|Conducting Environmental Impact Assessment in Developing Countries (United Nations University, 1999, 375 p.)|
|6. Environmental management measures and monitoring|
The major objective and benefit of utilizing EIAs in project planning is to prevent avoidable losses of environmental resources and values. This is done through the development of a judicious and appropriate environmental management plan (EMP). Environmental management includes protection, mitigation, and enhancement measures as well as monitoring.
In the process of planning, it is essential for every project to formulate an EMP to ensure that resources are used with maximum efficiency, and that each of the adverse impacts identified and evaluated as "significant'' be prevented, attenuated, or, when required, compensated. Possible mitigation measures include:
• changing project sites, routes, production technology, raw materials, disposal methods, engineering designs, safety requirements;
• introducing pollution controls, recycling and conservation of resources, waste treatment, monitoring, phased implementation, landscaping, inclusion of a plan for developing a green belt in an industrial plant site development, personnel training, special social services or community awareness and education;
• devising compensatory measures for restoration of damaged resources, monetary compensations for affected persons, offsite programmes to enhance some other aspects of the environment or quality of life for the community.
Monitoring is required to evaluate the success or failure (and consequent benefits and losses) of environmental management measures and subsequently to reorient the EMP. Regardless of the quality of an EIA and consequent environmental management measures, they are of limited value unless implemented. As experience has increased in using EIA process for environmental planning, the need and justification for continuous monitoring in order to establish meaningful databases has become obvious.