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close this bookEnvironmental Handbook Volume I: Introduction, Cross-sectoral Planning, Infrastructure (GTZ, 1995, 591 p.)
close this folderGuidelines for conducting a comprehensive study of a project's environmental aspects
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. Definition of the area(s) affected
View the document2. Existing stresses and stability/stress resistance of ecosystems
View the document3. Description of stresses originating from the project
View the document4. Assessment of future overall stresses and their impacts
View the document5. Recommendations for environmentally sound options
View the document6. Overall assessment and decision-making aids

2. Existing stresses and stability/stress resistance of ecosystems

2.1 Atmospheric pollution

(Dust/fine dust including proportion of heavy metals, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, chlorine and fluorine compounds, organic and carcinogenic substances, radionuclides, pathogens, odours, greenhouse gases)

2.2 Stresses and risks affecting soil and groundwater

- Pollution: content in respect of heavy metals, radionuclides and persistent organic compounds from pesticides, bactericides and fertilisers, pathogens

- Risks to soils caused by erosion, changes in pH value, denudation, nutrient leaching, compaction, salinisation, acidification, puddling

- Pollution of groundwater (as for soil)

- Adverse changes in groundwater recharge and groundwater level

2.3 Stresses and risks affecting surface waters

- Pollution(Oxygen content, inorganic substances such as salts and heavy metals, organic substances such as pesticides and bactericides, suspended solids, radionuclides, summation parameters for biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, odour, taste, temperature, flow velocity, pH value, pathogens and waterborne diseases)

- Disturbances of the water balance(changes in flow, drawing-off of water, changes in annual characteristics, change in groundwater level)

2.4 Noise and vibration (indicating local habits)

2.5 Stresses and risks affecting the ecosystem as a whole

2.6 Stresses and risks affecting particular species (flora and fauna)

2.7 Special risks

- Epidemics
- Earthquakes, volcanic activity, landslides, earth subsidence
- Storms
- High water and flooding
- Torrential downpours and hail
- Insect pests (e.g. migratory and other locusts)