  Inland Aquaculture Engineering (1984)  DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF FRESHWATER FISH FARMS  Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms  3. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES  3.7 Design Formulas for Siphons  3.7.1 Types of siphons 3.7.2 Discharge of siphon

### 3.7.1 Types of siphons

 Diameter (mm) Length (m) Discharge (m3/sec) a) Small, mobile 25 - 120 < 5 0.00025 - 0.015 b) Medium, movable 120 - 200 < 10 0.015 - 0.050 c) Large, stabile 200 - 1 200 < 100 0.050 - 3.10

Table 14 Recommended Minimum Velocities in Pipes for Siphons

 Pipe diameter (mm) Velocity (m/sec) 120 1.0 200 1.5 250 1.55 300 1.6 400 1.7 450 1.8 500 1.9 600 2.2 800 2.4 1 000 2.6 1 200 2.6

### 3.7.2 Discharge of siphon Figure 16. Details of the siphon

Calculating formulas (3.33)

where

C = discharge coefficient
A = cross-sectional area of the pipe, m2

The discharge coefficient C can be calculated by the formula (3.34)

where

l = friction factor = 0.02 (steel pipe)
1 = length of the siphon, m
d = diameter of the siphon, m
Sk = all local loss coefficients along the siphon

Table 19 lists local loss coefficients for a variety of the fixtures.

The allowable pressure head for siphon (3.35)

where Altitude in m 0 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 3 000 10.3 9.8 9.2 8.6 8.1 7.2 Water temperature °C 10 20 30 0.123 0.24 0.43

The allowable suction head of the siphon is: (3.36)

where

v = velocity in the pipe, m/sec The maximum allowable downstream head of the siphon is: (3.37)

where Depth of water above the entrance of the siphon

(a) Entrance with vertical axis

 v D h (m/sec) (m) (m) 1.5 0.1 - 0.3 2 D, but min. 0.3 1.5 - 2.5 0.3 - 0.8 1 D 0.7 > 2.5 > 1.0 1.7 D 2.0

(b) Entrance with horizontal axis (3.38)

where

ke = entrance loss coefficient

(c) Entrance with inclined axis (3.39)

where a = angle of the tilt in degree

Example 7

Design the siphon shown in Figure 17 for a discharge of 350 l/sec if water temperature is 30°C. Figure 17. Details of the siphon

Solution

3 Considering the designed discharge Q = 0.35 m3/sec the siphon is a large one. The velocity is calculated by the following formula assuming that its diameter is 400 mm. As this velocity is higher than the recommended minimum one in Table 14 hence, the selected diameter is satisfactory.

The next step is to determine the water depth above the entrance of the siphon by using Equation (3.38) v = 2.79 m ke = 0.1

then The discharge coefficient of the siphon is defined from Equation (3.34) l = 0.02
l = l1 + l2 + l3 + l4 + l5 + l6 = 1.80 + 14.0 + 8.70 + 13.0 + 5.0 + 1.50 = 44 m
d = 0.40 m

Computation of the local loss coefficient using Table 19

 Diffusor inlet 0.1 Fraction bends (30°) 4×0.09 = 0.36 Fraction bends (90°) 0.34 Valve 0.07 Outlet diffusor 0.5 Sk = 1.37

Substitution of the above values into the equation gives: The allowable suction head of the siphon is obtained if we use Equation (3.35) where  then The suction head of the siphon is defined from Equation (3.36) where  then

Hs = 7.35 - 1.03 = 6.32 m
Heffs = 550 - 545 - 5.0 m

The allowable downstream head of the siphon is determined from Equation (3.37) where  then

HT = 7.35 + 0.88 = 8.23 m
HeffT = 550 - 543 = 7.00 m

The design of the siphon is satisfactory because both Heffs and HeffT are below their allowable values.

The discharge of the siphon is defined by the formula (3.33) where

C = 0.47
A = 0.126 m2
H = 545 - 543 = 2.0 m

then This is acceptable, since the designed Q = 0.35 m3/sec.