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close this bookStrategies and Methods for Teaching Values in the Context of Science and Technology (APEID - UNESCO, 1993, 61 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentChapter One: Synthesis of Country Papers: 'Trends and Issues'
View the documentChapter Two: Concept Identification and Formation of Values Through Teaching of Science
View the documentChapter Three: Approaches for Facilitating Values Formation
View the documentChapter Four: Evaluation of Values
View the documentChapter Five: Recommendations
Open this folder and view contentsAnnex
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Chapter Five: Recommendations

The developing countries in Asia and the Pacific are striving to universalize elementary education, in line with recommendations of the Jomtien Conference on 'Education for All'.

Education for all must give rise to greater social equity and equality of opportunities to all. This could lead to greater awareness of fundamental rights. Education needs to ensure equal emphasis on awareness of the duties of citizens. This requires focus and concentration on values components in education. Knowledgeable, aware and awake, people have to learn the skill of managing conflict situations amicably which may arise as a consequence of impacts of change on social and cultural systems. Achievement of universalization of basic education could result in greater awareness and appreciation of the changes taking place under the impact of scientific and technological developments. It could contribute substantially towards removal of ignorance, superstition, obscurantism and irrational practices. Science and technology influence all aspects of human activity including the interdependence of man and nature. Enhanced efforts on social understanding to ensure a balance between tradition and modernization may be stimulated. Situations of value dilemmas before societies need to be resolved, with an eye on the future. Greater resource mobilization and its equitable distribution may emerge as a major thrust from developing countries.

Action Points

The workshop suggested the following action-points in the context of developing the affective domain:

- Universalize science education on par and along with universal elementary education.

- Strengthen Teacher Education Institutions in terms of use of new educational technologies and in capacities to develop indigenous software, suitable for teachers and parents.

- Initiate action to review, revise and rewrite science curricula to meet the new challenges.

- Make values education in science as a basic focal point along with development of cognitive, psychomotor and intuitive aspects.

- Encourage action-learning in science in schools, and outside schools. Schools need to have basic infrastructure for this.

- Make science teaching child-centered, participatory and interesting. Towards this is the need to shed several of the prevailing practices, such as teacher-centred learning, rote learning, etc.

- Emphasize linkages of science learning and its utility all along the learning/teaching process.

- Encourage outside the classroom learning of science.

- Develop rational outlook, analytical approach and appreciation for the contribution of science. This will have to be emphasized through regular lessons, general discussions and interaction with skilled and professional persons.

- Emphasize that every learner can carry out scientific investigations.

Science and technology would be everywhere, in every aspect of human activity, especially in the 21st century. It has to be utilized for maximum benefit to the largest number of persons.

Recommendation for Follow up Actions at Country Level

- Organize discussions, seminars, lectures on values education through science education at each level, i.e. national, regional, district, school cluster and school itself.

- Teacher preparation institutions undertake the exercise of evaluating values education components in the curriculum and augment and replenish the same.

- Programmes of orientations of headmasters, educational administrators, planners invariably devote at least one session to discuss concepts and formation of values as a necessary component of the educational process.

- Every teacher, at each stage, is made well aware of the fact that she is a teacher of values no matter what discipline she is in, and apart from her regular assignments in school.

- Innovative practices being tried out in selected institutions and by voluntary organizations need to be studied, analyzed and disseminated.

- Educational journals be persuaded to feature regularly aspects of values formation, to motivate and guide the educational personnel, particularly teachers.

- Parent Teacher Associations (PTAs), may be requested to debate the issue of values formation in their meetings and devise strategies to be of mutual assistance to all the members.

- Setting up of science and technology parks may be encouraged. Facilities suitable for schools may be devised, which may not necessarily require much resource input.

- National and regional level resource centres for values formation could be conceptualized. Alternatively, existing institutions, say in science education, could be augmented to function as Institutes of Science and Value Education.

- Development of supplementary reading materials be assigned to identified institutions and persons of proven creative ability to assure its easy and wider distribution. These may focus on science, technology and its societal impacts affecting values.

- National, state and regional level exhibitions on values for the scientific society in the 21st century may be organized.

For UNESCO and Other International Agencies

The following are the participants' recommendations for follow-up actions for UNESCO and other international agencies, as based on this workshop's results and outputs.

- Send copies of the report to policy-makers and curriculum developers of each member country with requests for comments, reactions or suggestions regarding possible implementation of the values integration scheme proposed in the report. A survey may be done to determine the feasibility of member countries to implement such programmes.

- Sponsor training workshops in the countries.

- Develop video cassettes and/or exemplar lesson/activities for use in training programmes in the member countries.

- Organize a similar experts' workshop for the development of source books/handbooks, textbooks or multi-media packages, for values integration in science and technology for primary and secondary levels.

- Develop a system to disseminate relevant reading/learning materials to all member countries.

- Organize a follow-up of this workshop with focus on values evaluation, research, and teacher training.

- Organize a follow-up workshop for the participants, to review progress/development of in-country programme implementation.

As this UNESCO-PROAP Workshop had produced worthwhile outputs, it is hoped that the member countries will take the initiative to put the products of this workshop into good use.