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close this bookInland Aquaculture Engineering (1984)
close this folderDESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF FRESHWATER FISH FARMS
close this folderChapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
close this folder3. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES
close this folder3.7 Design Formulas for Siphons
View the document3.7.1 Types of siphons
View the document3.7.2 Discharge of siphon

3.7.1 Types of siphons


Diameter (mm)

Length (m)

Discharge (m3/sec)

a) Small, mobile

25 - 120

< 5

0.00025 - 0.015

b) Medium, movable

120 - 200

< 10

0.015 - 0.050

c) Large, stabile

200 - 1 200

< 100

0.050 - 3.10

Table 14 Recommended Minimum Velocities in Pipes for Siphons

Pipe diameter (mm)

Velocity (m/sec)

120

1.0

200

1.5

250

1.55

300

1.6

400

1.7

450

1.8

500

1.9

600

2.2

800

2.4

1 000

2.6

1 200

2.6

3.7.2 Discharge of siphon


Figure 16. Details of the siphon

Calculating formulas


(3.33)

where

C = discharge coefficient
A = cross-sectional area of the pipe, m2
H = head, m

The discharge coefficient C can be calculated by the formula


(3.34)

where

l = friction factor = 0.02 (steel pipe)
1 = length of the siphon, m
d = diameter of the siphon, m
Sk = all local loss coefficients along the siphon

Table 19 lists local loss coefficients for a variety of the fixtures.

The allowable pressure head for siphon


(3.35)

where


Altitude in m

0

500

1 000

1 500

2 000

3 000


10.3

9.8

9.2

8.6

8.1

7.2


Water temperature °C

10

20

30


0.123

0.24

0.43

The allowable suction head of the siphon is:


(3.36)

where

v = velocity in the pipe, m/sec


The maximum allowable downstream head of the siphon is:


(3.37)

where


Depth of water above the entrance of the siphon

(a) Entrance with vertical axis

v


D

h

(m/sec)


(m)

(m)

1.5

0.1

- 0.3

2 D, but min.

0.3

1.5 - 2.5

0.3

- 0.8

1 D

0.7

> 2.5

>

1.0

1.7 D

2.0

(b) Entrance with horizontal axis


(3.38)

where

ke = entrance loss coefficient

(c) Entrance with inclined axis


(3.39)

where a = angle of the tilt in degree

Example 7

Design the siphon shown in Figure 17 for a discharge of 350 l/sec if water temperature is 30°C.


Figure 17. Details of the siphon

Solution

3 Considering the designed discharge Q = 0.35 m3/sec the siphon is a large one. The velocity is calculated by the following formula assuming that its diameter is 400 mm.


As this velocity is higher than the recommended minimum one in Table 14 hence, the selected diameter is satisfactory.

The next step is to determine the water depth above the entrance of the siphon by using Equation (3.38)


v = 2.79 m

ke = 0.1

then


The discharge coefficient of the siphon is defined from Equation (3.34)


l = 0.02
l = l1 + l2 + l3 + l4 + l5 + l6 = 1.80 + 14.0 + 8.70 + 13.0 + 5.0 + 1.50 = 44 m
d = 0.40 m

Computation of the local loss coefficient using Table 19

Diffusor inlet

0.1

Fraction bends (30°)

4×0.09 = 0.36

Fraction bends (90°)

0.34

Valve

0.07

Outlet diffusor

0.5


Sk = 1.37

Substitution of the above values into the equation gives:


The allowable suction head of the siphon is obtained if we use Equation (3.35)


where



then


The suction head of the siphon is defined from Equation (3.36)


where




then

Hs = 7.35 - 1.03 = 6.32 m
Heffs = 550 - 545 - 5.0 m

The allowable downstream head of the siphon is determined from Equation (3.37)


where




then

HT = 7.35 + 0.88 = 8.23 m
HeffT = 550 - 543 = 7.00 m

The design of the siphon is satisfactory because both Heffs and HeffT are below their allowable values.

The discharge of the siphon is defined by the formula (3.33)


where

C = 0.47
A = 0.126 m2
H = 545 - 543 = 2.0 m

then


This is acceptable, since the designed Q = 0.35 m3/sec.