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close this bookLocally Generated Printed Materials in Agriculture: Experience from Uganda and Ghana - Education research paper No. 31 (DFID, 1999, 132 p.)
close this folder5. Phase I: The findings of the postal survey
View the document(introduction...)
View the document5.1 Analysis of survey respondents
View the document5.2 Formation and aims of groups
View the document5.3 Socio-economic status of target communities
View the document5.4 Sharing of Information
View the document5.5 Access to sources of information

5.1 Analysis of survey respondents

The introductory letter requested that several people should complete the survey together whenever possible. Responses indicated a high level of organisational coherence with 75% of respondents completing the form with two or more respondents. A total of 530 people participated in responding to the survey questions.5

5 15% of groups had some male expatriate involvement (14% with one and 1% with two). 18% had some female expatriate involvement (16% with one and 2% with two females). 2% had one female and one male expatriate.

5.1.1 Nature of organisation or group

In examining the nature of the organisation or group, questions were asked about the origin, size, financial status and the facilities available.

The majority of respondents (67%) worked in a larger organisation, 13% indicated they worked in an informal group, and 10% worked in a small group with less than 5 members. 2% of those who responded indicated that they worked on their own, though the survey had gone only to addresses indicating a group or organisation. NGOs comprised over half the respondents, of whom 29% indicated they had a religious basis. A further 8% were working with denominational religious groups (eg: at parish, circuit or diocesan level). The high percentage of religious based respondents reflects the Christian basis of Footsteps. Government departments or organisations comprised 10% of the respondents, with a further 7% involved in training (including training institutes, universities and colleges) or research. 5% of respondents were involved with literacy or radio broadcasting.

Information regarding the financial position of the group revealed a considerable discrepancy as many groups ignored salaries and operating costs in their budget estimations. Most just indicated the amount available for carrying out their activities, thereby invalidating this data. It is of interest to note that 24% of groups indicated they had either no income or less than US $50 a year and a further 18% had less than US $1,500 a year.

A more accurate picture of the grouping's financial status perhaps comes from the description of their office facilities. 20% of groups had no office facilities of their own at all, while 21% had very limited facilities, lacking a typewriter or computer. 42% of respondents thus had little or no income and, correspondingly, 41% had either no facilities or very limited facilities.

Cross-tabulations examining the relationship between the working situation of the groups and their facilities revealed a highly significant relationship. Few informal groupings had good facilities, a third of religious and church groups had very limited facilities, with a half of NGOs lacking facilities. Government and teaching establishments were considerably better equipped. A statistically significant linear relationship existed between income and available facilities.

Cross-tabulations were also carried out to investigate any relationship between regions of the world and the income of the associations. The majority of respondents with limited office facilities were found within Africa, whereas Asian respondents, in comparison, were significantly better equipped.

5.1.2 Basis for categorisation

Responses to the above questions were used to categorise organisations and groups as detailed in Section 2.3 (page 4).

TABLE 1 - Formation of group in postal survey


an individual's enthusiasm



community awareness of needs



support of local government



work of an outside agency



co-operative or credit scheme









Missing data 3 cases

The categories were based upon information concerning the nature of the group, their access to facilities and, sometimes, reference to group income for postal survey respondents. The three clear divisions made were refined during in-depth research in Uganda and Ghana where correlations concerning geographical location and objectives were further examined. The frequencies for postal survey respondents were as follows:

Category A
Large NGOs and Government (GOs and NGOs)



Category B

Grassroots Development Organisations (GDOs)



Category C

Rural People's Associations (RPAs)



Respondents therefore included larger, well resourced organisations more usually associated with the provision of information, particularly in printed form, and also respondents from either small, informal, poorly resourced groupings or small organisations with either no income or very low income, not normally considered likely sources for the provision of information. Unless otherwise indicated, results will be given for all respondents but, where relevant, data will be analysed with reference to these categories.