|Conducting Environmental Impact Assessment in Developing Countries (United Nations University, 1999, 375 p.)|
|3. EIA process|
|3.2 Principles in managing EIA|
To help decision makers, the EIA must be designed so as to present clear choices on the planning and implementation of the project, and it should make clear the likely results of each option. For instance, to mitigate adverse impacts, the EIA could propose:
• pollution control technology or design features;
• the reduction, treatment, and/or disposal of wastes;
• compensation or concessions to affected groups.
To enhance environmental compatibility, the EIA could suggest:
• several alternative sites;
• changes to the project's design and operation (e.g., clean technology);
• limitations to its initial size or growth;
• separate programmes which contribute in a positive way to local resources or to the quality of the environment.
To ensure that the implementation of an approved project is environmentally sound, the EIA may prescribe:
• monitoring programmes or periodic impact reviews;
• contingency plans for regulatory action;
• involvement of the local community in later decisions.
This principle thus focuses on the evolution of the environmental management plan as well as a post-project monitoring plan.