|Initial Environmental Assessment: Urban Development - Series no 12 (NORAD, 1996)|
1. Lead to pollution of air, water or soil? (cf. Chapter 3.1)
· Is the urban area located to A site with poor natural ve~ila~n with the result that emissions to the atmosphere may have considerable local impacts?
· Will the project through energy consumption in houses, or for transport or industry, contribute to a considerable increase of emissions to the atmosphere?
· Is the project area connected to an adequate sewage system?
· May the water pollution cause eutrophication, toxic impacts, temperature changes or accumulation in the nutrient chain?
· Will the project cause excessive utilisation of water resources? Will for instance groundwater be pumped up in such large quantities that the groundwater table will sink with subsequent damages for nature and buildings, or contaminate the groundwater?
· Is there a possibility that the project might pollute the soil with heavy metals or toxic substances, either directly or indirectly through precipitation?
2. Damage vegetation, fauna and ecosystems? (cf. Chapter 3.2 and 2.6)
· Does the project require large areas with the potential of substantial encroachments on nature?
· Will the project affect especially vulnerable species end/or ecosystems?
· Will the project cause a fragmentation of animal habitats?
· Will the project remove large areas of vegetation changing the natural surface run-off of water (precipitation)?
· To which extent will existing vegetation be protected as part of a possible construction project?
· Will the project entail import of exotic vegetation species which may be ecologically doubtful?
3. Change the utilisation and management of natural resources? (cf. Chapter 3.3)
· Is there a possibility that the project can cause land use conflicts in the fringe zone between rural and urban areas, for instance by locating the project on agricultural land or areas identified for other natural resource utilisation or recreation?
· Will the project cause substantial increase of the extraction of water, wood, minerals, soil etc.?
· To which degree will recycling and reuse of building materials be focused?
· To which degree will a possible construction project base itself on locally produced materials?
· Refer also to the point by point presentation of ecologically sound use of materials in chapter 3.3.
· To which extent will the project's need for materials based on natural resources impact the environment far away from the urban area?
4. Impact the climate? (cf. Chapter 3.4)
· Should a climate analysis be implemented in advance of the project? (Refer to the point by point presentation of the content of a climate analysis in chapter 3.4.)
· Will the project contribute to increased warming up or other negative climate impacts in urban areas?
· Will air pollution resulting from the project contribute to changes in the local climate?
5. Affect landscape, architecture and cultural heritage? (cf. Chapter 1.3.3, 2.5 and 3.5.)
· Should a place analysis be implemented in advance of the project?
· Will the project take adequate consideration to landscape, architecture and building traditions? (Refer also to the issues related to adaptation to existing building traditions and architecture in chapter 3.5.)
· Will the project be located to a landscape which is especially vulnerable for visual changes (for instance coastal zones, cultural landscapes adjacent to urban areas (urban fringe) or exposed hills and slopes)?
· To which extent is existing vegetation and natural areas taken care of in the project?
· Is it relevant to replant vegetation?
· Will the project generate visual disturbances, vibrations and/or pollution of air and water which may damage cultural heritage?
6. Lead to unfortunate health impacts? (cf. Chapter 3.6)
· Will project induced pollution of air, water and soil potentially cause injuries to health?
· Will water supply and drainage connected to any new or rehabilitated buildings be of sufficient quality?
· Will any new buildings be constructed in a manner which causes poor indoor climate ("sick houses") with health impacts for those who reside or live in the building? (See Table 3 at the end of this booklet.)
Table 3: Overview of indoor climate impacts in modern houses
Table 3: Overview of indoor climate impacts in modern houses (Cont.)
· Will the project cause substantial noise problems, or will it be located to noisy areas?
· Will the project create electromagnetic fields, or will it be locater! to areas containing such fields?
· Will tile the project's visual expression (buildings, physical environment etc.) possibly cause negative reactions and impact mental well-being?
· Will any construction projects split settlement areas and alter social networks? Will the project increase the frequency of injuries and accidents?
· Will the project provoke natural hazards (landslides etc.), or be located to areas especially vulnerable to natural hazards? (See the point by point presentation in chapter 3.6.)
· Will the localisation of the project increase the need for transport?
· May it be relevant to consider densification rather than developing new areas?
7. Cause changes to the local community or way of life? (cf. Chapter 3.7)
· Will the project cause social and ethnic conflicts?
· Will the project cause forced relocation of people?
· Will any building project (houses, office buildings etc.) consider religious or cultural conceptions of how the building with adjacent outdoor areas should be designed?