairman may do this by sending support teams to the region. Regional DCCs should adopt the same approach to help a distressed province or town within their areas of responsibility.
5. The Rescue Stage
This period is characterized by self-help and by largely spontaneous, unrecognized activity to extricate survivors and to take precautionary and survival actions against secondary threats.
The initial rescue stage is characterized by:
a. individual actions by people acting within their own immediate surroundings with little knowledge of what has happened;
b. a sense of urgency on the part of surviving authorities to complete the rescue task. Such haste can lead to uncoordinated and disjoint actions;
c. the problem of tourists and visitors in the community at the time of the disaster. Information on the numbers of such people is rarely available or easily obtained.
Later in the rescue stage, the efforts of individuals will be supplemented by surviving emergency service and rescue elements from areas outside the immediate disaster area. Measures to control and coordinate rescue manpower and equipment must be implemented to ensure the best use of resources.
6. The Relief Stage
The period in which agencies and trained personnel acting on the DCC chairmans instructions move into the incident area and take charge. The activities undertaken by these elements can include:
a. establishment of appropriate medical aid, clothing and accommodation facilities;
b. provision of registration and local inquiry services;
c. more detailed search and rescue operations;
d. preventive action to reduce likelihood of further danger such as evacuation and emergency repairs of damaged vital infrastructure.
Many of the activities in the relief stage depend upon the restoration of selected essential community service. The controller will need to establish priorities in keeping with demands for recovery.
The relief stage may also be characterized by friction between the locals and outsiders coming in to assist. This can never be completely avoided, but the effect can be reduced markedly by establishing:
a. roles for all agencies, thus increasing the speed and effectiveness of response and reducing duplication;
b. mobile resources, i.e. identifying groupings and preparing resources for rapid deployment in specific situations;
c. a control structures that will coordinate the activities of all organization and agencies in the disaster area; and,
d. a clearly defined reporting area for unsolicited volunteers and a system for managing volunteer workers.
No disaster ever occurs quite as predicted or expected, and no disaster is exactly like any other. All stages of the response will produce challenges for the Chairman, DCC or disaster action officer. His/Her ability to manage the response will be greatly influenced by the measures already taken in the mitigation and preparation phases.
C. Levels of Activation
Circumstances at the time will help the DCC Chairman to determine the extent to which the DOC is staffed and made ready to carry out its operational functions. Three classifications can be used to define the DOC operational status:
1. ALERT - The Disaster Operations Center is manned by a Civil Defense Officer with Key DCC staff members. Other DCC staff and operating teams and volunteers are notified of the situation but are not yet required to report to the center.
2. STAND-BY - The Disaster Operations Center is manned by a Civil Defense Officer, key DCC staff members, and operating teams such as rescue, relief, communications and public information.
3. ACTION - All DCC members are required to report at the DOC.
Follow a sequence of steps to make the DOC fully operational. There may be some variation because of the type of threat, but the basic sequence will not change. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) should be developed for the activation. The following should also be considered:
1. Alert the DOC Personnel
The alerting process should be clearly stated in the DCC plan as an SOP. It may be a chain of calls where one person calls another on the activation roster. Alternate names should be included to make sure that the DOC is fully staffed.
2. Activate the Communications Equipment/Support Facilities
Unless the DOC is used on a daily basis, communications equipment will have to be switched on and tested. Activating the support system may mean anything from starting an emergency power generator to plugging in the coffee pot.
3. Initiate the Message Flow System
The message flow system is simply a method of recording messages as they arrive so they are documented and action can be taken. Usually, incoming messages will be routed through the Operations Officer, who will assign the responsibility to act on the message to someone within the DOC.
4. Make Available the Appropriate Logs, Maps and Status Board
It is vital that an operational log of events is maintained. Maps of the local community and surrounding areas and other resources should be in place before the emergency.
5. Prepare a Shift Roster
If the DOC is to operate for any length of time, you must have roster personnel so that they are not on duty continuously. Duty time, off duty, and relief breaks must be scheduled. It is particularly important to ensure that the alternate Disaster Action Officer rests and is available to relieve you in due course.
6. Announce Briefing Schedules
It is important to set up a briefing schedule as soon as the DOC is operating. You should brief the DOC every shift change, and at times of major decisions or events. The media also needs a briefing schedule so they know when to expect a report from the DOC.
7. Announce Briefing Schedules
It is important to set up a briefing schedule as soon as the DOC is operating. You should brief staff the DOC when shifts change and at times of major decisions or events. The news media also need a briefing schedule so they know when to expect a report from the DOC.
You should not undertake all the above tasks. SOPs should detail tasks and responsibilities to be carried out by key members of the DOC staff. You need to confirm that such tasks have been completed.
E. Key Personnel & Functions
A. Basic Concepts on Search & Rescue (Training on Capability Building)
1. Concept of Training/Preparedness
2. Concept of Organization and Equipage
3. Concept of Employment
B. Management of Rescue Operation
1. Search and Rescue in Disaster Management
2. Philippine SAR System
3. The AFP SAR Task Force/AFP Disaster Response Task Force
4. Authority and Procedure in SAR and Evacuation
5. Organization of Rescue Operation
6. Formulation of Rescue Plan
7. Stages of Rescue
C. Competency Areas of SAR personnel
D. Different SAR techniques
1. Metropolitan Rescue
2. Environmental Rescue
3. Vehicular and Aircraft Accident
4. Water Safety and Rescue
5. Fire and Elementary Fire Fighting
E. Rescue Equipment, Types and Uses, Maintenance and Care
A. Introduction to First Aid
· immediate care given to a person who has been injured or suddenly taken ill
· includes self-help and home care if medical assistance is not available
· includes well selected words of encouragement, evidence of willingness to help, and promotion of confidence by demonstration of competence
2. The First Aide
The first aides responsibility(ies) end as soon as medical aid is available but he should stand-by after making his report to the physician. This work is definitely limited to the assistance rendered at the time of emergency with such materials as may be available.
A good first aide should be:
3. Purpose of First Aid
a. To prevent accidents
b. To train people to do the right thing at a right time
c. To prevent added injury or danger
d. To provide proper transportation if necessary
e. To give first aid training in caring for large number of persons caught in a natural disaster
4. Patient Assessment
a. Characteristics of good patient assessment
B. Common Medical Emergencies
A wound is a break in the continuity of a tissue of the body, either internal or external which may be categorized as an open wound or closed wound.
External physical force as in:
· motor vehicle accidents
· mishandling of sharp objects, tools, machinery and weapons
d. First Aid
· Wash with clean water and soap.
· Dress and apply bandage at the area.
· In cases of severe bleeding, control hemorrhage by applying direct pressure, or elevating the wounded area and applying pressure at points.
A burn is an injury that results from heat, chemical agents or radiation. It may vary in depth, size and severity and may damage cells in the affected area.
b. Causes & Effects
Burns are caused most commonly by contact with matches and cigarettes; scalds from hot liquids; defective heating, cooking and electrical equipment; use of open fire that produce flame burns especially when flammable clothing is worn; unsafe practices in the home in the use of flammable liquids for starting fires and for cleansing and scrubbing wax off floors; immersion in overheated bath water and use of such chemicals as lye, strong acids and strong detergents.
In addition to surface burns, the effects of heat on the blood, on the body veins, and the skin, the hazards of fire include:
· Inhalation of very hot (superheated) air or irritating or poisonous gases including carbon monoxide
· Asphyxia from insufficient oxygen in the area
· Falls and injuries from collapsing walls in burning buildings
c. Classifications & First Aid Techniques
· First Degree
· Second Degree
· Third Degree
c. Indicators of Shock - early stage and late stage
d. First Aid
A poison is any substance - solid, liquid or gas that tends to impair health or cause death when introduced into the body or onto the skin surface
· Contact poison
· Insect bites
· Venomous snakes
c. First Aid
5. Bone and Joint Injuries/Spinal Injuries
b. Indicators of fractures
c. Essentials of first aid
d. First Aid
A. Health Problems Related to the Type of Disaster
2. Severe Injuries
3. Risk of Communicable Disease
4. Food Scarcity
5. Major Population Displacement
B. Overview of Health/Environmental Sanitation & Emergency Services
2. Site Selection
3. Needs Assessment of Vital Needs
· Vector Control
· Garbage Collection
· Disposal of Deaths
5. Camp Organization
· Major Causes of Morbidity and Mortality
· For Camp Risk Factors
· Preventive Measures
* Respiratory Tract Infection
* Skin/Parasitic Infection
* Health Pyramid
A. Phases of Emergencies
3. Post Emergency
B. Roles and Functions in Emergency Relief Management
C. Common Response Items & Standards
1. Food Items
4. Temporary Shelter/Evacuation Center
E. Common Relief/Emergency Strategies & Approaches
1. Resource Management
2. Networking and Linkage-building
3. Organization and Mobilization of Volunteers for Emergency Relief
4. Availment of Calamity and Augmentation Fund for Relief Responses
5. NGO Desk
6. Welfare Inquiry Desk
F. Management of Evacuation Center
1. Definition and Concepts
2. Stockpiling and Setting up Community Kitchen
3. Evacuation Center Processes
4. Masterlisting and Profiling
5. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
6. Emergency Relief Reporting
7. Problems and Recommendations
A. Definition of Terms
B. Importance of Damage Assessment
D. Scope & Areas to be Covered
E. Factors that Make Demand of a Good Damage Assessment
F. Basic Guidelines in Damage Assessment
G. Terms of Reference
1. Joint Damage Assessment
2. Possible, probable impact
3. Destroyed, major and minor damage
4. Affected displaced population
5. Availability of local resources
6. Essential community services
H. Factors/Key Points Influencing a Good Damage Assessment Report
A. NDCC Assessment Forms
A. DNCA Report Form
B. Case Study on Disaster Situation (depicting the damage, needs and capabilities of the affected community/people)
A. NDCC Disaster Report Form B. Lecture Materials in Disaster Reporting
A. Reference Materials on Rehabilitation Planning
B. Case Studies on Rehabilitation Planning
You are a senior official of the Civil Defense Center in the Department of National Defense. One morning whilst paying a courtesy call on your friend the Mayor of Quezon City you tell him how you have recently attended a Disaster Management Course at PAGASA. To your consternation he seizes on this point saying I need you help! He leads you to a map on the wall and says:
I am concerned about the increasing risk of a major industrial accident on our province. Industrial estates and housing developments are springing up everywhere. Truckload of petroleum products and other dangerous chemicals pass through EDSA daily. We all know that it is impossible to give 100% guarantee that there will not be an accident. Think of the oil tanker accident in the same highway last year.
I want you to conduct a hypothetical exercise to examine some of the problems that might arise if we were to have a major industrial accident in Quezon City, so that we can then proceed to the preparation of detailed contingency planning for such an event.
I suggest you base your hypothetical exercise on the following scenario. One of the convoy of trucks with petroleum and other dangerous products passing through EDSA lost control at the intersection of EDSA and Quezon Avenue and catches fire. Another truck is a container full of liquefied natural gas. Another contains liquid chlorine. (I pray that nobody would be so stupid as to assemble all these dangerous cargoes in a single convoy, but you never know.) The fire services advise that they are unable to contain the fire and there is a danger of BLEVE-type (Boiling Liquid and Evaporating Vapor Explosion) and a major chlorine spillage.
I have taken expert advice and here are some PLANNING ASSUMPTIONS:
We can expect to have about two hours between the moment that the fire services tell us that they are unable to contain the problem and an explosion and emission of gas.
The chlorine can be expected to disperse in an arc of 30 degree. Toxicity diminishes with distance: up to 7 km the danger is unacceptable; beyond that the effects are tolerable and can be mitigated if people stay indoors and breathe through wet towels or cloth.
The danger area for the BLEVE explosion will have a radius of 1 km.
Duration of Toxic Effect
The chlorine will disperse and degrade naturally within a period of 20 hours.
Expected Wind Speed
Average 2 km/hour
The prevailing wind is from the South East but it can very by up to 20 degrees.
There is no recent census of population. Your group must estimate these, given the existing land use.
Here is a map of the area, I want you to do a quick preliminary map study and field reconnaissance and brief me on the following points. My aim is to evacuate everybody at risk before an emission of gas. We can attend to other details later:
1. What are the potential danger areas? Mark them on the map.
2. Approximately how many people are at risk? Tabulate.
3. Are there any installations or groups of people in the danger area which will require special attention (e.g., schools, hospitals)? If so, list them by type.
4. What are the possible evacuation routes? List the advantages and disadvantages of each.
5. What types of transport could be used for evacuation?
6. I expect to oversee the evacuation from the Operations Room at our Headquarters here in Quezon City, which is thankfully out of the danger area, but if we decide to establish a Forward Control Center, where should we put it? Give the position and be prepared to justify your recommendation.
7. What will be the effect on routine traffic in the area and what should we do about it?
8. What should we do about informing the public? If an accident occurs we want to be sure that they act correctly. Having prepared a contingency plan should we tell the public about it before the event? If your answer is NO, why not?
9. When we get an alert from the fire services how do we warn the public? Prepare a draft announcement.
10. Have you any suggestions to make based upon your own experience and expertise?
Working in five groups carry out map studies and reconnaissance of the area and be prepared to present your answers to the above questions, supported by a marked map, flip charts, and written notes here in this room at 1400H this afternoon.
Tropical storm KITING makes its landfall in Baler, Aurora and proceeded to Metro Manila. It crossed Metro Manila during early morning. Because of the intensified Southwest Monsoon, maximum rainfall was brought in by the storm. Because of this situation, the creek at ________ began to swell a little later after sunrise.
The Provincial Disaster Coordinating Council was very active in this area and through coordination, it was agreed upon by the BCC that the evacuation area will be at ________ for the affected families.
Assuming your group will be the committee to arrange for the arrival of the displaced families numbering about 200 families. Remember that you should plan quickly for the provision of necessary emergency services.
You are a fresh graduate of the Disaster Management Course. One morning while paying a courtesy call on your friend, the Governor of Region II (Eastern Luzon), you tell him how you have recently attended a DMC at the Regional Training Center. Then the governor said, I need your help! He leads you to a map on the wall and says,
I am concerned about the impending risk of a major hazard in our region. Industrial estates and housing developments springing up everywhere. A typhoon is forecast to be moving towards eastern Luzon. We all know that it is impossible to give a 100% guarantee that there will be a disaster. Think of the present characteristic of Typhoon Goring with a maximum sustained winds of 185 KPH, moving with a speed of 20 KPH and gustiness to 245 KPH.
I want you to examine some of the problems that might arise if we were to have a major disaster considering the impending threat of the typhoon in the region so that we can proceed to the preparations of detailed contingency planning for such event.
Here is a map of the Philippines that show the present track of Typhoon Goring, I want you to do a quick forecast of the typhoon. My aim is when to evacuate everybody especially those in the coastal areas at risk before the landfall of the typhoon.
1. When will be the expected landfall of Typhoon Goring?
2. At what time will the forecast are be affected by the destructive winds of Typhoon Goring? (about 10 km from the center)
3. If ever the eye will pass over your locality, how long will be the lull (or the time at which they will experience clear skies and calm winds)?
4. What are the potential danger areas?
5. Approximately how many people are at risk?
6. What are the possible evacuation areas?