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close this bookMulti-Grade Teaching - A review of research and practice - Education research paper No. 12 (DFID, 1994, 63 p.)
close this folderChapter 2 - Lessons from developing countries
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentZambia: Teacher education and support for multi-grade schools
View the documentPeru: Indigenous schools
View the documentSri Lanka: Approaching multi-grade via multi-level teaching
View the documentThe impact system of mass primary education
View the documentConclusion


These five experiences of multi-grade teaching in developing countries have a number of common themes. All address educational problems in disadvantaged rural settings with low populations. All have involved teacher training in the techniques of multi-grade teaching at the local level. Some have succeeded in having multi-grade recognised by government as a legitimate area of enquiry for teacher educators and teacher trainees at national level. Others rely on the support of NGOs and teachers self help groups. The issue of cost has not been a dominant theme in any of the examples. The multi-grade strategy has involved a number of components besides teacher training. The design, reproduction and distribution of large quantities of self-study materials to support individual, peer and small group learning; a system of evaluating learning progress and achievement; and forms of internal school and class organisation which establish routines for students independently of the teacher appear to be among the characteristics of effective multi-grade teaching and learning.