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close this bookEnvironmental Handbook Volume I: Introduction, Cross-sectoral Planning, Infrastructure (GTZ, 1995, 591 p.)
close this folderGuidelines for conducting a comprehensive study of a project's environmental aspects
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. Definition of the area(s) affected
View the document2. Existing stresses and stability/stress resistance of ecosystems
View the document3. Description of stresses originating from the project
View the document4. Assessment of future overall stresses and their impacts
View the document5. Recommendations for environmentally sound options
View the document6. Overall assessment and decision-making aids

5. Recommendations for environmentally sound options

5.1 Comments on project location from the environmental viewpoint

5.2 Changes in plant technology

- Modified production ranges
- Alternative production technologies
- Alternative raw materials and fuels
- Reduced energy consumption

5.3 Environmental and safety requirements to be fulfilled by a project of the type proposed

5.3.1 Measures to reduce emissions

- Construction and operation of emission control systems: filters and other types of separators for gaseous pollutants

- Treatment plants for wastewater

- Requirements regarding utilisation of residual (waste) materials

- Treatment and incineration plants for solid wastes, landfills

- Connection to disposal systems, recycling


5.3.2 Other measures in the project context

- Reduction of problems during the construction phase

- Reforestation requirements (natural regeneration, restocking) in connection with forest management

- Recultivation measures in connection with extraction of mineral resources

- Groundwater recharging measures

- Inclusion of protective and buffer zones as well as protective forests such as green belts

- Back-up regional development planning


5.3.3 Training and awareness-raising measures for personnel with regard to occupational safety and environmental protection

5.3.4 Development of monitoring measures

- General organisation of local monitoring and advisory services
- Measurement and monitoring by the operator
- Monitoring by third parties
- Capacities of these institutions

5.3.5 Organisational arrangements to ensure that planned protective measures are implemented

1. Examination of alternative ways of achieving the project purpose, baseline state.

2. Comments on national environmental regulations and their implementation.