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close this bookTrainee's Manual on Disaster Preparedness (European Commission Humanitarian Office, 59 p.)
close this folderModule II. Institutional Mechanisms for Disaster Management in the Philippines
View the documentSession I. DEVELOPMENT OF RP’s DISASTER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
View the documentSession II. LEGAL BASIS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RP’s DISASTER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
View the documentSession III. INTRODUCTION OF THE DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE DISASTER COORDINATING COUNCIL
View the documentSession IV. DCC DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITIES
View the documentSession V. WORKSHOP OF DCC SERVICES
View the documentSession VI. ORGANIZATION OF DISASTER CONTROL GROUP (DCG)
View the documentSession VII. EFFECTIVE NETWORKING

Session I. DEVELOPMENT OF RP’s DISASTER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

A. 1946-1970 Reactive Approach

The country’s approach to disaster management from 1946 to 1970 was mainly reactive. The government responded to the emergency situation after the disaster have already affected a part of the country. Management efforts was highly centralized with minimum participation of local officials. Organizations of Civil Defense units at the local levels were mostly in paper only, and people were contended to wait for assistance coming from the national government.

B. 1969 - 1973 Development of the Natural Disasters & Calamities Plan

1. Disaster Management Planning

With the development of the Natural Disaster and Calamities Plan, a series of inter-agency meetings with participating agencies were conducted. The guiding principle was to use all available government resources and concerned agencies to work together to address the concerns relative to natural disasters and calamities. The Plan assigned specific tasks or emergency functions to government agencies in addition to their normal primary day-to-day activities. Lead agencies were identified to include the task responsibilities of the private sector. Each agency was to use its own budgeted resources and not to rely on the resources of the lead agencies.

2. Emergency Operations Facilities

The Plan also called for the establishment of a CENTRAL EMERGENCY OPERATING FACILITY (CEOF) in the National Civil Defense Administration (NCDA) under the Office of the President. Likewise, the Plan also called for the setting-up of Emergency Operations Center in each government department. The EOC’s were to be provided with communications link with the central CEOF along Roxas Boulevard, Manila.

3. Plan Implementation

While waiting approval of the Plan, the EOC was set-up with communications link established with the different field government offices.

The heavy flooding in Manila as an aftermath of the typhoon that passed the Bicol region in October 1970, prompted the government to transfer the Central Operations Group to the IOC (Infrastructure Operations Center) of the Department of Public Works and Transportation which was then tasked to monitor the progress of infrastructure projects nationwide.

The idea was to operate on a higher ground and at the same time, utilize the communications facilities of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

The President, after being briefed on OPERATIONS BICOL, approved the Natural Disaster and Calamities Plan, and ordered that the NDCC as called for in the Plan, be located inside Camp Aguinaldo. The NDCC was to ensure the effective direction, control, coordination and supervision of the different government and private agencies, both local and foreign, in responding to disasters, natural and man-made.

C. 1970-1973

Disaster Management during the period was reactive and centralized. In 1973, the Office of Civil Defense set up field stations in the 12 Administrative Regional Centers outside of Metro Manila. The field personnel started to convert the local civil defense units into local disaster coordinating councils and to retain the leaders and members of these councils.

D. 1973 - onwards Disaster Preparedness

In 1973, the government’s disaster preparedness training started. Government agencies with training funds started conducting the disaster preparedness program with the aim of preparing the populace in responding to any emergency.

The Office of Civil Defense started organizing and training the members and chairmen of the respective councils. The DSWD trained community leaders on how to handle relief distribution, the PNRC trained community leaders on relief distribution and their volunteers on First Aid, while the DOH focused their training on barangay health workers.

E. 1978 Formal Birth of the National Disaster Coordinating Council

To further strengthen the system, the government decided to formalize the Ad Hoc organizations at the national, regional and local levels and to allocate emergency tasks to the different governmental units pursuant to their enabling laws. Presidential Decree 1566 was issued and the NDCC was created. The RDCC, PDCC, CDCC and MDCC were likewise created. From thereon, personalities of the councils evolved and as they continue to exist up to this date.

F. Late 1980s Disaster Mitigation

In the late 1990’s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR), with the objective of reducing through international concerted efforts, the loss of life, property damage, social and economic disruption caused by natural disasters.

In effect, the NDCC and member-agencies of the council assumed the IDNDR concerns without creating another national body as the IDNDR concerns fell within the scope of the NDCC.

The NDCC created four committees to support the UN objectives and these are the Committees on Structural Measures, on Non-Structural Measures, on Disaster Research, and on Disaster Legislation. At present, the scope of the country’s disaster management system, covers PREPAREDNESS, PREVENTION, MITIGATION AND RESPONSE.

Session II. LEGAL BASIS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RP’s DISASTER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

A. Presidential Decree 1566

1. This Decree, which was promulgated in 1978, calls for the STRENGTHENING OF THE PHILIPPINE DISASTER CONTROL CAPABILITY AND ESTABLISHING THE NATIONAL PROGRAM ON COMMUNITY DISASTER PREPAREDNESS.

2. Salient Provisions

· State policy on self-reliance among local officials and their constituents in responding to disasters.

· Organization of the National, Regional and Local Disaster Coordinating Councils (DCC).

· Preparation of a National Calamities and Disaster Preparedness Plan by the Office of Civil Defense and implementing plans by the NDCC member-agencies and local DCCs.

· Conduct of periodic drills and exercises by concerned agencies and local DCCs.

· Authority for local government units to program funds for disaster preparedness activities such as the organization of DCCs, establishment of Disaster Operations Center and training and equipping of DCC response teams. This is in addition to the 5% under Sec. 324 (d) of the Local Government Code of 1991.

3. Rules & Regulations Implementing PD 1566

a. Pre-emergency phase

Activities to be undertaken under this phase include planning for disasters, organizing, training, drills, public information drive, stockpiling and communications and warning activities.

b. During Emergency phase

Mobilization of all emergency services shall be coordinated/orchestrated by the local Disaster Coordinating Council in the affected locality.

c. Post Emergency phase

· Cross-checking of data. All information gathered during an emergency shall be cross-checked with pre-emergency data obtained by local disaster coordinating councils to facilitate the location and whereabouts of the persons and to assess available community resources for rehabilitation purposes.

· Rehabilitation Requirements. The Local Disaster Coordinating Councils, within their respective levels, shall determine the nature and extent of the rehabilitation efforts to be undertaken and shall request for assistance from appropriate government agencies, private offices/agencies or individuals, if the situation goes beyond their capacity.

· Emergency Labor Supply. The DOLE shall coordinate with appropriate agencies, the hiring of labor from the affected population as may be needed for the restoration, repair and construction of public buildings, roads, bridges, dams, harbors, airports and such other public infrastructure damaged by disaster or calamities.

B. Other Disaster-related Laws

1. Republic Act 1190

Known as the CIVIL DEFENSE ACT OF 1954, this law created the National Civil Defense Administration (NDCA), the primary functions of which are to prepare and issue civil defense instructions and to furnish guidance to provinces, chartered cities in the organization, training and operation of civil defense units in the local governments during peacetime situations. As provided for in the law, NCDA will render eleven types of civil defense services through its unit in all chartered cities and provinces, namely; Warden, Police, Fire, Health, Rescue, Engineering, Emergency Welfare, Transportation, Communication, Evacuation, Fallout Warning, and Auxiliary Service.

· Basic Principles/Policies enumerated under RA 1190:

a. Civil Defense is civil preparedness.
b. Pre-emergency preparedness is necessary.
c. Organization of civil defense units at all governments levels.
d. Assignment of agency representatives at the CEOF.
e. Priority utilization of resources prescribed by national government.
f. Coordination among civil organization and civil defense organization and military units.

2. Rule 1040

The OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARD (as amended/issued by the Secretary of Labor) provides for the organization of disaster control group/health safety committee in every place of employment and the conduct of periodic drills and exercises.

The administration and enforcement of this rule is reposed upon the Department of Labor and Employment. It requires the employer to:

a. Furnish his workers a place of employment free from hazardous conditions;
b. Give complete job safety instructions to all his workers;
c. Comply with the requirements of this standard; and
d. Use only approved devices and equipment in his workplace.

3. Presidential Decree 1185 (FIRE CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES)

Administrators or occupants of buildings, structures and other premises or facilities and other responsible persons are required to comply with the following:

a. Inspection requirement by the Bureau of Fire Protection as a prerequisite to the grant of permits and/or licenses by LGUs or other government agencies concerned.

b. Provisions for safety measures for hazardous materials as well as for hazardous operations/processes, and

c. Provision on fire walls, fire exit plan, etc.

4. Republic Act 7160

The LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE OF 1991 mandates local governments *****

5. Latest NDCC Memo Circulars

Session III. INTRODUCTION OF THE DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE DISASTER COORDINATING COUNCIL

A. National Disaster Coordinating Council

1. Structure

The NDCC is headed by the Secretary of National Defense with the heads of 18 departments/agencies as members. These include the Armed Forces of the Philippines Chief of Staff, Director-General of the Philippine National Red Cross and other key officials of the Philippine government.

It is through the NDCC member-agencies that disaster response is carried out, each implementing its corresponding tasks and responsibilities under the NDCC system. The NDCC, unlike the other department coordinating bodies, does not have its own budget to disburse. It operates through its member-agencies and its local networks - the regional and local disaster coordinating councils. Its presence in the affected areas can be gleaned through the different agencies responding to the emergency which are part of the entire NDCC system operating from the national down to the local levels.

The members of the Council are the following:

Secretary, DND

Chairman

Secretary, DPWH

Member

Secretary, DOTC

Member

Secretary, DSWD

Member

Secretary, DA

Member

Secretary, DECS

Member

Secretary, DOF

Member

Secretary, DOLE

Member

Secretary, DTI

Member

Secretary, DENR

Member

Secretary, DOST

Member

Secretary, DILG

Member

Secretary, DBM

Member

Secretary, DOJ

Member

Secretary, DOH

Member

Director, PIA

Member

Presidential Exec. Sec.

Member

Chief of Staff, AFP

Member

Administrator, OCD

Member and Executive Officer

2. Functions

The establishment of the National Disaster Coordinating Council is embodied in Sec. 2 of P.D. 1566.

At the national level, the NDCC serves as the President’s adviser on disaster preparedness programs, disaster operations and rehabilitation efforts undertaken by the government and the private sector. It acts as the top coordinator of all disaster management efforts. The NDCC also serves as the highest policy-making body and the highest allocator of resources in the country to support the efforts of the lower DCC level. In the discharge of its functions, the NDCC utilizes the facilities and services of the Office of Civil Defense as its operating arm.

B. Regional Disaster Coordinating Council

1. Functions

The Regional Disaster Coordinating Council:

a. Establishes a physical facility to be known as the Regional Disaster Operations Center (RDOC);

b. Coordinates the disaster operations activities in the region;

c. Implements within the region the guidelines set by the NDCC;

d. Advises the local disaster coordinating councils on disaster management; and,

e. Submits appropriate recommendations to the NDCC, as necessary.

2. Structure

C. Provincial Disaster Coordinating Council

1. Functions

The Provincial Disaster Coordinating Council:

a. Establishes a physical facility to be known as the Provincial Disaster Operations Center to be known as PDOC;

b. Coordinate from the PDOC the disaster operations activities of the municipalities within the province;

c. Implement within the city the guidelines set by the RDCC;

d. Advises the Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council regarding disaster management;

e. Submits recommendations to the RDCC as necessary; and,

f. Places the CDCC and its tasked units under the operational control of the PDCC during an emergency which affects the towns/cities.

2. Structure

D. Municipal Disaster Coordinating Council

1. Functions

The Municipal Disaster Coordinating Council:

a. Establishes a physical facility to be known as the Municipal Disaster Operations Center (MDOC);

b. Coordinate from he MDOC the disaster operations activities;

c. Implements within the municipality the guidelines set by the PDCC;

d. Advises the Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council regarding disaster management; and,

e. Submits recommendation to the PDCC, as necessary.

2. Structure

E. Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council

1. Functions

The Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council:

a. Establishes the Barangay Disaster Operations Center (BDOC);

b. Coordinates from the BDOC, the disaster operations activities of its tasked units;

c. Implements within the barangay the guidelines set by the MDCC;

d. Advises the members of the BDCC regarding disaster management; and,

e. Submits recommendations to the MDCC/CDCC, as necessary.

2. Structure

Session IV. DCC DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITIES

A. Staff Teams

1. Intelligence and Disaster Analysis Unit

Evaluates the disaster situation, determines courses of action to be followed in times of emergency and formulates guidelines to evaluating disaster situations.

2. Plans and Operations Unit

Recommends and supervises the implementation of existing operation plans and determines the appropriate courses of action to be taken in response to the disaster situation.

3. Resources Unit

Undertakes a survey of urgent items needed in helping the victims of disasters and calamities, gathers the necessary statistics on food, clothing, construction materials, medical supplies, transportation and other relief and rehabilitation requirement.

B. Operating/Task Teams

1. Communications and Warning

Disseminates timely and adequate warning information as well as precautionary measures to the general public. This unit shall be organized by OCD at the national and regional level, and the DCCs at the local level.

2. Transportation

Makes available transportation units for use of the Disaster Operating teams. Organization of this unit lies with the Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC).

3. Rescue and Engineering

Responsible for the conduct of rescue and engineering activities within their areas of responsibility. The DILG shall be responsible for its organization at the national and regional levels, while the local DCCs shall be responsible in the organization of the DCC unit at their respective levels. Generally, the Bureau of Air Transportation Office (ATO) shall be responsible for rescue operations in case of air crashes, while the Philippine Coast Guard (PCG) shall be responsible for the coordination of rescue activities for sea mishaps.

4. Health

Provides immediately medical care and attention to disaster victims and shall be organized by the Department of Health at all levels.

5. Auxiliary Fire

Assists the existing regular fire department in controlling fire and shall be organized by the PNP at all levels.

6. Police

Assists the existing regular force in the disaster areas. This shall be organized by the PNP units at all levels.

7. Relief

Responsible for undertaking immediate survey of the disaster area and provide mass feeding, emergency housing, emergency clothing and tracing services as necessary. The DSWD is responsible for the organization of this emergency service at all levels.

8. Rehabilitation

Determines the nature and extent of the rehabilitation efforts to be undertaken in the affected areas and shall request for assistance from appropriate government agencies. The responsible government agency for its organization is the DSWD.

9. Public Information

Conducts public information campaign on disaster preparedness, prevention and mitigation. This operating unit of the DCC shall be organized by the Philippine Information Agency.

Session VI. ORGANIZATION OF DISASTER CONTROL GROUP (DCG)

A. Structure

Under P.D 1566, the Secretary of DOLE, DECS and DTI are mandated to organize and train Disaster Control Groups in factories/industrial complexes, schools/learning institutions and large buildings used for commercial and recreational purposes and conduct periodic drills and exercises.

Under Rule 1040 of the Standard, the HSC/DCG is the planning and policy-making group in all matters pertaining to safety and health factories/industrial complexes.

The DCG is composed of a Chairman, Assistant Chairman, Staff Teams and Operating Teams. The Staff Teams include: Security, Supply, Transportation and Communications. The Operating Teams, on the other hand, include: Warning, Evacuation, Fire Brigade, Rescue, Medical and Damage Control.

B. Duties and Responsibilities

The principal duties of the Disaster Control Group are:

1. Plans and develops accident prevention programs for the establishment.

2. Directs the accident prevention efforts of the establishment with the safety programs/safety performance and government regulations in order to prevent accidents from occurring in the workplace.

3. Conducts safety meetings at least once a month.

4. Reviews reports of inspection, accident investigation and implementation of program.

5. Submits reports to the manager on its meetings and activities.

6. Provides necessary assistance to government inspecting authorities in the proper conduct of their activities such as the enforcement of the provisions of Rule 1040.

7. Initiates and supervises safety training from employees.

8. Develops and maintains a disaster contingency plan and organizes such emergency such units as may be necessary to handle disaster situations pursuant to the Emergency Preparedness Manual for Establishments of the Office of Civil Defense.

Session VII. EFFECTIVE NETWORKING

NETWORKING is not an old concept. Some of you might have already been practicing networking, but this portion is intended to add a few more ideas about it, to help you look at the concept in a clearer and more methodical manner or richer perspective.

The government’s Disaster Preparedness Program is a complex one. For its effective implementation, many government agencies have been tasked to work together to bring the program into fruition. Likewise, it is hoped that the participation of people’s organizations in the government’s Disaster Preparedness Program will be more meaningful and will be with impact. Such a wish can happen if all those who are tasked to work together will work harmoniously. It is important that the Disaster Preparedness Program and the conduct of disaster operation of various agencies, be closely coordinated to ensure proper delivery of technical assistance and guidance, specially in terms of organization, training and planning and response. During an emergency situation, operational linkages with the DCCs have to be established to avoid duplication of functions that may cause more injury and death and may result to more losses. Both the government and the private sector is important for effective and efficient response in the affected areas. The Disaster Preparedness Program is a shared responsibility of diverse government agencies whose task is to minimize the suffering of our affected countrymen.

1. Definition

NETWORKING is a process or strategy that brings together three or more diverse groups in response to a common goal, need, interest or objective.

2. Types

a. Vertical - composed of individuals, groups, organization or committees that must cooperate with each other upon suggestion of a leader to attain objectives to which all are committed.

b. Lateral - a network among peers, the interest lies in network that are formed as organizations link up with each other to achieve a mutually acceptable objectives.

3. Characteristics

A network becomes functional if participating groups takes part in the network because they believe in the purpose of working together, rather than in merely trying to satisfy any institutional organization objectives.

4. Key Concepts

· Coordination
· Interdependence
· Complimentarity
· Peer relationship
· Common Frame of Reference
· Shared Leadership
· Resources Sharing
· Information Sharing
· Volunteerism
· Democratization of Access to Resources/Information