|Bending - Course:Technique of working sheet metals, pipes and sections. Trainees' handbook of lessons (Institut für Berufliche Entwicklung, 33 p.)|
Thin cross-sections of sheets, pipes and sections without requiring an exact accuracy to size may be bent by hand with appropriate clamping fixtures.
As for larger and thicker materials, the following tools, appliances and machines are employed:
Such as machinist's hammers, light-metal, wooden and rubber hammers as well as special hammers for manually bending sheet metals.
Figure 2 Hammers 1 machinist's hammer, 2 light metal hammer, 3 embossing hammer, 4 sweep hammer
Such as round-nose and flat-nose pliers to bend small sheets and thin sec-dons on the vise or freely in one's hand.
Figure 3 Pliers 1 round nose plier, 2 flat nose plier
Such as fuel gas-oxygen welding torches to locally heat the workpiece for hot bending.
Figure 4 Welding torch
Angle bending device:
This device is used to fold or round flat, square and round section.
Figure 5 Angle bending device 1 eccentric chuck, 2 moveable bending jaw, 3 bending lever, 4 adjustable dog, 5 fixed bending jaw
Strip rolling device:
This device is used to round and roll flats, squares and rounds.
Figure 6 Strip rolling device 1 basic body, 2 adjustable sliding plate, 3 bending mandrel, 4 accommodation for moveable clamping segment, 5 bending lever, 6 clamping segment
Pipe bending device:
These manually operated or hydraulic devices are used to round pipes.
Figure 7 Pipe bending device 1 bending mandrel, 2 dogs, 3 bending screw
Such as hand-type screw or hydraulic presses with different screw insets and supports to bend sheet metals and sections.
Figure 8 Screw press 1 screw inserts, 2 bases
Such as table-type and column-type folding presses to fold and partially round sheet metals.
Figure 9 Folding press 1 weight, 2 clamping cheek, 3 crank to adjust top clamping cheek, 4 bolts to adjust bending cheek, 5 bending cheek, 6 bottom clamping cheek
Such as hand-operated and mechanical roll bending machines to round and roll sheet metals.
Figure 10 Round device 1 bending rolls, 2 crank to operate bending rolls
Crimping and flanging machines:
Manually operated and mechanical appliances and machines are used to crimp and flange sheet metals.
Figure 11 Crimping and flanging 1 bending rolls, 2 adjusting facility, 3 crank to operate bending rolls
Apart from above tools, appliances and machines, the following clamping fixtures and supports are needed:
Such as parallel vises and collet vises with different clamping jaws for manual bending.
Figure 12 Collet vise 1 fixed jaw, 2 moveable jaw, 3 screw, 4 collet
Face, round horn and flat horn as well as slip-on striking supports such as creasing stake and double face sledge, hardy and bordering tools for bending work with hammers are used.
Figure 13 Blacksmith's anvil 1 anvil with slip-on striking base, 2 double face sledge, 3 flanging and hardy iron