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close this bookCreative Training - A User's Guide (IIRR, 1998)
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Open this folder and view contentsHow was this user's guide to creative training produced?
View the documentIt came one night...
Open this folder and view contentsBasic facilitation skills
Open this folder and view contentsTraining needs assessment
View the documentWII-FM (what's in it for me?)
Open this folder and view contentsEvaluation techniques
Open this folder and view contentsEnergizers
View the documentForming groups
View the documentCreative congratulations
View the documentRelaxers
Open this folder and view contentsMood setting exercises
Open this folder and view contentsLectures
View the documentMind mapping
View the documentCreative use of overhead projectors
View the documentSlide/photo presentations
View the documentVisual spicers
View the documentPosters as problem-posing materials
Open this folder and view contentsDrawing and chalk talk
Open this folder and view contentsSelf-expression through pictures
View the documentBody language
View the documentVisual gestural communication
View the documentShadow plays
View the documentEasy puppets
View the documentBasic theater skills
View the documentRole play
View the documentAnimated comics role play activity
View the documentFolkstorytelling: Stories come alive!
View the documentOral testimonies
View the documentLifeline
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Open this folder and view contentsMaking and using case studies
View the documentAction research
Open this folder and view contentsField trips
Open this folder and view contentsPhysical activities as educational tools
Open this folder and view contentsGames
View the documentContact organizations
View the documentWorkshop participants
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Posters as problem-posing materials

· 1 hour
· A poster depicting a situation
· 2-30 participants, 1 facilitator

Problem-posing education is easier if posters are used to stimulate thought and discussion. The poster should provide a concrete presentation of a familiar problem, about which the group has strong feelings. The most important thing about the poster is that it raises questions or shows a problem; it does not provide solutions. A poster used in this way fulfills one of the major points of education philosophy, which is the development of critical thinking. It is different from ordinary visual aids which are merely illustrations.


A problem-posing approach to education is a technique introduced by Paolo Freire wherein a subject or theme is put under study for the participants to reflect in order to further deepen the analysis of the problems or issues affecting them.


1. To help the participants articulate their views on the issue being presented.

2. To introduce the participants to the effectiveness of problem-posing materials and give them an idea of how to use such materials in education work.


I. Choosing a poster

· Choose a poster related to the topic you want to discuss.
· Bear in mind the following points:

A poster should:

· Deal with a theme about which the participants have strong feelings about;
· Show a scene which is familiar in everyday life;
· Show contrasts and/or action to raise awareness and questions;
· Focus attention on only one theme so that the discussion can go deeply into this;
· Be simple and clear;
· Avoid distracting details, especially of irrelevant or side issues; and
· Stimulate interest and touch the heart of the group.


The subject shown in the poster should emerge from a thorough survey of the community so that it can be easily interpreted by the participants.

2. Prior to the activity

Carefully formulate the guide questions and set the limits for the discussion (depending on the activity's objectives).

3. Description of the poster

Ask questions about things which are observable in the picture and which will stir emotions such as:

· What do you see?
· What do you think each person in the poster is doing?
· What do you think each one is feeling?
· How do you think the poster was made?
· Who were the authors of this poster?

4. First analysis of the poster

Ask questions to help the participants discuss and formulate an analysis of the poster:

· What do you think is the meaning or message of the poster?
· Why are the people in the poster doing what they are doing?

5. Connection with real life

Try to connect the poster with reality.

Ask the participants:

· Does this happen in real life?
· Is this borne out by your experience?

6. Discussion of related problems

After establishing the poster's relation with real life, and discussing the situation which the poster represents, discuss related problems which may arise from the situation or issue depicted by the poster.

Ask the participants:

· What problems does this situation or issue lead to?

7. Determining the root causes

Ask the participants:

· "But why does this situation or issue exist?"

When the participants answer, ask "But why is that?" Continue to ask "But why..." until an understanding of the root cause of the situation is reached. This question is the heart of awareness-raising. This stage aims to unravel the reasons behind a certain situation or issue.


Be sensitive in probing into people's feelings.

8. Action planning

This aims to spur the participants to do something about the problem or issue.

Ask the participants:

· What can we do about the problem?

It is important to note that the discussion in this stage should be geared towards what the participants themselves can actually do to solve the problem. It should also be stressed that the outcome of this stage should be concrete steps which the participants, given their respective limitations, can take towards addressing the problem.


An analysis of the situation being depicted in the poster and possible solutions to the problem being presented.


An appropriate problem-posing poster should be chosen for this activity, otherwise the facilitator may not be able to generate reactions from the participants.


This technique was used in a gender training with urban poor women in Angeles City to determine their perception and views on the way women's bodies are treated.





stands for POINT or VIEWPOINT, perspective of the poster


stands for OPPOSITE, CONTRASTS or CONFLICTS contained in the poster that will highlight the message or content


stands for SCENE or EMOTIONS being expressed


stands for THEME or FOCUS being conveyed


stands for ELEMENTS or MATERIALS used to make or enhance the poster


stands for RELEVANCE

Photos and slides can also be used as problem-posing materials. See the activity sheet on these for advice on how to use them.