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close this bookInitial Environmental Assessment: Urban Development - Series no 12 (NORAD, 1996)
close this folderPart I: Urban development. The urban environment, projects and environmental impacts.
close this folder1 The urban environment and relevant project categories
View the document1.1 Introduction
View the document1.2 Project categories
View the document1.3 The urban environment

1.2 Project categories

In other booklets in this series this booklet (no. 12) has been referred to in cases where unplanned urban development may impact projects or development processes. In addition to identifying possible environmental impacts of this. the booklet will emphasise the description of environmental impacts of planned urban development. This pertains to areas without substantial prior settlement and for projects in existing urban areas.

The World Commission on Environment and Development emphasise in their 1987 report the necessity of sustainable development of urban areas. This was underlined at the UNCED conference on environment and development in 1992. Recently, several multilateral and bilateral programmes have been initiated. The objectives are amongst other to:

· Secure basic needs e.g. housing, food, energy, health, education, employment, transport etc. for a rapidly expanding population.

· Limit pollution and other environmental problems.

· Strengthen management, institutions, legislation and people's participation.

When defining the scope of this booklet it has been necessary to establish a delimitation in relation to the other booklets in this series. Several projects relevant to urban areas e.g. water supply, drainage, transport, industry, energy, mining and waste management are discussed in booklets 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11. Therefore these issues are only briefly discussed in this booklet. An exception is made for transport/ infrastructure which is discussed somewhat more thoroughly. This booklet will focus the environmental impacts of building projects and physical planning, as well as touching on issues of localisation and several strategies for urban development taking the environment into consideration. The following constitutes an overview of project categories which may be assessed with regard to environmental impacts with the assistance of this booklet:

· Building/construction projects, e.g.:

- Construction of houses, offices, warehouses, workshops, schools, hospitals etc. in connection with development projects, or as part of planned urban development.

- Housing development specifically for low-income groups and/or slum upgrading.

- Urban renewal or rehabilitation of individual buildings.

- Rehabilitation of areas affected by catastrophes.

- Establishment of refugee camps.

· Conservation projects (cultural heritage, landscape, architecture and recreational areas) e.g.:

- Conservation and rehabilitation of individual buildings or specific building environments and townships.

- Management of parks, cultural landscapes, and areas for recreation and tourism within or close to urban areas.

· Infrastructure projects like for instance:

- Construction of and/or rehabilitation of roads, public transportation etc. (See also booklet 8).

- Energy supply. (See also booklet 9.)

- Waste management, drainage, sewage systems and sanitary conditions, and other projects to limit discharges to water, air, and soil. (See also booklets 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.)

· Projects within physical planning.

- Physical planning includes for instance land use plans, and plans for production or conservation of facilities, buildings and other surrounding features.

Other relevant project categories in urban development are social infrastructure projects e.g. strengthening of education, health, sports, culture and social sector, and projects targeting public administration like institutional development, training, promotion of increased popular participation, legislation and research. Measures within these categories can be very important contributions to solving urban environmental problems. And with this as the objective they may serve as steps to more comprehensive strategies for environmental improvement or environmentally sound urban development.