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close this bookViolence against Women (WB)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentInformation
View the documentForeword
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentAbstract
View the document1. introduction
View the document2. The scope and evolution of the problem
View the document3. A primer on violence against women
View the document4. health consequences of gender-based violence
View the document5. Implications of gender violence for health and development
View the document6. Steps toward eliminating violence against women
View the document7. Research needs
View the document8. Conclusions
Open this folder and view contentsAppendix
View the documentNotes
View the documentBibliography


World bank discussion paper no. 255

World Bank Discussion Papers
The Hidden Health Burden
Lori L. Heise with Jacqueline Pitanguy and Adrienne Germain
The World Bank Washington, D.C.

Copyright (c) The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
The WORLD BANK 1818 H Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A.

All rights reserved
Manufactured in the United States of America
First printing July 1994

Wife beating is an accepted custom...we are wasting our time debating the issue.
Comment made by parliamentarian during floor debates on wife battering in Papua New Guinea ("Wife Beating" 1987).

A wife married is like a pony bought; I'll ride her and whip her as I like."
Chinese proverb (Croll 1980).

"Women should wear purdah [head-to-toe covering] to ensure that innocent men do not get unnecessarily excited by women's bodies and are not unconsciously forced into becoming rapists. If women do not want to fall prey to such men, they should take the necessary precautions instead of forever blaming the men..

Comment made by a parliamentarian of the ruling Barisan National Party during floor defies on reform of rape laws in Malaysia (Heise 1391).

The boys never meant any harm to the girls. They just wanted to rape.
Statement by the deputy principal of St. Kizito's hoarding school in Kenya after 71 girls were raped and 19 others died in an attack by boys in the school ascribed to the girls ' refusal to join them in a strike against the school's headmaster (Perlez 199l).

Breast bruised, brains battered, Skin scarred, soul shattered, Can't scream-neighbors stare, Cry for help-no one's there.
Stanza from a poem by Nenna Nehru, a battered Indian woman (APDC 1989).

The child was sexually aggressive.
Justification given by a judge in British Columbia, Canada, for suspending the sentence of a 33-year old man who had sexually assaulted a three-year-old girl (Canada, House of Commons 1991).

Are you a virgin? If you are not a virgin, why do you complain? This is normal.
Response by the assistant to the public prosecutor in Peru when nursing student Betty Fernandez reported being sexually molested by police officers while in custody (Kirk 1993).