|Trainee's Manual on Disaster Preparedness (European Commission Humanitarian Office, 59 p.)|
|Module IV. Emergency Services & Responses|
A. Introduction to First Aid
· immediate care given to a person who has been injured or suddenly taken ill
· includes self-help and home care if medical assistance is not available
· includes well selected words of encouragement, evidence of willingness to help, and promotion of confidence by demonstration of competence
2. The First Aide
The first aides responsibility(ies) end as soon as medical aid is available but he should stand-by after making his report to the physician. This work is definitely limited to the assistance rendered at the time of emergency with such materials as may be available.
A good first aide should be:
3. Purpose of First Aid
a. To prevent accidents
b. To train people to do the right thing at a right time
c. To prevent added injury or danger
d. To provide proper transportation if necessary
e. To give first aid training in caring for large number of persons caught in a natural disaster
4. Patient Assessment
a. Characteristics of good patient assessment
B. Common Medical Emergencies
A wound is a break in the continuity of a tissue of the body, either internal or external which may be categorized as an open wound or closed wound.
External physical force as in:
· motor vehicle accidents
· mishandling of sharp objects, tools, machinery and weapons
d. First Aid
· Wash with clean water and soap.
· Dress and apply bandage at the area.
· In cases of severe bleeding, control hemorrhage by applying direct pressure, or elevating the wounded area and applying pressure at points.
A burn is an injury that results from heat, chemical agents or radiation. It may vary in depth, size and severity and may damage cells in the affected area.
b. Causes & Effects
Burns are caused most commonly by contact with matches and cigarettes; scalds from hot liquids; defective heating, cooking and electrical equipment; use of open fire that produce flame burns especially when flammable clothing is worn; unsafe practices in the home in the use of flammable liquids for starting fires and for cleansing and scrubbing wax off floors; immersion in overheated bath water and use of such chemicals as lye, strong acids and strong detergents.
In addition to surface burns, the effects of heat on the blood, on the body veins, and the skin, the hazards of fire include:
· Inhalation of very hot (superheated) air or irritating or poisonous gases including carbon monoxide
· Asphyxia from insufficient oxygen in the area
· Falls and injuries from collapsing walls in burning buildings
c. Classifications & First Aid Techniques
· First Degree
· Second Degree
· Third Degree
c. Indicators of Shock - early stage and late stage
d. First Aid
A poison is any substance - solid, liquid or gas that tends to impair health or cause death when introduced into the body or onto the skin surface
· Contact poison
· Insect bites
· Venomous snakes
c. First Aid
5. Bone and Joint Injuries/Spinal Injuries
b. Indicators of fractures
c. Essentials of first aid
d. First Aid