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close this bookLivelihood Options for Coastal Communities (IIRR, 1995, 77 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAknowledgement
View the documentPreface
View the documentForeword
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsWater-based activities
Open this folder and view contentsLand-based activities
View the documentGlossary
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Abaca coir Abaca fiber.

Algae Algae range from singular organisms to large, complex colonies of kelp and from the blue green algae to yellow, green, brown and red organisms. A good number of species are edible.

Avian pest An acute, highly contagious viral disease in poultry.


Bay A part of the sea extending landwards.

Blowfly A kind of fly which deposits its eggs on meat or wound of living animals.

Brackishwater Diluted sea water, most often with a salt content ranging from 0.5-20 parts per thousand.

Brine solution A mixture of salt and water.


Coconut coir Fiber of coconut husk.

Coral reefs Tropical, shallow water ecosystems which rank as among the most biologically productive and diverse of all natural ecosystems. The term "reef' refers to the population of stony corals which continue to build on products of their own making. Reefs are not entirely made up of corals. Several species of red algae also grow as heavily calcified encrustations which bind the reef framework together.

Cultch Material used to collect oyster spat.


Estuary The area near the mouth of river where seawater and freshwater meet.


Floater A device used to facilitate floating.

Fowl cholera An acute septicemic disease of birds caused by bacteria.

Fowl pox A viral disease in poultry, characterized by wartlike lesions in less feathered areas of the body.

Fry The young or brood of fishes or other organisms.


Gravid Heavy with young/pregnant.

Gunny sack A strong, coarse sacking made from plant fibers.


Halophilic Flourishing in salt water.


Ice-ice phenomenon This disease can wipe out entire crops. An early sign is a slow growth rate accompanied by paling and loss of gloss of the plants (aging effect). Roughening of the surface of the branches follows. "Ice-ice" is thought to be due to adverse ecological conditions, such as high light intensities, low nutrient availability, water temperature and low water movement.

Intertidal flat Part of the seashore, usually under water at high tide and exposed during low tide.


Lake A considerable inland body of standing water.

Larva The preadult stage of many organisms, which does not resemble the adult. The larva usually exploits a different food source from that of the adult.


Mangrove An individual or a whole forest of salt-tolerant tree species found along tropical coasts and valued economically for the fuelwood, pharmaceutical properties and construction materials. Mangroves serve as feeding, spawning and breeding grounds for many commercially important species.

Mantle A soft fold, enclosing the soft body parts.

Monoculture Cultivation of only one species.

Mother of pearl A shiny calcareous substance composing the innermost layer of a molluscan shell.


Nocturnal Occurs at night.


Parts per thousand (ppt) Unit used in referring to the amount of dissolved inorganic minerals (salts) in seawater.

Phytoplankton Tiny plants that drift in the sea.

Polyculture Culture of more than one species.


Red tide Seawater affected by the red tide phenomenon exhibits discoloration due to a large population of some phytoplankton species; often fatal to many forms of marine life.

Reservoir A place where anything is kept in store.

Return on investment The ratio of income to capital invested in a business.

River A natural stream of running water.


Salinometer An instrument used to measure salinity.

Seagrass A marine flowering plant, a few species of which are similar to terrestrial grasses in appearance. Sixteen species are found in the Philippines. Seagrasses are valuable ecosystems because they serve as an additional buffer against strong water movements. Seagrass beds also function as feeding, spawning and breeding grounds for economically significant species.

Sinker A device used to allow sinking.

Spat A newly settled or attached young oyster.

Spatting season Spawning season.

Spawner A nature aquatic female which lay many small eggs.