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close this bookTrainee's Manual on Disaster Preparedness (European Commission Humanitarian Office, 59 p.)
close this folderModule IV. Emergency Services & Responses
View the documentSession I. SHARING OF DISASTER EXPERIENCES
View the documentSession II. COMMON EMERGENCY RESPONSES
View the documentSession III. COMMUNICATION & WARNING
View the documentSession IV. INFRASTRUCTURE & TRANSPORTATION
View the documentSession V. ACTIVATION/OPERATIONALIZING THE DISASTER OPERATIONS CENTER
View the documentSession VI. SEARCH & RESCUE
View the documentSession VII. TREATMENT AND CARE OF DISASTER VICTIMS
View the documentSession VIII. HEALTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION
View the documentSession IX. EMERGENCY RELIEF OPERATIONS

Session I. SHARING OF DISASTER EXPERIENCES

Guide Questions

1. Who has had experience as:

a. Disaster victim
b. Member of a Disaster Team who responded to an emergency

2. What was the type of response?

3. (If a disaster victim) What were its effects on you?

4. (If a member of a disaster team) What were your roles/activities during the response phase?

5. What were your observations of the response?

6. How was the response carried out?

7. What were the problems/issues/concerns encountered?

8. How did you respond/solve the problem?

9. How can the responses to emergency be improved?

Session II. COMMON EMERGENCY RESPONSES

A. Definition of Responses

RESPONSES are measures taken immediately prior to and following disaster impact. Such measures are directed towards saving life and protecting property and to deal with the immediate damage caused by the disaster. The quality of response measures greatly varies in accordance with the nature and extent of preparatory measures undertaken.

B. Phases of Response

1. Pre-Response
2. Response
3. Post Response

C. Characteristics of Response

1. The type of disaster

Depending on its type, the onset of disaster may provide long warning, short warning or no warning at all. This will obviously influence the effectiveness of activation, mobilization and application of response effort.

2. The severity and extent of disaster

This represent the size and shape of the response problem and particularly affects aspects such as:

a. The ability of response effort to cope with the problem;
b. The urgency of response action and the priorities which are applied;
c. Exacerbation of disaster effects if appropriate action is not taken; and,
d. Requirements for external assistance.

3. The ability to take Pre-Impact Action

If warning time and other conditions permit pre-impact action to be taken (in the form of evacuation, shelter and other protective measures), this may have a major effect on the success of response overall.

4. The capability for sustained operations

A frequent requirement of response operations is that they must be sustained over a long enough period to be fully effective. Several factors are involved here, including:

a. Resource capacity
b. Management
c. Community self-reliance

However, the capability to sustain operations relative to potential threats is a disaster management objective which needs to be carefully addressed both during preparedness and response action itself.

5. Identification of likely response requirements

It is generally possible to identify beforehand the kind of response action likely to be needed for any particular disaster. The threats likely to emanate from individual disasters are well established. Thus, the required response actions are also identifiable. This represents a considerable advantage in disaster management terms, in that it is possible to plan and prepare for well-defined response action in the face of potential threats. This again constitutes a tangible objective for disaster management.

It is suggested that an assessment of response needs in the light of the foregoing and similar factors has useful application to most circumstances.

D. Requirements for Effective Response

Experience has shown that effective response depends fundamentally on two factors, namely: information and resources. Without these two vital components, the best plans, management arrangements, experts staff and so on become virtually useless.

The Major Requirements for Effective Response are:

1. General Background of Preparedness

Response operations generally have to be carried out under disruptive and sometimes traumatic conditions. The effectiveness of response operations will depend vitally on the general background of preparedness which applies. This includes various aspects of policy direction, planning, organization and training.

2. Readiness of Resource Organization

The readiness of resource organizations (both government and non-government) to respond to disaster situations, often at very short notice, is a very important requirement for response operations. Sometimes, failure on the part of only one designated organization may seriously upset the total response effort. However, disaster management authorities do need to bear in mind that the response lead-time for resource organization can differ markedly.

3. Warning

An effective system of warning is vitally important for successful response operations, even though there are bound to be some occasions when little or no warning will be available. The main needs for warning are:

a. Initial detection, as early as possible of the likelihood that a disaster will occur;

b. Origination of the warning process as early as practicable, bearing in mind false or unnecessary warning needs to be avoided. In this regard however, precautions can be built into the warning sequence by ensuring that, where doubt exists only key officials are initially informed;

c. Effective means of transmitting warning information;

d. Facilities to receive and assess warning information;

e. Response decisions as a result of assessing warning information; and,

f. Dissemination of response decisions and as appropriate, broadcast of warning information to the public.

Preliminary reaction to warning, before a disaster actually strikes can save lives and property. This preliminary reaction might include:

a. Closing of schools, offices, and other public places;
b. Checking emergency power supplies and similar facilities; and,
c. Taking precautions in households to ensure supplies of food and drinking water.

It is re-emphasized that preliminary reaction of this kind usually needs to be planned beforehand and where necessary, the relevant information passed to disaster-related organization and the public.

4. Evacuation

The evacuation of communities, groups or individuals is a frequent requirement during response operations. Evacuation is usually:

a. Precautionary - in most cases undertaken on warning indicators, prior to impact, in order to protect disaster-threatened persons from the full effects of the disaster, or

b. Post-impact - in order to move persons from a disaster-stricken area into safer, better surrounding and conditions.

5. Activation of the Response System

For rapid and effective response, there usually needs to be a system for activating disaster management officials and resource organizations. It is useful to implement activation in stages. These might be Alert, Stand-by and Action.

The benefit of this arrangement is that if, after the initial warning, the disaster does not materialize, activation can be called off. Thus, full mobilization of resources can be avoided and the minimum of disruption is caused to normal life. It is advisable for government departments and other resource organizations to work this system of stages in their own internal plans.

6. Coordination of Response Operations

Coordination of the action taken in response operation is very important. Good coordination ensures that resource organizations are utilized to the best effect, therefore avoiding gaps or duplication in operational tasks.

Appropriate emergency operation centers are essential for achieving effective coordination, because the EOC system is designed to facilitate information management and accurate decision making.

Also, appropriate disaster management committees (usually at the national, intermediate and local government levels) are necessary in order to ensure that, as far as possible, there is overall coordination in decision-making and in the allocation of task.

7. Communications

As with all aspects of disaster management, a good communications system is essential for effective response. Also, since communications may be adversely affected by disaster impact, reserve communications (with their own power supplies) is a necessary part of response arrangements. The value of solar-powered communications, especially under severe disaster conditions, can be considerable.

8. Survey & Assessment

It is virtually impossible to carry out effective response operations without accurate survey of damage and consequent assessment of relief and other needs. To be fully effective, survey and assessment need to be carefully planned and organized beforehand. It usually calls for:

a. survey from the air

b. survey by field teams

c. accurate reporting from disaster management and other official authorities in or near the disaster area.

In most cases, a general survey needs to be made soon after impact, with follow-up surveys when necessary. Some training is usually required for personnel who are required to carry out survey and assessment duties. This is necessary in order to ensure the accuracy of information which is collected. The information gathered through survey and assessment is, of course, vitally important for the implementation of immediate relief measures. However, it should be noted that much of the information is also required for the formulation of recovery programs.

9. Information Management

In the confused circumstances which tend to exist following disaster impact, it is not easy to obtain accurate and complete information. However, without accurate and comprehensive information, it is difficult to ensure that response operations are focused upon the correct tasks, in the correct order of priority.

Emergency operations centers are essential for effective information management. EOCs ensure that information is correctly processed, according to the proven cycle:

a. acquisition of information
b. information assessment
c. decision making
d. dissemination of decisions and information

Therefore, even if there are limitations in obtaining information, the EOC system will make the best use of that which is available.

10. Major Emergency Response Aspects

Following the impact of disaster, there are usually varying degrees of damage to, or destruction of the systems which support everyday life. Communities therefore need help (usually urgently) in order to subsist through the emergency phase and beyond. Key aspects of this assistance include:

a. RESCUE - to rescue persons who may be trapped in buildings and under debris, isolated by flood waters, or need rescuing for any other reason;

b. TREATMENT & CARE OF VICTIMS - to dispose of the dead, to render first aid, to ensure identification tagging of casualties, to identify needs in terms of medical treatment, hospitalization and medical evacuation, and, to deal with these accordingly;

c. EVACUATION - to determine whether people need to be evacuated from the stricken area immediately, or whether such a requirement is likely to arise later.

d. SHELTER - to provide shelter for victims whose housing has been destroyed or rendered unusable. This may involve:

· making urgent repairs to some housing
· issuing tents and/or tarpaulins to provide means of temporary shelter.

e. FOOD - to organize and distribute food to disaster victims and emergency workers.

f. COMMUNICATION - to establish essential radio, telephone, telex and facsimile links.

g. CLEARANCE & ACCESS - to clear key roads, airfields and ports in order to allow access for vehicle, aircraft, and shipping.

h. WATER & POWER SUPPLIES - to re-establish water and power supplies, or to make temporary arrangements for them. The provision of potable water is often difficult, particularly in the early post-impact stages. Water purifying equipment might therefore have to be obtained and/or water purifying tablets issued.

i. TEMPORARY SUBSISTENCE SUPPLIES - to provide supplies, such as clothing, disaster kits, cooking utensils and plastic sheeting, so as to enable victims to subsist temporarily in their own area, thus helping to reduce the need for evacuation.

j. HEALTH & SANITATION - to take measures to safeguard the health of people in the stricken area and to maintain reasonable sanitation facilities.

k. PUBLIC INFORMATION - to keep the stricken community informed on what they should do, especially in terms of self-help, and on what action is in hand to assist them. To prevent speculation and rumor concerning the future situation.

l. SECURITY - to maintain law and order, especially to prevent looting and unnecessary damage.

m. CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS - to estimate high priority building repair and replacement requirements.

n. DISASTER WELFARE INQUIRY - to make arrangements to handle national and international inquiries concerning the welfare of citizens and residents, including tracing of missing persons.

o. MAINTENANCE OF PUBLIC MORALE - depending on cultural and other local circumstances, to make arrangements for counseling and spiritual support of the stricken community. This may involve religious bodies, welfare agencies and other appropriate organizations.

p. OTHER REQUIREMENTS - depending on individual circumstances, other requirements, additional to those above, may arise.

11. Allocation of Tasks

If planning and preparedness have been properly carried out, the majority of response tasks, as outlined in the foregoing paragraph, should have to be designated beforehand to appropriate government departments and other resource organizations such as:

a. Public Works Departments and the LGUs to undertake debris clearance tasks, etc.;

b. Medical and Health Department to implement health and sanitation measures;

c. Police to maintain law and order, and to assist with control of people and vehicle around the disaster area; and,

d. Red Cross to carry out first-aid and other emergency welfare assistance.

12. Availability of Relief Supplies & Commodities

The ready availability of relief supplies and commodities is an important factor in effective response. After disaster impact, there is usually an urgent need to provide and distribute food, drinking water, clothing, and shelter materials.

Disaster management action therefore needs to cover two main areas:

a. obtaining the various commodities from government stores, emergency stockpiles, commercial supplies and international assistance sources; and,

b. organizing the distribution of these commodities according to the best possible orders of priority.

13. International Assistance Resource

International assistance resources often play a valuable part in response operations. These resources mainly comprise relief commodities, especially food, shelter and medical supplies. However, specialist personnel and equipment are also available for damage. Authorities responsible for response operations should bear in mind that some international agencies and some countries hold stockpiles of relief supplies conveniently situated around the world.

14. Public Cooperation

Good cooperation between the disaster response authorities and the public is essential if response operations are to be successful. The foundation of cooperation should be laid down during the conduct of public awareness programs, a necessary part of preparedness. However, disaster response and coordinating authorities should remember that if the affected public is not kept as fully informed as possible, rumors and false reports are likely to be started, causing problems the response authorities.

15. Media Cooperation

Disaster, especially major disaster is news. Consequently, requests for information by local and international media are inevitable. It is clearly advisable to have organized arrangements to deal with this aspect. These arrangements are usually outlined in plans and standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are the responsibilities of government information and broadcasting agencies.

It is important that conditions in the stricken nation should be accurately reported internationally, with no misreporting or misrepresentation of international assistance efforts. Most events will be superseded by other events in the world scene in a fairly short time. To avoid possible misunderstanding and misinterpretation, it is important to give media representatives appropriate opportunities for briefing and gathering of information soon after disaster impact. Delays may lead to some media representatives making their own news, which may not be in the best interest of the affected nation.

Good relations with the local media is also important. Usually, two-way benefits are involved. The local media can also render invaluable services through dissemination of warning and evacuation announcements, and through stimulating public awareness of disasters.

During highly-pressured response operations, disaster management authorities may regard media information as low priority. However, this should and could be avoided if proper arrangements are in place.

16. Pattern of Response Management

It is important, especially in the interest of operational coherency, that disaster managers should try to develop and maintain a pattern of management during response operations.

Disaster Management deals with major requirements for coping with disaster, resource management depends on four major factors:

a. a capable EOC system;

b. a good information picture;

c. effective communication between the disaster management and individual resource organizations; and

d. sensible commitment of resource organizations to operational tasks, bearing in mind their capability and durability.

Given that these factors can be applied, it is useful if the response management authority works to a pattern of:

a. maintaining the best possible information picture (from surveys, situation reports and other information) concerning the disaster situation and the tasks which may need to be undertaken;

b. establishing priorities for tasks;

c. committing resources to tasks in the most effective manner, bearing in mind that personnel need time for meals and reasonable rest periods;

d. continuously assessing the situation in terms of:

· tasks completed
· tasks needing to be undertaken
· resources available
· possible reinforcement by additional resource, etc.;

e. maintaining close liaison with other relevant disaster management authorities (e.g. committees at higher and lower government levels);

f. maintaining close liaison with non-government organizations;

g. keeping the public as fully informed as practicable; and,

h. utilizing self-help from within the community.

17. Period of Response Operations

Broad international experience indicates that most governments find it expedient to keep the period of emergency response operations down to a fairly limited period. This period usually tends to be 2-3 weeks, after which remaining relief and associated needs are met through the normal system and processes of government. Undue extension of the emergency is usually regarded as undesirable. This is to avoid:

a. over-dependence on emergency aid (especially food supplies);
b. adverse effects on the local commercial system; and,
c. unnecessary delay in returning to normal community life.

It may be useful therefore, for disaster managers to bear this likely time frame in mind in formulating their overall concept of response operations.

E. Common Problems Encountered

1. Operationalizing the Disaster Operations Center
2. Communication and warning
3. Infrastructure and transportation
4. Search and rescue
5. First Aid
6. Health, nutrition and sanitation
7. Emergency Relief and Evacuation Center Management

Session III. COMMUNICATION & WARNING

A. Phases

1. Pre-Disaster
2. During Disaster
3. Post Disaster

B. Communication & Warning Aspects during Disasters

C. Factors Influencing the Success of Disaster Warning Messages

D. Different Communication & Warning Strategies

1. Tri-media/Multi-media
2. Indigenous

Session IV. INFRASTRUCTURE & TRANSPORTATION

A. Importance of Infrastructure & Transportation Support during Disasters

1. Pre-Emergency
2. Emergency
3. Post Emergency

B. Different Infrastructure & Transportation Supplies

1. By types of hazards
2. By extent of damage/effects
3. By nature of disaster victims

Session V. ACTIVATION/OPERATIONALIZING THE DISASTER OPERATIONS CENTER

A. Procedures in the Activation of the DOC

B. Stages of Response

Emergency management in the response phase is concerned with implementing measures that will save lives, reduce injury and distress, and establish a control structure for rehabilitation of the community.

The true test of a Disaster Response Plan is how the community copes with the disaster and how the local Disaster Coordinating Council organization provides for the safety and well-being of individual citizen upon receiving official notification of the disaster threat until the emergency period is over.

Disaster researches generally accept that there are stages of response to a disaster: warning, threat, incident, assessment, rescue, and relief. While the stages will not all be distinct, and in some disasters, some of the stages will not occur, they provide a logical base for discussion.

1. The Warning Stage

At the local level, warning messages may be initiated by local warning agencies, police authorities, catchment authorities for small water impounding areas or canals, or other authorized agencies communicating directly with the local government authority. Warning messages at the national level emanate from warning agencies such as PAGASA for impending typhoons and other weather disturbances; PHIVOLCS for earthquake, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis; DOH for epidemics; DENR for environmental pollution; PNRI for radiological emergencies; AFP for external threats; and, PNP for civil disturbance.

It is at the warning stage when the Disaster Operations Center for the more likely affected localities are activated. Key DCC staff members are on stand-by for possible response activities and the DCC communications and warning system are tested.

2. The Threat Stage

The threat stage begins with changes in conditions which indicate the likelihood of a disaster. Although the scope of the possible impact is unknown, previous knowledge or historical records may provide a reasonable likelihood.

Success of the disaster response measure to be implemented will rely heavily on the efforts previously put in during the mitigation and preparedness phase. The threat stage of the response entails full involvement of the Chairman, DCC or key staff.

Some of the actions that might be initiated are:

a. Convene the disaster action group or DCC members;

b. Request situation reports from emergency service or agencies already involved e.g. regional council or lower council;

c. Liaison with chairman of local DCC of threatened areas;

d. Declare state of civil defense emergency;

e. Activate all civil defense operation center/different DCCs;

f. Activate appropriate government and other agencies;

g. Issue information to media;

h. Issue warnings to public;

i. Send situation reports to supporting agencies/chairman, DCC’s and OP;

j. Activate resource plan; and,

k. Evacuate critical areas.

3. The Incident Stage

The incident stage may consist of a single event of limited duration such as an explosion, building collapse, flash flood or transport accident, or may be multiple, extending over a period of time, such as a series of earthquakes. The nature of the incident will greatly affect the disaster organization’s ability to carry out life-saving measures and to establish control in the disaster area.

Individuals in the community must be forewarned that there will be a period during which they will have to fend for themselves. With the best will in the world, it is unlikely that the emergency services or the DCC’s organization will be able to help everyone. If, during the preparedness phase, the emphasis in public education programs has been on teaching survival, the community will be better able to survive.

4. The Assessment Stage

This is a period of adjustment and taking stock after the disaster. Individuals and organizations in the disaster area attempt to evaluate the event and determine what to do next.

Problems in making accurate assessment will be compounded by the disruption to normal communications. The collection and passage of information will have to operate through one or both of the following:

a. Planned Flow - where information is relayed between civil defense control points: headquarters, sector posts, welfare centers and local DCC units.

b. Contingency Reconnaissance by the use of resources from the local government and voluntary agencies to establish mobile information-gathering teams.

Outside the disaster area, Civil Defense/DCC authorities at the province/region/national levels will begin to receive information on the disaster from a variety of sources and will be making assessments on what resources are needed. The passing of information in the first few hours after a disaster is critical and controllers must recognize that they have a prime responsibility to keep the DCC Chairman fully informed.

Where communication difficulties prevent the flow of information to higher headquarters, it is the responsibility of the NDCC at the higher headquarters to assist by establishing additional links with the disaster-stricken areas. For example, the NDCC Chairman may do this by sending support teams to the region. Regional DCC’s should adopt the same approach to help a distressed province or town within their areas of responsibility.

5. The Rescue Stage

This period is characterized by self-help and by largely spontaneous, unrecognized activity to extricate survivors and to take precautionary and survival actions against secondary threats.

The initial rescue stage is characterized by:

a. individual actions by people acting within their own immediate surroundings with little knowledge of what has happened;

b. a sense of urgency on the part of surviving authorities to complete the rescue task. Such haste can lead to uncoordinated and disjoint actions;

c. the problem of tourists and visitors in the community at the time of the disaster. Information on the numbers of such people is rarely available or easily obtained.

Later in the rescue stage, the efforts of individuals will be supplemented by surviving emergency service and rescue elements from areas outside the immediate disaster area. Measures to control and coordinate rescue manpower and equipment must be implemented to ensure the best use of resources.

6. The Relief Stage

The period in which agencies and trained personnel acting on the DCC chairman’s instructions move into the incident area and take charge. The activities undertaken by these elements can include:

a. establishment of appropriate medical aid, clothing and accommodation facilities;

b. provision of registration and local inquiry services;

c. more detailed search and rescue operations;

d. preventive action to reduce likelihood of further danger such as evacuation and emergency repairs of damaged vital infrastructure.

Many of the activities in the relief stage depend upon the restoration of selected essential community service. The controller will need to establish priorities in keeping with demands for recovery.

The relief stage may also be characterized by friction between the locals and outsiders coming in to assist. This can never be completely avoided, but the effect can be reduced markedly by establishing:

a. roles for all agencies, thus increasing the speed and effectiveness of response and reducing duplication;

b. mobile resources, i.e. identifying groupings and preparing resources for rapid deployment in specific situations;

c. a control structures that will coordinate the activities of all organization and agencies in the disaster area; and,

d. a clearly defined reporting area for unsolicited volunteers and a system for managing volunteer workers.

NOTE:

No disaster ever occurs quite as predicted or expected, and no disaster is exactly like any other. All stages of the response will produce challenges for the Chairman, DCC or disaster action officer. His/Her ability to manage the response will be greatly influenced by the measures already taken in the mitigation and preparation phases.

C. Levels of Activation

Circumstances at the time will help the DCC Chairman to determine the extent to which the DOC is staffed and made ready to carry out its operational functions. Three classifications can be used to define the DOC operational status:

1. ALERT - The Disaster Operations Center is manned by a Civil Defense Officer with Key DCC staff members. Other DCC staff and operating teams and volunteers are notified of the situation but are not yet required to report to the center.

2. STAND-BY - The Disaster Operations Center is manned by a Civil Defense Officer, key DCC staff members, and operating teams such as rescue, relief, communications and public information.

3. ACTION - All DCC members are required to report at the DOC.

D. Operationalization

Follow a sequence of steps to make the DOC fully operational. There may be some variation because of the type of threat, but the basic sequence will not change. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) should be developed for the activation. The following should also be considered:

1. Alert the DOC Personnel

The alerting process should be clearly stated in the DCC plan as an SOP. It may be a chain of calls where one person calls another on the activation roster. Alternate names should be included to make sure that the DOC is fully staffed.

2. Activate the Communications Equipment/Support Facilities

Unless the DOC is used on a daily basis, communications equipment will have to be switched on and tested. Activating the support system may mean anything from starting an emergency power generator to plugging in the coffee pot.

3. Initiate the Message Flow System

The message flow system is simply a method of recording messages as they arrive so they are documented and action can be taken. Usually, incoming messages will be routed through the Operations Officer, who will assign the responsibility to act on the message to someone within the DOC.

4. Make Available the Appropriate Logs, Maps and Status Board

It is vital that an operational log of events is maintained. Maps of the local community and surrounding areas and other resources should be in place before the emergency.

5. Prepare a Shift Roster

If the DOC is to operate for any length of time, you must have roster personnel so that they are not on duty continuously. Duty time, off duty, and relief breaks must be scheduled. It is particularly important to ensure that the alternate Disaster Action Officer rests and is available to relieve you in due course.

6. Announce Briefing Schedules

It is important to set up a briefing schedule as soon as the DOC is operating. You should brief the DOC every shift change, and at times of major decisions or events. The media also needs a briefing schedule so they know when to expect a report from the DOC.

7. Announce Briefing Schedules

It is important to set up a briefing schedule as soon as the DOC is operating. You should brief staff the DOC when shifts change and at times of major decisions or events. The news media also need a briefing schedule so they know when to expect a report from the DOC.

You should not undertake all the above tasks. SOPs should detail tasks and responsibilities to be carried out by key members of the DOC staff. You need to confirm that such tasks have been completed.

E. Key Personnel & Functions

Session VI. SEARCH & RESCUE

A. Basic Concepts on Search & Rescue (Training on Capability Building)

1. Concept of Training/Preparedness
2. Concept of Organization and Equipage

· Organization
· Equipage

3. Concept of Employment

B. Management of Rescue Operation

1. Search and Rescue in Disaster Management
2. Philippine SAR System
3. The AFP SAR Task Force/AFP Disaster Response Task Force
4. Authority and Procedure in SAR and Evacuation
5. Organization of Rescue Operation
6. Formulation of Rescue Plan
7. Stages of Rescue
8. Documentation

C. Competency Areas of SAR personnel

D. Different SAR techniques

1. Metropolitan Rescue
2. Environmental Rescue
3. Vehicular and Aircraft Accident
4. Water Safety and Rescue
5. Fire and Elementary Fire Fighting

E. Rescue Equipment, Types and Uses, Maintenance and Care

Session VII. TREATMENT AND CARE OF DISASTER VICTIMS

A. Introduction to First Aid

1. Definition

· immediate care given to a person who has been injured or suddenly taken ill

· includes self-help and home care if medical assistance is not available

· includes well selected words of encouragement, evidence of willingness to help, and promotion of confidence by demonstration of competence

2. The First Aide

The first aide’s responsibility(ies) end as soon as medical aid is available but he should stand-by after making his report to the physician. This work is definitely limited to the assistance rendered at the time of emergency with such materials as may be available.

A good first aide should be:

a. observant
b. resourceful
c. gentle
d. tactful
e. sympathetic
f. cheerful

3. Purpose of First Aid

a. To prevent accidents
b. To train people to do the right thing at a right time
c. To prevent added injury or danger
d. To provide proper transportation if necessary
e. To give first aid training in caring for large number of persons caught in a natural disaster

4. Patient Assessment

a. Characteristics of good patient assessment
b. Steps

B. Common Medical Emergencies

1. Wounds

a. Definition

A wound is a break in the continuity of a tissue of the body, either internal or external which may be categorized as an open wound or closed wound.

b. Causes

External physical force as in:

· motor vehicle accidents
· falls
· mishandling of sharp objects, tools, machinery and weapons

c. Types

· Abrasion
· Incision
· Laceration
· Punctures
· Avulsions

d. First Aid

· Wash with clean water and soap.

· Dress and apply bandage at the area.

· In cases of severe bleeding, control hemorrhage by applying direct pressure, or elevating the wounded area and applying pressure at points.


2. Burns

a. Definition

A burn is an injury that results from heat, chemical agents or radiation. It may vary in depth, size and severity and may damage cells in the affected area.

b. Causes & Effects

Burns are caused most commonly by contact with matches and cigarettes; scalds from hot liquids; defective heating, cooking and electrical equipment; use of open fire that produce flame burns especially when flammable clothing is worn; unsafe practices in the home in the use of flammable liquids for starting fires and for cleansing and scrubbing wax off floors; immersion in overheated bath water and use of such chemicals as lye, strong acids and strong detergents.

In addition to surface burns, the effects of heat on the blood, on the body veins, and the skin, the hazards of fire include:

· Inhalation of very hot (superheated) air or irritating or poisonous gases including carbon monoxide

· Asphyxia from insufficient oxygen in the area

· Falls and injuries from collapsing walls in burning buildings

c. Classifications & First Aid Techniques

· First Degree
· Second Degree
· Third Degree


3. Shock

a. Definition
b. Causes
c. Indicators of Shock - early stage and late stage
d. First Aid

4. Poisoning

a. Definition

A poison is any substance - solid, liquid or gas that tends to impair health or cause death when introduced into the body or onto the skin surface

b. Causes

· Ingestion
· Inhalation
· Contact poison
· Insect bites
· Venomous snakes

c. First Aid

5. Bone and Joint Injuries/Spinal Injuries

a. Fractures

· Definition
· Types

* simple
* compound

b. Indicators of fractures
c. Essentials of first aid

· immobilization
· splinting

d. First Aid

Session VIII. HEALTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION

A. Health Problems Related to the Type of Disaster

1. Death
2. Severe Injuries
3. Risk of Communicable Disease
4. Food Scarcity
5. Major Population Displacement

B. Overview of Health/Environmental Sanitation & Emergency Services

1. Coordination
2. Site Selection
3. Needs Assessment of Vital Needs

· Food
· Water
· Shelter

4. Sanitation

· Latrine
· Vector Control
· Garbage Collection
· Drainage
· Disposal of Deaths

5. Camp Organization
6. Security

· Health
· Major Causes of Morbidity and Mortality
· For Camp Risk Factors
· Outreach
· Preventive Measures

* Diarrhea
* Respiratory Tract Infection
* Skin/Parasitic Infection
* Health Pyramid

Session IX. EMERGENCY RELIEF OPERATIONS

A. Phases of Emergencies

1. Pre-Emergency
2. Emergency
3. Post Emergency

B. Roles and Functions in Emergency Relief Management

C. Common Response Items & Standards

1. Food Items
2. Clothing
3. Domestic
4. Temporary Shelter/Evacuation Center

E. Common Relief/Emergency Strategies & Approaches

1. Resource Management
2. Networking and Linkage-building
3. Organization and Mobilization of Volunteers for Emergency Relief
4. Availment of Calamity and Augmentation Fund for Relief Responses
5. NGO Desk
6. Welfare Inquiry Desk

F. Management of Evacuation Center

1. Definition and Concepts
2. Stockpiling and Setting up Community Kitchen
3. Evacuation Center Processes
4. Masterlisting and Profiling
5. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
6. Emergency Relief Reporting
7. Problems and Recommendations