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close this bookFood from Dryland Gardens - An Ecological, Nutritional, and Social Approach to Small Scale Household Food Production (CPFE, 1991)
close this folderPart III - Garden harvest
View the document(introduction...)
Open this folder and view contents14. Saving seeds for planting
Open this folder and view contents15. Processing, storing, and marketing food from the garden
Open this folder and view contents16. Weaning foods from the garden
Open this folder and view contents17. Glossary
Open this folder and view contents18. Some crops for dryland gardens
View the document19. Resource organizations
View the document20. References

20. References

All references cited in the text are included in this chapter. Following the publication information in each citation, the chapter in the text that cites the reference appears in brackets. We have annotated some of the references that we feel would be of most use to readers. Those publishers marked with an asterisk (*) are listed in Chapter 19, Resource Organizations.

ABRAHAMSE, Tanya and Angela M. BRUNT (1984) An investigation into pesticide imports, distribution and use in Zambia with special emphasis on the role of multinational companies. Insect Science Application 5(3):157-173. [Ch.13]

ACLAND, J.D. (1971) East African Crops. Longman, London, UK (by arrangement with FAO). 252pp. [Ch.7, 18]

ACHINEWHU, S.C. (1986) Some biochemical and nutritional changes during the fermentation of fluted pumpkin (Telferia occidentalis). Plant Foods and Human Nutrition 36:97-106. [Ch.2]

ACPP (Alternative Crop Protection Project) (n.d.) Watery compost extract as fungicide. ACPP, c/o McKean Rehabilitation Centre, PO. Box 53, Chiang Mai 50000, Thailand, mss., 3pp. [Ch.13]

ADAMS, William M. (1986) Traditional agriculture and water use in the Sokoto Valley, Nigeria. The Geographical Journal 152:30-43. [Ch.11, 12]

ADENIJI, M.O. (1977) Studies on some aspects of control of the yam nematode, Scutellonema bradys. Acta Horticulturae, No. 53:249-255. [Ch.13]

AFRICAN DIVERSITY (1990) Diversity News. African Diversity 2-3:1-4. [Ch. 14]

AGAB, Muna Ahmed (1985) Fermented food products ‘hulu mur’ drink made from Sorghum bicolor. Food Microbiology 2:147-155. [Ch.15]

AGRECOL/ILEIA (1988) Towards Sustainable Agriculture. AGRECOL”, Langenbruk, Switzerland, and ILEIA*, Leusden, The Netherlands. Part One (24pp) lists documents, periodicals, and organizations. Part Two (24pp) is a bibliography. [Part 11, Ch.19].

AGRIOS, George N. (1988) Plant Pathology. 3rd ed. Academic Press, New York, USA. xvi+803pp. [Ch.9, 13] A standard textbook with good descriptions of life cycles and mostly high-tech identification techniques; emphasizes chemicals, very little on nonchemical control or ecology.

AHMED, Saleem, and Michael GRAINGE (1986) Potential of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) for pest control and rural development. Economic Botany 40:201-209. [Ch.14]

AHN, Peter M. (1970) West African Soils. Oxford University Press, London, UK. xii+332pp. [Ch.9, 10] Semipopular. An excellent introduction to practical soil science, with basics applicable anywhere. Emphasizes the changes that occur moving north and south, between arid and humid regions of West Africa. Discusses soil changes and plant nutrition in traditional agriculture.

AKPAPUNAM, Maurice A. (1984) Effects of wilting, blanching and storage temperatures on ascorbic acid and total carotenoids content of some Nigerian fresh vegetables. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 34:177-180. [Ch.15]

AKPAPUNAM, Maurice A., and S.C. ACHINEWU (1985) Effects of cooking, germination and fermentation on the chemical compostion of Nigerian cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 35:353-358. [Ch.2, 15]

ALI, H.M., and I.A. SAKR (1981) Drying of vegetables in Egypt. In Food Drying. Gordon Yaciuk, ed. Pp. 15-19. IDRC*, Ottawa, Canada. [Ch.15]

ALTIERI, Miguel A., and Matt LIEBMAN (1986) Insect, weed and plant disease management in multiple cropping systems. In Francis 1986:183-218. [Ch.8]

AMES, Bruce N. (1983) Dietary carcinogens and anti-carcinogens. Science 221:1256-1264. [Ch.2]

ANDREWS, David J. (1989) Cereal breeding in Africa. Paper based on a seminar given at Summer Institute for African Agricultural Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. 21pp. [Ch.14]

ARLOSOROFF, S., G. TSHANNELRL, D. GREY, W. JOURNEY, A. KARP, O. LANGENEFFER, and R. ROCHE (1987) Community Water Supply: The Handpump Option. World Bank. [Ch.12] Summarizes findings of a 5-year project on the testing and technical and managerial development of hand-pump-based water supply systems. [Reviewed by F. Carroll]

ARNON, I. (1975) Physiological Principles of Dryland Crop Production. In Gupta 1975:3-145. [Ch.8]

ATLIN, Gary N., and Kenneth J. FREY (1989) Breeding crop varieties for low-input agriculture. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 4(2):53-58. [Ch.14]

ATKINSON, D., D. NAYLOR, and G.A. COLDRICKA (1976) The effect of tree spacing on the apple root system. Horticultural Research 16:89-105. [Ch.6]

ATTEH, Oluwayomi D. (1987) Pesticide flow and government attitude to pests and pesticides in Kwara State, Nigeria. In Tait and Napompeth 1987:86-91. [Ch.13]

AUMEERUDDY, Y., and F. PINGLO (1989) Phytopractices in Tropical Regions. UNESCO/Laboratoire de Botanique Tropicale, Montpellier, France. 71pp. [Ch.7] Many extremely interesting but very brief descriptions about traditional manipulation of individual plants.

AYERS, R.S., and D.W. WESCOT (1985) Water Quality for Agriculture. Revision 1. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper, 29. (First published, 1976) FAO”, Rome. xii+174pp. [Ch.5, 11, 12] Covers salinity, infiltration, toxicity and other problems with examples of using water of various qualities from around the world.

AYKROYD, W.R., and Joyce DOUGHTY (1982) Legumes in Human Nutrition. (Revised by Joyce Doughty and Ann Walker, first published 1964) FAO*, Rome. viii+152pp [Ch.15, 16]

AYRES, John C., J. Orvin MUNDT, and William E. SANDINE (1980) Microbiology of Foods. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, California, USA. [Ch.15]

BAKER, Kenneth F. (1987) Evolving concepts of biological control of plant pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology 25:67-85. [Ch.13]

BARKOW, J.H. (1972) Hausa women and Islam. Canadian Journal of African Studies 6:317-328. [Ch.3]

BARRETT, Robert P. (1987) Integrating leaf and seed production strategies for cowpea. Pulse Beat [Bean/Cowpea CRSP, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA] [Ch.15]

BASSUK, Nina L. (1986) Reducing lead intake in lettuce. Hortscience 21:993-995. [Ch.9, 15]

BELL, Morag, Richard FAULKNER, Patricia HOTCHKISS, Robert LAMBERT, Neil ROBERTS, and Alan WINDRAM (1987) The Use of Dambos in Rural Development, with Reference to Zimbabwe. Loughborough University, UK and University of Zimbabwe. Final Report of ODA Project R3869. xii+151pp. + appendices. [Ch.9, 10, 11, 12, 13] A survey and case study of gardens in valley areas usually watered by shallow wells. Focuses on soils and water, and emphasizes the importance of dambo gardens to households.

BENESON, Abram S. (1985) Control of Communicable Diseases in Man. 14th ed. The American Public Health Association, Washington DC, USA. [Ch.11]

BENZ, B.F., L.R. SANCHEZ-VELASQUES, and F.J. SANTANA MICHEL (1990) Ecology and ethnobotany of Zea Diploperennis: Preliminary investigations. Maydica 35:85-98. [Ch.8]

BERKES, F., D. FEENY, B.J. MCCAY, and J.M. ACHESON (1989) The Benefit of the Commons. Nature 340:91-93. [Ch.3]

BERNARD, H. Russel (1988) Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, California, USA. 520pp. [Ch.4] A handbook of field methods emphasizing quantitative measurements.

BETTOLO, G.B. Marini, ed. (1988) Towards a Second Green Revolution: From Chemical to New Biological Technologies in Agriculture in the Tropics. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. xi+530pp. (Source of Pimentel 1988)

BHOWMIK, P.C., and J.C. DOLL (1984) Allelopathic effects of annual weed residues on growth and nutrient uptake of corn and soybeans. Agronomy Journal 76(3):383-388. [Ch.8]

BIRKELAND, Peter W. (1984) Soils and Geomorphology. Oxford University Press, London. xiv+372pp. [Ch.9]

BITTENBENDER, H. C. (1984) Handbook of Tropical Fruits and Spices. Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. v+127pp. [Ch.14]

BITTENBENDER, H. C. (1985) Home gardens in less developed countries. HortScience 20:645-649. [Part I]

BLAKIE, Piers (1985) The Political Economy of Soil Erosion in Developing Countries. Longman, London, UK. [Ch.9]

BLALOCK, Hubert M., Jr. (1972) Social Statistics. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA. xiv+583pp. [Ch.4]

BLAYLOCK, J.R., and A.E. GALLO (1983) Modeling the decision to produce vegetables at home. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 65:722-729. [Ch. 3]

BLEIBERG, Fanny M., Thierry A. BRUN, Samuel GOIHMAN, and Emile GOUBA (1980) Duration of activities and energy expenditure of female farmers in dry and rainy seasons in Upper-Volta. British Journal of Nutrition 43:71-82. [Ch.2]

BODLEY, John H. (1990) Victims of Progress. 3rd ed. Mayfield Publishing Company, Mountain View, California, USA. ix, 261pp. [Part I] A well-written history of the physical and cultural destruction of indigenous peoples around the world as a result of colonialism and the industrial revolution. Current movements for self-determination are also covered.

BOULOS, Loutfy and M. Nabil EL-HADIDI (1984) The Weed Flora of Egypt. The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo, Egypt. iv, 178pp. [Ch.8]

BRADFIELD, Maitland (1971) The Changing Pattern of Hopi Agriculture. Royal Anthropological Institute Occasional Paper No. 30. Royal Anthropological Institute, London, UK. 65pp. [Ch.6]

BRIDGE, John (1987) Control strategies in subsistence agriculture. In Brown and Kerry 1987:389-420. [Ch.13]

BRIERLEY, J.S. (1976) Kitchen gardens in the West Indies, with a contemporary study from Grenada. The Journal of Tropical Geography 43:30-40. [Ch. 3]

BROWN, Lester R., Alan DURNING, Christopher FLAVIN, Hilary FRENCH, Jodi JACOBSON, Marcia LOWE, Sandra POSTEL, Michael RENNER, Linda STARK, and John YOUNG (1990) State of the World 1990: A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society. W.W. Norton and Company, New York and London. xii+253pp. [Part I] (Source of Durning 1990) This report is published yearly and is a widely cited source of information on the destruction of natural resources and efforts to halt it.

BROWN, R.H. and B.R. KERRY, eds. (1987) Principles and Practice of Nematode Control in Crops. Academic Press, Sydney, Australia. (Source of Bridge 1987; Maas 1987)

BROWNRIGG, Leslie (1985) Home Gardening in International Development: What the Literature Shows. League for International Food Education, Washington, DC, USA. ca. 341pp. [Part I, Ch.2, 3] This is the most comprehensive review of household garden projects to date and has much valuable information for anyone involved in garden programs. It is out of print and the publisher is defunct, but it was widely distributed around the world, for example, to USAID missions.

BRUN, Thierry, Fanny BLEIBERG, and Samuel GOIHMAN (1981) Energy expenditure of male farmers in dry and rainy seasons in Upper-Volta. British Journal of Nutrition 45:67-75. [Ch. 2]

BRUN, Thierry, Jaqueline REYNAUD, and Simon CHEVASSUS-AGNES (1989) Food and nutritional impact of one home garden project in Senegal. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 23:91-108. [Ch.2, 3] A rare attempt at garden project evaluation. Findings included: gardens had no direct nutritional impact after nearly 20 years; wild foods are important nutritionally; garden income is socially important.

BRUN, Thierry, and Michael C. LATHAM, eds. (1990) Maldevelopment and Malnutrition. World Food Issues, Volume 2. Center for the Analysis of World Food Issues, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA. (Source of Campbell , et al. 1990; Latham 1990)

BRUSH, Stephen B. (1986) Genetic diversity and conservation in traditional farming systems. Journal of Ethnobiology 6(1):151-167. [Ch.14]

BRUSH, Stephen B., Mauricio BELLON CORRALES, and Ella SCHMIDT (1988) Agricultural development and maize diversity in Mexico. Human Ecology 16(3):307-328. [Ch.13]

BRYSON, Reid A., and F. Kenneth HARE (1974) Climates of North America. Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [Ch.II] Includes Mexico.

BULL, David (1982) A Growing Problem: Pesticides and the Third World Poor. OXFAM*, Oxford, UK [Ch.13] A general overview promoting IPM. Documents problems in late 1970s and early 1980s.

BUNCH, Roland (1982) Two Ears of Corn: A Guide to People-Centered Agricultural Improvement. World Neighbors, 5116 N. Portland Ave., Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 73112 USA. vii+251pp. [Ch.4] Based on World Neighbors’ many years of experience, the book gives some practical pointers useful for anyone involved in development and is valuable because of its emphasis on villager participation. The chapter on assessment, however, does not give much in the way of specific ideas about assessment techniques.

BURN, A.J., T.H. COAKER, and P.C. JEPSON (1987) Integrated Pest Management. Academic Press, London, UK. xi, 474pp. (Source of Cammel and Way 1987)

BUTTEL, Fredderick, Martin KENNEY, and Jack KLOPPENBURG, Jr. (1985) From green revolution to biorevolution: Some observations on the changing technological bases of economic transformation in the Third World. Economic Development and Cultural Change 33:31-55. [Ch.14]

BYE, Robert A. (1981)Quelites: Ethnoecology of edible greens - past, present and future. Journal of Ethnobiology 1(1):109-123. [Ch.8]

CAMERON, Margaret and Yngve HOFVANDER (1983) Manual on Feeding Infants and Young Children. 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. [Ch. 2, 15, 16] A good resource with much practical advice including recipes for weaning foods.

CAMMELL, M.E., and M.J. WAY (1987) Forecasting and monitoring. In Burn et al. 1987:1-26. [Ch.13]

CAMPBELL, T. Colin, Chen JUNSHI, Thierry BRUN, Banoo PARPIA, Qu YINSHENG, Chen CHUNMING, and Catherine GEISSLER (1990) Can developing nations avoid the diseases of affluence? The case of China. In Brun and Latham 1990:56-63. [Ch. 2]

CAMPBELL, T. Colin, Thierry BRUN, Chen JUNSHI, Feng ZULIN, and Banoo PARPIA (n.d.) Erythrocyte glutathione reductase and riboflavin intakes in China, mss. [Ch.2]

CARLIER, Hans (1987) Understanding Traditional Agriculture: Bibliography for Development Workers. ILEIA*, Leusden, The Netherlands. 114 pp. [Ch.19]

CARLONI, Alice S. (1981) Sex disparities in the distribution of food within rural households. Food and Nutrition 7(1):3-12. [Ch. 2]

CARROLL, C. Ronald, John H. VANDERMEER, and Peter ROSSET (1990) Agroecology. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA. 641 pp. [Part II]

CFA (California Fertilizer Association, Soil Improvement Committee) (1980) Western Fertilizer Handbook. 6th ed. Interstate Printers and Publishers, Inc., Danville, Illinois, USA. [Ch. 9, 11]

CHACON, J.C., and S.R. GLIESSMAN (1982) The use of the “non-weed” in traditional agroecosystems of southeastern Mexico. Agro-Ecosystems 8:1-11. [Ch.8]

CHAMBERS, Robert (1983) Rural Development: Putting the Last First. Longman, London, UK. [Ch.4, 9] A good discussion of why and how most development projects overlook those most in need, and suggestions for change.

CHAMBERS, Robert (1988) Managing Canal Irrigation: Practical Analysis from South Asia. Cambridge University Press, London, UK. [Ch.12]

CHAROENKIATKUL, Somsri, Aree VALYASEVI, and Kraisid TONTISIRIN (1985) Dietary approaches to the prevention of vitamin A deficiency. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 7(3):72-76. [Ch. 2]

CHATELIN, Yvon (1979) Une Epistemologie des Sciences Du Sol. Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, Memoire No. 88. [Ch.9] [Reviewed by L. Busch, Agriculture and Human Values 2(4):66-67.]

CHEN, T.S., and S. SAAD (1981) Folic acid in Egyptian vegetables: The effect of drying method and storage on the folicin content of mulukhiyah (Corchorus olitorius). Ecology of Food and Nutrition 10:249-255. [Ch.15]

CHLEQ, Jean-Louis, and Hugues DUPRIEZ (1984) Eau et Terres en Fuite, Mer de l’Eau du Sahel. Terres et Vie*, Nivelles, Begium. (In French) [Ch. 9, 11, 12]

CLAWSON, David L. (1985) Harvest security and intraspecific diversity in traditional tropical agriculture. Economic Botany 39(1):56-67. [Ch.14]

CLEVELAND, David A. (1980) The Population Dynamics of Subsistence Agriculture in the West African Savanna: A Village in Northeast Ghana. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. xviii+363pp. [Ch. 11]

CLEVELAND, David A. (1982) Economic and dietary contributions of urban gardening in Tucson. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC, USA. [Ch. 2]

CLEVELAND, David A. (1986) Culture and horticulture in Mexico. Culture and Agriculture No. 29:1-5. [Part 1, Ch. 4, 14]

CLEVELAND, David A. (1990) Development alternatives and the African food crisis. In Confronting Change. Stress and Coping in African Food Systems, Vol. 2. R. Huss-Ashmore and S. Katz, eds. Pp. 181-206. Gordon and Breach, New York, USA. [Ch. 3]

CLEVELAND, David A. (1991) New crop varieties in a green revolution for Africa: Implications for sustainability and equity. In The Political Economy of Famine. The Class and Gender Basis of Hunger. Stress and Coping in African Food Systems, Vol. 3. R.E. Downs, D.O. Kerner and S.P. Reyna eds. Gordon and Breach, New York, USA. [Part II]

CLEVELAND, David A., Thomas V. ORUM, and Nancy FERGUSON (1985) Economic value of home vegetable gardens in an urban desert environment. Hort Science 20(4):694-696. [Ch.3, 10]

CLEVELAND, David A., and Daniela SOLERI (1987) Household gardens as a development strategy. Human Organization 46(3):259-270 [Part I, Ch. 3, 9, 14]

CLEVELAND, David A., and Daniela SOLERI (1989) Diversity and the new green revolution. Diversity 5(2&3):24-25. [Ch. 14]

CLEVELAND, David A., and Daniela SOLERI (n.d.a) Unpublished data on seasonal water use in mixed crop desert gardens. [Ch. 10]

CLEVELAND, David A., and Daniela SOLERI (n.d.b) Household gardens in an irrigated district of northern Pakistan, mss. [Ch. 14]

CLEVELAND, David A., and Daniela SOLERI (n.d.c) The quest for environmentally and socially sustain-able agriculture: Production, diversity, and stability. mss. [Part II, Ch. 14]

COLLINS, G.N. (1914) A drought-resisting adaptation in seedlings of Hopi maize. Journal of Agricultural Research 1(4):293-392. [Ch. 6]

CORNIA, Giovanni A. (1985) Farm size, land yields and the agricultural production function: An analysis of fifteen developing countries. World Development 13:513-534. [Ch. 3]

COX, George W., and Michael D. ATKINS (1979) Agricultural Ecology: An Analysis of World Food Production Systems. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, California, USA. 721pp. [Part II, Ch. 5, 11, 14] An excellent introduction to the field.

CRISP, P., and D. ASTLEY (1985) Genetic resources in vegetables. Progress in Plant Breeding 1:281-310. Butterworths & Co., Borough Green, Sevenoaks, Kent, UK [Ch. 14] A good review of the topic, categorizing vegetables into four groups based on the nature of their genetic diversity.

CROUCH, D., and C. WARD (1988) The Allotment: Its Landscape and Culture. Faber and Faber, London. [Part I, Ch. 3] Historical and social analysis of allotment (community) gardens in Great Britain.

DADA, L.O., and D.A.V. DENDY (1987) Preliminary study of the effect of various processing techniques on the cyanide content of germinated sorghum. Tropical Science 27:101-104. [Ch. 2]

DALY, Herman (1989) Sustainable development: Some basic principles. Manuscript of keynote address to the Hoover Institution’s conference on Population and Resources, February 1, 1989, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California. 15pp. [Ch.3]

DALY, Herman, and John COBB (1989) For the Common Good. Beacon Press, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. vii+482pp. [Ch.3] Convincingly demonstrates that the dominant world economic policy of economic growth destroys society and the environment. Gives suggestions for alternatives.

DANCETTE, C., and A.E. HALL (1979) Agroclimatology applied to water management in Sudanian and Sahelian zones of Africa. In Hall, Cannell, and Lawton 1979:98-118. [Ch.11]

DAVIS, Litton, and Robert A. BYE (1982) Ethnobotany and progressive domestication of jaltomata (Solanaceae) in Mexico and Central America. Economic Botany 36(2):225-241. [Ch.8]

DARROW, Ken, and Mike SAXENIAN (1986) Appropriate Technology Sourcebook. Volunteers in Asia, Stanford, California, USA. (Available from Appropriate Technology International”- [ATI]), ca 800pp. [Ch.19]. “A review of 1, 150 of the most useful appropriate technology books from around the world.” A complete “library” of all the books reviewed in this sourcebook is available on microfiche, also from ATI.

DCFRN (Developing Countries Farm Radio Network) (1979-1987) Developing Countries Farm Radio Packages, Numbers 1 to 12. DCFRN*, Toronto, Canada. [Ch. 6, 8, 9, 13, 14] An excellent series of extension packets written for radio programs in the Third World.

DELGADO, Christopher L. (1979) The Southern Fulani Farming System in Upper Volta: A Model for the Integration of Crop and Livestock Production in the West African Savannah. African Rural Economy Paper No. 20. Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. [Ch.9]

DELGADO DURAN, Francisco Oscar (1984) Mulching as a Means of Producing Vegetable Crops Under a Limited Water Supply. M.S. Thesis, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA. [Ch. 10, 14]

DENEVEN, William M. (1980) Latin America. In Klee 1980:217-244. [Ch. 9, 12]

DeWALT, Billie (1985) Mexico’s second green revolution: Food for feed. Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 1(1):29-60. [Part I, Ch. 2, 3, 14]

DEWEY, Kathryn G.(1981) Nutritional consequences of the transformation from subsistence to commercial agriculture in Tabasco, Mexico. Human Ecology 9(2):151-187. [Ch. 2, 3, 14]

DIXON-MUELLER, Ruth (1985) Women’s Work in Third World Agriculture. International Labor Office, Geneva. xi+151pp. [Ch. 3]

DONAHUE, Roy L., Raymond W. MILLER, and John C. SHICKLUNA (1983) Soils: An Introduction to Soils and Plant Growth. Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA. xv+667pp. [Ch. 9, 10, 11, 12] Beginning college text with generally good explanations of soil science basics, though sometimes unclear. Methodology and field application are based on expensive equipment and large-scale commercial production largely inappropriate for the Third World and for household gardens.

DONEEN, L.D., and D.W. WESCOT (1984) Irrigation Practice and Water Management. Revision 1. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 1. (First published 1971). FAO*, Rome. [Ch. 10, 12]

DOORENBOS, J., and A.H. KASSAM, with others (1979) Yield Response to Water. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 33. FAO”, Rome. ix+193pp. [Ch. 10] Contains brief guidelines for calculating maximum yield and crop water requirements with application to optimizing yields and total production under conditions of limited water supply; detail ed data on crop water requirements and yield for 26 major commercial crops.

DOORENBOS, J., and W.O. PRUITT, in consultation with others (1977) Guidelines for Predicting Crop Water Requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 24. (Revised ed.) FAO*, Rome. 144pp. [Ch. 10, 12] Gives detailed calculation methods for estimating water requirements, pan evaporation, crop coefficients, crop evapotranspiration and their application to design of irrigation systems. Oriented toward large-scale monoculture.

DOYLE, Jack (1985) Altered Harvest: Agriculture, Genetics, and the Fate of the World’s Food Supply. Penguin Books, New York. xix+502pp. [Ch. 14]

DREGNE, H. E. (1976) Soils of Arid Regions. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [Ch. 9]

DUFFIELD, Mary Rose, and Warren D. JONES (1981) Plants for Dry Climates: How to Select, Grow and Enjoy. H.P.Books, Tucson, Arizona, USA. 176pp. [Ch. 8] Mostly ornamentals, but a number of fruit and nut trees. Focuses on southwestern United States, but applicable to northern Mexico.

DUGGAN, William (1985) Irrigated gardens, Molepolole, Botswana. In ILO 1985:7-20. [Ch. 3]

DUPRIEZ, Hugues (1982) Paysan d’Afrique noire. (In French) Torres et Vie*, Nivelles, Belgium. 256pp. [Ch. 19]

DUPRIEZ, Hugues and Philippe DE LEENER (1983) Agriculture Tropicale en Milieu Paysan African. (In French) Torres et Vie*, Nivelles, Belgium. 280pp. [Ch. 5, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14] Clearly written with numerous illustrative photographs and drawings. Emphasizes wisdom and adaptability of traditional systems. Covers semiarid to humid Africa with most examples from West Africa, including many from drylands.

DUPRIEZ, Hugues, and Philippe DE LEENER (1987) Jardins et Vergers D’Afrique. (In French) Terres et Vie”, Nivelles, Belgium. 354pp. [Part I, Ch. 8, 14, 18] The best extension handbook we have seen for people working with household gardens in sub-Saharan Africa. Incorporates some traditional gardening techniques; discussions are illustrated with numerous excellent photographs of gardens and plants. The first section of the book discusses techniques and the second is a listing of 86 domesticated and nondomesticated plants used in the region, including their names in a number of local languages, and a brief description of how the plants are used and how they are propagated.

DURNING, Alan B. (1990) Ending poverty. In Brown, et al. 1990:135-153. [Part I]

DUTT, Gordon R. (1981) Establishment of NaCl-treated catchments. In Dutt, et al. 1981:17-21. [Ch. 11]

DUTT, Gordon R., C.F. HUTCHINSON, and M. ANAYA Gardu1981) Rainfall Collection for Agriculture in Arid and Semiarid Regions. Proceedings of a Workshop, 1980. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Slough, UK. (Source of Dutt 1981)

EARLY, Daniel K. (1977) Cultivation and uses of amaranth in contemporary Mexico. In Rodale Press 1977:39-60. [Ch. 8]

EASTMAN, Susan J. (1988) Vitamin A Deficiency and Xerophthalmia. Reprint of Assignment Children 1987-3. UNICEF*, New York and Geneva. 84pp. [Ch. 2]

EL AMAMI, Sleheddine (1979) Utilization of runoff waters: The “meskats” and other techniques in Tunisia. African Environment 3(3-4):107-120 (Available from ENDA*). Poorly translated from French, but some idea of the techniques do come through. [Ch. 8, 11]

ESKELINEN, Riitta K. (1977) Dogon Agricultural Systems: Sociological Aspects Relating to Development Interventions. Report to The Research Foundation of State University of New York, Binghamton, New York, USA. mss. iii+93pp. [Ch. 3, 15]

EVENARI, Michael, Leslie SHANAN, and Naphtali TADMOR (1982) The Negev: The Challenge of a Desert. 2nd ed. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. ix+437pp. [Ch. 6, 7, 11]

EVETT, Steven R. (1983) Erosion and Runoff from Sodium Dispersed, Compacted Earth Water Harvesting Catchments. M.S. Thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. [Ch. 11]

EVETT, Steven R. (1985a) Advisory report on small-scale irrigation and the African Food Systems Initiative in Lesotho. Prepared for Peace Corps/OTAPS. Unpublished report. [Ch. 12]

EVETT, Steven R. (1985b) Personal communication. [Ch. 11]

FAIRBOURN, Merle L, and H.R. GARDNER (1972) Vertical mulch effects on soil water storage. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 36:823-827. [Ch. 10]

FAIRBOURN, Merle L., and H.R. GARDNER (1974) Field use of microwatersheds with vertical mulch. Agronomy Journal 66(6):740-744. [Ch. 10, 11]

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations) (1961) Agricultural and Horticultural Seeds. FAO*, Rome. 531pp. [Ch. 6]

FAO (1970) Handling and Storage of Food Grains. FAO*, Rome. 350pp [Ch. 14]

FAO (1976-77) Better Farming Series. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 3. FAO*, Rome. [Ch. 5]

FAO (1982a) Food Composition Tables for the Near East. FAO*, Rome. x+265pp. [Ch. 2] Has three tables with: 1) energy, protein, vitamin and mineral, 2) amino acid, and 3) fatty acid content. Also very brief descriptions of about 110 prepared foods listed in the tables.

FAO (1982b) Date Production and Protection. With Special Reference to North Africa and the Near East. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 35. FAO*, Rome. [Ch. 7, 8, 13, 15]

FAO (1983) Food and Fruit-Bearing Forest Species 1: Examples from Eastern Africa. FAO Foresty Paper 44/1. FAO*, Rome. xiii+172pp. [Ch.8] This is a good example of the wealth of local tree resources that can be used instead of imported exotics for dryland gardens. Oriented toward commercial applications but gives basic data helpful for garden planting.

FAO (1988) Traditional Food Plants. A Resource Book for Promoting the Exploitation and Consumption of Food Plants in Arid, Semi-Arid and Sub-Humid Lands of Eastern Africa. FAO*, Rome. x+593 pp. [Ch. 8, 18]

FAO (1989) Forestry and Food Security. FAO Forestry Paper 90. FAO*, Rome. viii+128. [Ch. 3]

FAO/WHO (1973) Energy and Protein Requirements. FAO Nutrition Meeting Report Series No. 52. FAO*, Rome. [Ch. 2]

FELDMAN, Lewis J. (1988) The habits of roots. Bioscience 38(9):612-618. [Ch. 5]

FERGUSON, Anne E., and Susan SPRECHER (1987) Women and plant genetic diversity: The case of beans in the Central Region of Malawi. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Chicago, Illinois, USA. [Ch. 14]

FERRANDO, R. (1981) Traditional and Non-Traditional Foods. FAO*, Rome. [Ch. 2]

FISCHER, R.A. and Neil C. TURNER (1978) Plant productivity in the arid and semiarid zones. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 29:277-317. [Ch. 10]

FLEURET, Patrick (1985) The social organization of water control in the Taita Hills, Kenya. American Ethnologist 12:103-118. [Ch.12] Brief nonquantitative description of a small-scale irrigation system contructed and maintained by hand labor, and its social organization.

FLINN, J.C., and D.P. GARRITY (1986) Yield Stability and Modern Rice Technology. IRRI Research Paper Series No. 122. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Manila, Philippines. [Ch. 10, 14]

FOLBRE, Nancy (1984) Household production in the Philippines: A non-neoclassical approach. Economic Development and Cultural Change 32:303-330. [Ch. 2, 3]

FOWLER, Cary, and Pat MOONEY (1990) Shattering: Food, Politics and the Loss of Genetic Diversity. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, USA. xvi+278pp. [Ch. 14]

FRAENKEL, Peter (1987) Water-Pumping Devices: A Handbook for Users and Choosers. IT Publications*. 196pp. [Ch. 12] A detailed, comprehensive, and practical review of the options available for pumping and lifting water on a small scale, especially for irrigation. Demonstrates costs and general suitability of different technical options including human, animal, renewable, and fossil fuel powered devices. [Reviewed by F. Carroll]

FRANCIS, Charles, ed. (1986) Multiple Cropping Systems. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, USA. (Source of Altieri and Liebman 1986; Gliessman 1986)

FRAISER, Gary W., and Lloyd E. MEYERS (1983) Handbook of Water Harvesting. Handbook No. 600. Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Washington, DC, USA. 45pp. [Ch. 11]

GALT, A.H., and J.W. GALT (1978) Peasant use of some wild plants on the island of Pantelleria, Sicily. Economic Botany 32:20-26. [Ch. 10]

GARCIA, R., L.E. CALTAGIRONE, and A.P. GUTIERREZ (1988) Comments on a redefinition of biological control. Bioscience 38:692-694. [Ch. 13]

GARDNER, Walter H. (1979) How water moves in the soil. Crops and Soils Magazine, November 1979:13-18. [Reprints available from American Society of Agronomy, Inc., 677 South Segoe Road, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA] [Ch. 10] Clear, simple explanation with many photographs from the laboratory demonstrating the principles.

GARNER, R.J., Saeed Ahmed CHAUDHRI, and the staff of Commonwealth Bureaux of Horticulture and Plantation Crops (1976) The Propagation of Tropical Fruit Trees. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Slough, UK. xv+556pp. [Ch. 7, 8, 14]

GERSHON, Jack, Yen-ching CHEN, and Jen-fong KUO (1985) The AVRDC Garden Program 1983-84. AVRDC*, Shanhua, Tainan, Taiwan. [Ch. 2]

GIBBON, David, and Adam PAIN (1985) Crops of the Drier Regions of the Tropics. Longman, London. x+157pp. [Ch. 5]

GIBBONS, Gayle, and Marcia GRIFFITHS (1984) Program Activities for Improving Weaning Practice. World Association of Public Health Associates (for UNICEF*), Geneva, Switzerland. 54pp. [Ch. 16]

GLADWIN, Christina H., and John BUTLER (1984) Is gardening an adaptive strategy for Florida family farmers? Human Organization 43:208-215. [Part I, Ch. 3]

GLIESSMAN, Stephen R. (1986) Plant interactions in multiple cropping systems. In Francis 1986:83-95. [Ch. 8]

GLIESSMAN, Stephen R., ed. (1990) Agroecology: Researching the Ecological Basis for Sustainable Agriculture. Springer-Verlag, New York. xiv+380pp. [Part II] (Source of Lumsden 1990)

GOLDBURG, Rebecca, Jane RISSLER, Hope SHAND, and Chuck HASSEBROOK (1990) Biotechnology’s Bitter Harvest: Herbicide Tolerant Crops and the Threat to Sustainable Agriculture. A Report of the Biotechnology Working Group (available from RAFI*). 73pp. [Ch. 14]

GORDON, Gillian (1969) The evaluation of nutrition programs. Paper read at the Institute of Social and Statistical Research, Legon, Ghana, mss. [Ch. 16]

GORDON, Gillian (1973) An Evaluation of Nutrition Education Given to Pregnant and Nursing Women in Six Communities in the Upper Region of Ghana. M. Sc. Thesis, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana. 435pp. [Ch. 16]

GOULD, Fred (1988) Evolutionary biology and genetically engineered crops. BioScience 38(1):26-33. [Ch. 13, 14]

GRAY, Robert F. (1963) The Sonjo of Tanganyika: An Anthropological Study of an Irrigation Based Society. Oxford University Press for the International African Institute, London. xii+181pp. [Ch. 12]

GREENOUGH, William B. (1987) Status of cereal-based oral rehydration therapy. In Symposium Proceedings. Cereal-Based Oral Rehydradon Therapy: Theory and Practice. Pp.29-32. International Child Health Foundation, PO Box 1205, Columbia, Maryland 21044, USA. [Ch. 16]

GRIFFITHS, J.F., ed. (1972) Climates of Africa. Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. xv+604pp. [Ch. 11] Contains chapters explaining climates of different regions of the continent. Many tables including one giving monthly and yearly mean maximum, and mean minimum temperature, and mean, mean maximum and mean minimum precipitation for many locations in Africa.

GRIVETTI, Louis E. (1978) Nutritional success in a semi-arid land: Examination of Tswana agro-pastoralists of the eastern Kalahari, Botswana. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 31:1204-1220. [Ch. 2, 14]

GR, Ingolf, Michel BECK, John S. CALDWELL, and Marilyn S. PREHM (1989) Development and testing of integrative methods to assess relationships between garden production and nutrient consumption by low-income families. Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA. mss. 26pp. [Ch. 4]

GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fhnische Zusammernarbeit) (1980) Post Harvest Problems. GTZ*, Germany. 258pp+33pp annex. [Ch. 14] (Source of Zehrer 1980; Zehrer, et al. 1980)

GUPTA, J.P., and G.N. GUPTA (1983) Effects of grass mulching on growth and yields of legumes. Agricultural Water Management 6:375-383. [Ch. 10] Reports results of 2 seasons’ experiments in semiarid India on mulching of legume grains. Does not state whether grass mulch applied was fresh or dry.

GUPTA, U.S., ed. (1975) Physiological Aspects of Dryland Farming. Allanheld, Osmun & Co., Montclair, New Jersey, USA. xv+391pp. (Source of Arnon 1975; Larson 1975)

GUTMAN, Pablo (1987) Urban agriculture: The potential and limitations of an urban self-reliance strategy. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 9:37-42. [Ch. 3]

HALDERMAN, Alan D. (1977) Irrigation: When? How Much? How? (Revised) Bulletin A20. College of Agriculture, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA. 10pp. [Ch. 10]

HALL, A.E., G.H. CANNELL, and H.W. LAWTON, eds. (1979) Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany. xvi+340pp. (Source of Dancette and Hall 1979; Hall, Foster, and Waines 1979; Henderson 1979; Lawton and Wilke 1979)

HALL, A.E., K.W. FOSTER, and J.G. WAINES (1979) Crop adaptation to semi-arid environments. In Hall, Cannell, and Lawton 1979:148-179. [Ch. 5]

HAMMOND, Peter (1966) Yatenga: Technology in the Culture of a West African Kingdom. The Free Press, New York. xi+231pp. [Ch. 3, 9] Offers a brief description of wet- and dry-season gardens, though confusing in places.

HARLAN, Jack R. (1976) Genetic resources in wild relatives of crops. Crop Science 16:329-333. [Ch. 14]

HARTMANN, Hudson T., and Dale E. KESTER (1983) Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices. 4th ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632, USA. 727pp. [Ch. 5, 6, 7, 8, 14] A standard reference in the field.

HASWELL, M.J. (1975) The Nature of Poverty. Macmillan, London. [Ch. 3]

HENDERSON, D.W. (1979) Soil management in semi-arid environments. In Hall, Cannell, and Lawton 1979:224-237. [Ch. 10]

HILL, Dennis S. (1983) Agricultural Insect Pests of the Tropics and Their Control. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. xii+746pp. [Ch. 13] Extensive coverage of insect pests with good line drawings. Emphasizes synthetic chemical pesticides and “improved” crop varieties as the best approach.

HILL, Dennis S. and J.M. WALLER (1982) Pests and Diseases of Tropical Crops. Volume 1. Principles and Methods of Control. Longman, London. xvi+175pp. [Ch. 13] An easy-to-read handbook with same emphases as Hill (1983).

HOFKES, E.H. (1983) Water Pumping for Rural Water Supply. ENDA Third World Documents Series No. 21-81. ENDA*, Dakar, Senegal. 52pp. [Ch. 12]

HORTICULTURAL ABSTRACTS (1984) 55(5):283. [Ch. 8]

IBPGR (International Board for Plant Genetic Resources) (1987) IBPGR Annual Report 1986. IBPGR Headquarters, Crop Genetic Resources Center, Plant Production and Protection Division, FAO*, Rome. vi+89pp. [Ch. 14]

ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics) (1986) ICRISAT in Africa. ICRISAT*, Andhra Pradesh, India. 60pp. [Ch. 14]

IDRC (International Development Research Centre) (1980) Nutritional Status of the Rural Population of the Sahel. Report of a working group, Paris, France, April 28-29 1980. IDRC*, Ottawa, Canada. [Ch. 2]

IGBOANUGO, A.B.I. (1986) Phytotoxic effects of some Eucalypts on food crops, particularly on germination and radicle extension. Tropical Science 26:19-24. [Ch. 8]

IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture) (1986) Annual Report and Research Highlights 1985. IITA*, Ibadan, Nigeria. 145pp. [Ch. 14]

ILO (International Labor Organization) (1985) Rural Development and Women: Lessons From the Field. Vol. 1: Women in Production and Marketing and Their Access to Credit. ILO/DANIDA/80/INT/35. International Labor Office, Geneva, Switzerland. (Source of Duggan 1985; Milimo 1985)

IMMINK, M.D.C./D. SANJUR and M. COLON (1981) Home gardens and the energy and nutrient intakes of women and preschoolers in rural Puerto Rico. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 11:191-199. [Ch. 2]

IOCU (International Organization of Consumers Unions) (1984) The Pesticide Handbook. Profiles for Action. IOCU*, Penang, Malaysia. 165pp. [Ch. 13] Lists major pesticides and their hazards. Some background papers on global issues and brief case studies of 3 Third World countries.

IREMIREN, G.O. (1987) Effects of artificial defoliation on the growth and yield of okra (A. esculentus) Experimental Agriculture 23(1):1-7. [Ch. 15]

IRRI (International Rice Research Institute) (1989) Publications of the International Agricultural Research and Development Centers. IRRI*, Los Banos, Philippines. 547pp. [Ch. 19]

IRVINE, F.R. (1969) West African Crops. Oxford University Press, London. ix+272pp. [Ch. 2,7,18] General introduction to specific crops in humid to semi-arid areas with emphasis on commercial crops. Appears to be based mostly on author’s experience in Nigeria and Ghana.

ISENALUMHE, Anthony E. (1986) Modified adult meals: A plausible alternative to orthodox weaning foods in a Nigerian community. Hygie 5(4): 14-19. [Ch. 16]

JELLIFE, D.B. (1972) Commerciogenic malnutrition? Nutrition Reviews 30(9):199-205. [Ch. 3]

JELLIFE, D.B. and E.F.P. JELLIFE (1978) Human Milk in the Modern World. Oxford University Press, London. [Ch. 16]

JENSEN, M.E., ed. (1980) Design and Operation of Farm Irrigation Systems. The American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan, USA. xi+829pp. [Ch. 12] (Source of Merriam, et al. 1980; Stegman, et al. 1980)

JETT, Stephen C. (1979) Peach cultivation and use among the Canyon de Chelly Navajo. Economic Botany 33(3):298-310. [Ch. 14]

JOHNSON, Allen (1974) Ethnoecology and planting practices in a swidden agricultural system. American Ethnologist 1:87-101. [Ch. 9]

KASSAM, A.H. (1976) Crops of the West African Semi-Arid Tropics. ICRISAT*, Andrha Pradesh, India. vii+154pp. [Ch. 5,7,18] Covers 23 important crops in depth: ecology, cultivation, diseases, and pests. Garden crops include cowpea, groundnut, soybean, cassava, yam, sweet potato, cocoyam, potato, tomato, onion, pepper, okra, roselle, sesame, and sugarcane.

KENNEDY, E. (1983) Determinants of family and preschool food consumption. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 5(4):22-29. [Ch. 3]

KENNEDY, W.K., and T.A. ROGERS (1985) Human and Animal Powered Water-Lifting Devices. IT Publications*, London, 111pp. [Ch. 12]

KEYSTONE CENTER (1990) Madras Plenary Session: Final Consensus Report of the Keystone International Dialogue Series on Plant Genetic Resources. Genetic Resources Communication Systems, Washington, DC, USA. 38pp. [Ch. 14]

KHOKHAR, Santosh, and B.M. CHAUHAW (1986) Antinutritional factors in moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia): Varietal differences and effects of methods of domestic processing and cooking. Journal of Food Science 51 (3):591-594. [Ch. 2,15]

KING, J., D.O. NNANYELUGO, H. ENE-OBONG, and P.O. NGODDY (1985) Household consumption profile of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) among low-income families in Nigeria. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 16:209-221. [Ch. 14]

KING, Maurice H., Felicity KING, and Soebagyo MARTODIPOERO (1980) Primary Child Care. Book One. A Manual for Health Workers. Corrected ed. Oxford University Press, (available from IT Publications*) xi+315pp. [Ch. 16]

KING, Maurice H., Felicity M.A. KING, David C. MORLEY, H.J. Leslie BURGESS, and Ann P. BURGESS (1972) Nutrition for Developing Countries. With Special Reference to the Maize, Cassava and Millet areas of Africa. Oxford University Press, Nairobi, vars. pp. [Ch. 16] A book for schoolteachers and literate field workers involved with family health and nutrition in East Africa. The simple style, East African examples, and numerous illustrations make it an accessible book for those with no previous formal training in nutrition. Each chapter concludes with a section of “Things to do,” activities to demonstrate or reinforce the topics covered in the chapter.

KIRKBY, Anne V.T. (1973) The Uses of Land and Water Resources in the Past and Present Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, No. 5. Prehistory and Human Ecology of the Valley of Oaxaca, Vol. 1. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. [Ch. 11]

KLEE, Gary A., ed. (1980) World Systems of Traditional Resource Management. John Wiley and Son, New York, USA. (Source of Denevan 1980; Manners 1980)

KLEER, Jerzy, and Augustyn WOS, eds. (1988) Small-Scale Food Production in Polish Urban Agglomerations. Food-Energy Nexus Report No. 26, Food-Energy Nexus Program, United Nations University, Paris. 63pp. [Part I, Ch. 3]

KLOPPENBURG, Jack Jr. (1988) First the Seed: The Political Economy of Plant Biotechnology, 1492-2000. Cambridge University Press, New York. [Ch. 14] An account of how seeds have come increasingly under the control of private enterprise in the USA. Chap. 8, “Heterosis and the Social Division of Labor” is a good social history of hybrid maize seed.

KLOPPENBURG, Jack Jr., and Daniel Lee KLEIN-MAN (1987) The plant germplasm controversy. Bioscience 37(3):190-198. [Ch. 14]

KOEGEL, R.G. (1977) (reprinted 1985) Self-Help Wells. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 30. FAO*, Rome. 77pp. [Ch. 11] A brief review of several techniques for both small- and large-diameter wells. Not a practical manual, but a guide to “provide ideas”, with many pictures and diagrams.

KOGAN, Marcos (1986) Ecological Theory and Integrated Pest Management. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA. (Source of Levins 1986)

KOLARKAR, A.S., K.N.K. MURTHY, and N. SINGH (1983) Khadin: A method of harvesting water for agriculture in the Thar Desert. Journal of Arid Environments 6:59-66. [Ch. 11]

KOLARKAR, A.S., Y.V. SINGH, and A.N. LAHIRI (1983) Use of discarded plastic infusion sets from hospitals in irrigation on small farms in arid regions. Journal of Arid Environments 6:385-389. [Ch. 12]

KOURIK, Robert (1986) Designing and Maintaining Your Edible Landscape Naturally. The Edible Landscape Book Project, Santa Rosa, California, USA. xxi+370pp. [Ch. 8]

KUMAR, S.K. (1978) Role of the Household Economy in Child Nutrition at Low-Incomes: Case Study in Kerala. Occasional Paper No. 95. Department of Agricultural Economics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA. 78pp. [Ch. 2,3]

LADD, Edmund J. (1979) Zuni Economy. In Ortiz: 1979:492-497. Includes a brief description of Zuni sunken bed gardens of southwestern North America. [Ch. 9,11]

LAGEMANN, Johannes (1977) Traditional African Farming Systems in Eastern Nigeria: An Analysis of Reaction to Increasing Population Pressure. Weltform-Verlag, Munich, Germany. [Part II, Ch. 3,9]

LAL, Rattan (1987) Managing the soils of sub-Saharan Africa. Science 236:1069-1076. [Ch. 9].

LAPPE, Frances Moore (1982) Diet for a Small Planet. revised ed. (First published 1971) Ballantine Books, New York, USA. 432pp. From Food First*. [Ch. 2,19] An excellent discussion of how the food system in the developed world is related to hunger in the rest of the world. Good explanation of protein complementarity for meatless diets.

LAPPE, Frances Moore, and Joseph COLLINS, with Cary FOWLER (1978) Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity. Revised ed. Ballantine Books, New York, USA. From Food First*. xvii+619pp. [Ch. 19] A powerfully-written argument that it is not scarcity or over-population that causes hunger, but inequality of control over productive resources. Concludes with suggestions for change and personal involvement.

LARSON, K.L. (1975) Drought injury and resistance of crop plants. In Gupta 1975:147-165. [Ch. 8]

LA ROVERE, Emilio Lebre (1985) Food and Energy in Rio de Janeiro: Provisioning the Poor. Food-Energy Nexus Research Report No. 13, Food-Energy Nexus Program, United Nations University, Paris. 59pp. [Ch. 3]

LATHAM, Michael C. (1979) Human Nutrition in Tropical Africa. 2nd ed. FAO Food and Nutrition Series No. 11. FAO*, Rome. xi+286pp. [Ch. 2,16] Written “with special reference to community health problems in East Africa.” An extremely useful reference and textbook for health care workers, especially in east Africa. It includes many photographs and thorough explanations of basic nutrition and nutrition related diseases, recommendations for policy planners and recipe suggestions for household and institutional preparation of foods. Infant and child health is discussed throughout with section 35 giving “recipes for infants and young children.” Overall it emphasizes practical, locally appropriate responses to nutritional need, although only mentions gardens briefly (pp. 183,184).

LATHAM, Michael C. (1984) Strategies for the control of malnutrition and the influence of the nutritional sciences. Food and Nutrition 10(1):5-35. [Ch. 2]

LATHAM, Michael C. (1990) Innapropriate modernization and Westernization as causes of malnutrition and health disorders in non-industrialized countries. In Brun and Latham 1990:86-93. [Part I, Ch. 2]

LAWTON, H.W. and P.J. WILKE (1979) Ancient agricultural systems in dry regions. In Hall, Cannell, and Lawton 1979:1-44. [Ch. 12]

LEACH, Edmund (1961) Pul Eliya: A Village in Ceylon. A Study of Land Tenure and Kinship. Cambridge University Press, London, UK. [Ch. 12]

LEON, Jorge, and Lyndsey A. WITHERS, eds. (1986) Guidelines for Seed Exchange and Plant Introduction in the Tropics. FAO*, Rome. [Ch. 14]

LEONARD, David (1980) Soils, Crops and Fertilizer Use: A What, How and Why Guide. 3rd ed. (First published 1967) Reprint R-8. Peace Corps, Washington, DC. iii+162pp. [Ch. 9,11] Includes some useful information on soils and practical tests for gardeners, though one-half of this book is on commercial fertilizers. Written for Peace Corps Volunteers, with much United States English slang.

LEUNG, Woot-Tsuen Wu, with Marina FLORES (1961) Food Composition Table for use in Latin America. Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama, Guatemala City, Guatemala, and National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. xi+145pp. [Ch. 2]

LEUNG, Woot-Tsuen Wu, with Felix BUSSON and Claude JARDIN (1968) Food Composition Table for use in Africa. FAO*, Rome; Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. ix+306pp. [Ch. 2,16]

LEUNG, Woot-Tsuen Wu, Ritva Rauaheimo BUTRUM, Flora Huang CHANG, M. Narayana RAO, and W. POLACCHI (1972) Food Composition Table for use in East Asia. FAO”, Rome; National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. xiii+334pp. [Ch. 2]

LEVI, John, and Michael HAVINDEN (1982) Economics of African Agriculture. Longman*, London. vii+175pp. [Ch. 2,3] A good introduction to economics from the viewpoint of the small-scale farmer. Does not require any previous economics or math.

LEVINS, Richard (1986) Perspectives in integrated pest management: From an industrial to ecological model of pest management. In Kogan 1986:1-18. [Ch. 13]

LONGHURST, Richard (1983) Agricultural production and food consumption: Some neglected linkages. Food and Nutrition 9(2):2-6. [Ch. 2,16]

LUMSDEN, R.D., R. GARCIA-E., J.A. LEWIS, and G.A. FRIAS-T. (1990) Reduction of damping-off disease in soils from indigenous Mexican agroecosytems. In Gliessman 1990:83-103. [Ch. 13]

MAAS, P.W. (1987) Physical methods and quarantine. In Brown and Kerry 1987:265-291. [Ch. 13]

MACNAB, A.A., A.F. SHERF, and J.K. SPRINGER (1983) Identifying Diseases of Vegetables. Pennsylvania State University, College of Agriculture, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA. 62pp. [Ch. 13]

MAEDA, E.E., and D.K. SALUNKHE (1981) Retention of ascorbic acid and total carotene in solar dried vegetables. Journal of Food Science 46:1288-1290. [Ch. 15]

MANNERS, Ian R. (1980) The Middle East. In Klee 1980:39-65. [Ch. 12]

MARTEN, Gerald G., and Oekan S. ABDOELLAH (1988) Crop diversity and nutrition in West Java. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 21:17-43. [Ch. 14]

MAYER, A.M. and A. POLJAKOFF-MAYBER (1975) The Germination of Seeds. 2nd ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK. [Ch. 6]

MERRIAM. J.L., M.N. SHEARER, and C.M. BURT (1980) Evaluating irrigation systems and practices. In Jensen 1980:721-760. [Ch. 10]

MILIMO, Mabel C. (1985) Chikuni fruit and vegetable producer’s co-operative society, Zambia - A case study. In ILO 1985:21-35. [Ch. 3]

MING, Wang and Sun YUN-WEl (1986) Fruit trees and vegetables for arid and semi-arid areas in northwest China. Journal of Arid Environments 11:3-16. [Ch. 10]

MNZAVA, Namens (1986) Compensatory leaf and seed yield increase in vegetable rape (Brassica carinata). [Abstract] Hortscience 21(3) [Ch. 15]

MONDAL, R.C. (1974) Farming with a pitcher: A technique of water conservation. World Crops March/April:94-97. [Ch. 12]

MORGAN, W.T.W. (1974) The South Turkana expedition. Scientific Papers X. Sorghum gardens in south Turkana. The Geographical Journal 140:80-93. [Ch. 9,11] Description of sorghum gardens cultivated by Turkana pastoralists in arid northern Kenya. Details of hydrology and soils but comparatively little on cultivation or socioeconomic aspects.

NABHAN, Gary P. (1979) The ecology of floodwater farming in arid southwestern North America. Agro-Ecosystems 5:245-255. [Ch. 11] Brief, general description of some of the techniques used traditionally by the Tohono O’Odham and other groups.

NABHAN, Gary P. (1983) Papago Fields: Arid Lands Ethnobotany and Agricultural Ecology. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA. [Ch. 8]

NABHAN, Gary P., Cynthia ANSON, and Mahina DREES (1981) Kaicka: Seed Saving the Papago-Pima Way. Meals for Millions/Freedom from Hunger Foundation, Tucson, Arizona, USA. [Ch. 14]

NABHAN, Gary P., and Amadeo REA (1988) Plant domestication and folk-biological change: The upper Piman/devil’s claw example. American Anthropologist 89:57-73. [Ch. 14]

NABHAN, Gary P., and Thomas SHERIDAN (1977) Living fence rows of the Rio San Miguel, Sonora, Mexico: Traditional technology for floodplain management. Human Ecology 5:97-111. [Ch. 9,13]

NAS (National Academy of Sciences) (1972) Genetic Vulnerability in Major Crops. NAS, Washington, DC, USA. [Ch. 14]

NAS (1973) Toxicants Occurring Naturally in Foods. 2nd ed. NAS, Washington, DC, USA. [Ch. 2] (Source of Oberlas 1973; Singleton and Kratzer 1973)

NAS (1975) Underexploited Plants with Promising Economic Value. NAS, Washington, DC, USA. ix+188pp. (Available from BOSTID*) [Ch. 18]

NAS (1978) Post Harvest Food Losses in Developing Countries. NAS, Washington, DC, USA. 200pp. (Available from BOSTID*) [Ch. 14]

NAS (1979) Tropical Legumes: Resources for the Future. NAS, Washington, DC, USA. x+331pp. (Available from BOSTID*) [Ch. 18]

NAS (1980) Firewood Crops. NAS, Washington, DC. xi+233pp. (Available from BOSTID-) [Ch. 13,14]

NAS (1986) Common Property Resource Management. NAS, Washington, DC, USA. xi+631pp. (Available from BOSTID*) [Ch. 3]

NAS (1989a) Alternative Agriculture. NAS, Washington, DC, USA. xiv+448pp. [Ch. 3]

NAS (1989b) Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA. xii+407pp. (Available from BOSTID*) [Ch. 18]

NAS (1990) Saline Agriculture: Salt Tolerant Plants for Developing Countries. NAS, Washington, DC, USA. viii+133pp. (Available from BOSTID*) [Ch. 5] Part one, “Food” (pp. 17-49), lists salt tolerant conventional crops as well as many lesser known grains and tree fruits and seeds, along with references and research contacts.

NIZ Vera (1987) Household Gardens: Theoretical and Policy Considerations. Agricultural Systems 23(1987):167-186. [Part I]

NISSEN-PETERSEN, Erik (1982) Rain Catchment and Water Supply in Rural Africa: A Manual. Hodder & Stoughton, London, UK. Available from IT Publications*, London. x+83pp. [Ch. 11] Based on author’s 4 year’s experience in Makindu, Kenya, annual average rainfall = 1,000 mm in 2 seasons. Concentrates almost entirely on ferocement storage sytems, probably most appropriate for school or community gardens because of cost in time, skill, and resources. No data on cost or availability of materials.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) (1987) Local Climatological Data. 1986 Annual summary of comparative data. Tucson, Arizona-NOAA, Washington, DC, USA. 8pp. [Ch. 11]

NOKES, Jill (1986) How to Grow Native Plants of Texas and the Southwest. Texas Monthly Press, Austin, Texas, USA. [Ch. 7]

NRC (National Research Council) (1989) Recommended Dietary Allowances. 9th ed. Office of Publications, NAS, Washington, DC. x+284pp. + foldout table of RDAs. [Ch. 2] This is revised about every 5 years. However, due to disagreement, there were 9 years between the 9th and 10th editions. The RDAs are “designed for the maintenance of good nutrition of practically all healthy people in the USA,” and in many ways are not entirely appropriate for most developing countries where there is a much lower intake of protein and fat, higher activity levels, much higher levels of infectious diseases, and greater heat stress. They do, however, provide a widely recognized reference point for those areas where no local RDAs have been developed. See FAO/WHO (1973) and UNU (1979) for more appropriate standards for energy and protein.

OBERLEAS, Donald (1973) Phytates. In NAS 1973:363-371. [Ch. 2]

O’BRIEN-PLACE, Patricia M. (1987) Evaluating Home Garden Projects. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of International Cooperation and Development, Nutrition Economics Group, in cooperation with U.S. Agency for International Development, Bureau for Science and Technology, Office of Nutrition, Washington, DC, USA. 31pp. [Ch. 4] One of the only efforts to systematically address the problem of evaluating garden projects. It is preliminary and meant to stimulate further revision in the field, but this has not yet occurred. It has a rather narrow economic focus and requires a large number of quantitative measurements.

ODUNFA, S.A. (1985) African fermented foods. In Microbiology of Fermented Foods, Vol. 2. Brian J.B. Wood, ed. Elsevier Applied Science Publisher, London, UK. Pp.155-191. [Ch. 2,15]

OFUYA, T.I. (1986) Use of wood ash, dry chili pepper fruits and onion scale leaves for reducing Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) damage in cow-pea seeds during storage. Journal of Agricultural Science 107:467-468. [Ch. 14]

OGUNTOYINBO, Julius and Paul RICHARDS (1978) Drought and the Nigerian farmer. Journal of Arid Environments 1:165-194. [Ch. 11]

OLDFIELD, Margery L. (1984) The Value of Conserving Genetic Resources. National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC, USA. (Reprinted in 1989 by Sinauer Associates, Sunder-land, Massachusetts, USA.) xxii+360pp. [Ch. 14]

OLDFIELD, Margery L., and Janice B. ALCORN (1987) Conservation of traditional agroecosystems. Bioscience 37(3):199-208. [Ch. 14]

OMOHUNDRO, John T. (1985) Efficiency, sufficiency, and recent change in Newfoundland subsistence horticulture. Human Ecology 13(3):291-308. [Part I]

ONWUEME, I.C. (1978) The Tropical Tuber Crops: Yams, Cassava, Sweet Potato, and Cocoyams. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA. [Ch. 13] Detailed information on botany, life cycle, common pests and diseases, propagation, and cultivation of each plant; methods of harvest, storage, and food preparation are also discussed. Traditional techniques suitable for household gardens are discussed throughout, in addition to other techniques. Well documented with reference to research findings.

OOMEN, H.A.P.C., and G.J.H. GRUBBEN (1978) Tropical Leaf Vegetables in Human Nutrition. Communication 69. Department of Agricultural Research, Koninklijk Institut voor de Tropen, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 140pp. [Ch. 2,15,16]

ORR, David (1988) Food alchemy and sustainable agriculture. Bioscience 38:801-802. [Part II]

ORTIZ, Alfonso, ed. (1979) Handbook of North American Indians. Volume 9. Southwest. The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA. xvi+701pp. A survey of native peoples in this dryland region including some information on gardens. (Source of Ladd 1979; Kennard 1979)

OUANGRAOUA, Hamado (1988) Protecting the garden. The IDRC* Reports 17(4):18-19. [Ch. 13]

PACEY, Arnold (1978) Gardening for Better Nutrition. IT Publications*, London, UK. 64pp. [Part I] This booklet is still in print. It is based on a review of PVO garden projects, and shows that many fail because of not understanding the local situation. The discussion of production techniques in the second half of the book is not very useful.

PACEY, Arnold, with Adrian CULLIS (1986) Rain Water Harvesting: The Collection of Rainfall and Runoff in Rural Areas. IT Publications*, London, UK. vih+216pp. [Ch. 9,11] This is a good general introduction to the topic, primarily at a scale appropriate for household gardens. However, the organization and descriptions are sometimes a bit confusing. It is not a field guide or technical manual, although much factual information is presented. The authors emphasize throughout that spending a great deal of time and resources gathering data and making detailed design calculations, although theoretically desirable, may in practice be inappropriate to the needs of the poor. Rather, they emphasize the value of traditional water harvesting techniques, the importance of the socioeconomic setting, and the need for experimentation involving both development professionals and local people.

PACEY, Arnold, and Philip PAYNE, eds. (1985) Agricultural Development and Nutrition. Hutchinson and Company, London, and Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA. 255pp. [Ch. 4]

PAGE, W. W., and Paul RICHARDS (1977) Agricultural pest control by community action: The case of the variegated grasshopper in southern Nigeria. African Environment 2(4) and 3(1):127-141. (Available from ENDA*) [Ch. 13] Reports investigations near Ibadan of indigenous knowledge of this serious pest and how to control it.

PANASIUK, Oksana, and Donald D. BILLS (1984) Cyanide content of sorghum sprouts. Journal of Food Science 49:791-793. [Ch. 15]

PASSMORE, R., B.M. NICOL, and M. Narayana RAO (1974) Handbook on Human Nutritional Requirements. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 66pp. (Reprinted 1981) [Ch. 2]

PENNINGTON, Campbell W. (1979) The Pima Bajo of Central Sonora, Mexico. Vol. I. The Material Culture. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. [Ch. 15]

PIMENTEL, David (1988) Pesticides: Energy use in chemical agriculture. In Bettolo 1988:157-175. [Ch. 13]

PIMENTEL, David, and Marcia PIMENTEL (1979) Food, Energy and Society. Edward Arnold, London, UK. viii+165pp. [Ch. 3] Discusses energy efficiencies for different types of agriculture with many tables showing data for specific case studies. Makes the point that industrial food production is much less energy efficient than small-scale, low-input production.

PIWOZ Ellen G., and Fernando E. VITERI (1985) Studying health and nutrition behavior by examining household decision-making, intra-household resource distribution, and the role of women in these processes. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 7(4):1-31. [Ch. 3]

PLUCKNETT, Donald L., Nigel J.H. SMITH, J.T. WILLIAMS, and N. Murthi ANISHETTY (1987) Gene Banks and the World’s Food. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA. xv+247pp. [Ch. 14] Enthusiastic promotion of gene banks as the only way of conserving crop genetic diversity.

POPENOE, Paul (1973) The Date Palm. Field Research Projects, Coconut Grove, Miami, Florida, USA. [Ch. 7]

PRATT, Brian, and Jo BOYDEN, eds. (1985) The Field Directors’ Handbook: An OXFAM Manual for Development Workers. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. (Available from OXFAM UK*) 512pp. [Ch. 4]

PURSEGLOVE, J.W. (1974) Tropical Crops: Dicotyledons. Corrected ed. Longman*, London, UK. 719pp. (First published in 1968 in 2 volumes) [Ch. 6,9,14,18] A standard reference. Covers origin and distribution, cultivars, ecology, plant structure, pollination and fruit set, germination, chemical composition, propagation, husbandry, major diseases, major pests, improvement, and production; gives major references for each plant considered. Excellent line drawings.

PURSEGLOVE, J.W. (1983) Tropical Crops: Monocotyledons. Revised ed. Longman, London, UK. 607pp. (first published in 1972 in 2 volumes). [Ch. 6,18] Same format as Purseglove 1974.

PURSEGOLVE, J.W., E.G. BROWN, C.L. GREEN and S.R.J. ROBBINS (1981) Spices, vols. 1 and 2. Longman, London, UK. xi+813pp. [Ch. 18] A standard reference. Covers pepper, cinnamon, cassia, nutmeg, mace, clove, pimento, and chilis in vol. 1, and ginger, tumeric, cardamon, vanilla, and coriander in vol. 2. Also discusses related crops in less detail.

QUEROL, Daniel (1988) Recursos Gencos, Nuestro Tesoro Olivadado: Aproximaciica y Socio-econa. Industrial Grafica S.A., Lima, Peru. xviii+218pp. [Ch. 14]

RADEWALD, John D. (1977) Nematode Diseases of Food and Fiber Crops of the Southwestern United States. Priced Publication 4083. Division of Agricultural Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA. 64pp. [Ch. 13] Oriented to large-scale growers. Simply written introduction and very good drawings and colored photographs for identifying nematode damage. Most of the discussion of control, however, advocates dangerous synthetic chemicals.

RADWANSKI, S.A., and G.E. WICKENS (1981) Vegetative fallows and potential value of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) in the tropics. Economic Botany 35:398-414. [Ch. 13]

RAMA MOHAN RAO, M.S., V. RANGA RAO, M. RAMA CHANDRAM, and R.C. AGNIHOTRI (1977) Effect of vertical mulch on moisture conservation and yield of sorghum in Vertisols. Agricultural Water Management 1:333-342. [Ch. 10] Report of experiments carried out between 1971-76 in semiarid India showing positive effects of vertical mulch on production.

RANKINS, Jenice, Sampson HOPKINSON, and Mouhamadou DIOP (1989) Palatability and nutritional significance of solar dried mangoes for Senegal. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 23:131-140. [Ch. 15]

RAO, P. Udayasekhara, and Yeshwant G. DEOSTHALE (1982) Tannin content of pulses: Varietal differences and effects of germination and cooking. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 33:1013-1016. [Ch. 2,15]

RAVEN, Peter H., Ray F. EVERT, and Helena CURTIS (1981) Biology of Plants. 3rd ed. Worth Publishers, New York, USA. [Ch. 9,14]

RICE, Elroy L. (1983) Pest Control with Nature’s Chemicals: Allelochemics and Pheromones in Gardening and Agriculture. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, USA. xiii+224pp. [Ch. 8,13]

RICE, Elroy L. (1984) Allelopathy. 2nd edition. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, USA. xi+422pp. [Ch. 8]

RICHARDS, Paul (1985) Indigenous Agricultural Revolution: Ecology and Pood Production in West Africa. Hutchinson & Co., London, UK. [Ch. 14]

RICHARDS, Paul (1986) Coping with Hunger: Hazard and Experiment in an African Rice-Farming System. Allen and Unwin, London, UK. [Ch. 14] A case study documenting indigenous agricultural techniques for managing ecological variables and crop genetic resources a stable production.

ROBERTS, Daniel A. and Carl W. BOOTHROYD (1984) Fundamentals of Plant Pathology. 2nd ed. W.H. Freemman, New York, USA. xvi+432pp. [Ch. 13]

RODALE PRESS, ed. (1977) Proceedings of the First Annual Amaranth Seminar, July 29, 1977. Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA. 132pp. (Source of Early 1977)

RUTHENBERG, Hans (1980) Farming Systems in the Tropics. 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. xxii+424pp. [Ch. 8] An often-cited reference on agricultural systems in the tropics, including drylands. Very little on gardens per se, see pp. 73,76-77,127.

SAMSON, Jules A. (1986) Tropical Fruits. 2nd ed. Tropical Agriculture Series, Longman, New York, USA. ix+335pp. [Ch. 6]

SANYAL, Bishwapriya (1986) Urban Cultivation in East Africa. Food-Energy Nexus Research Report No. 14. Food-Energy Nexus Program, United Nations University, Paris. 75pp. [Ch. 3]

SAUL, Mahir (1981) Beer, sorghum and women: Production for the market in rural Upper Volta. Africa 51(3):746-764. [Ch. 4]

SCHMUTTERER, Heinz and K.R.S. ASCHER, eds. (1984) Natural Pesticides from the Neem Tree and other Tropical Plants. GTZ*, Eschborn, Germany. 587pp. (Source of Zehrer 1984)

SCHUMACHER, E.F. (1973) Small is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered. Harper and Row, New York. viii+305pp. [Ch. 3]

SCHWERDTFEGER, Werner, ed. (1976) Climates of Central and South America. xii+532pp. Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. [Ch. 11]

SCOTT, Earl Price (1976) Indigenous Systems of Exchange and Decision Making Among Smallholders in Rural Hausaland. Michigan Geographical Publication No. 16, Department of Geography, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. xxiv+303pp. [Ch. 3]

SCUDDER, Thayer (1962) The Ecology of the Gwembe Tonga. Manchester University Press, Manchester, UK. [Ch. 11]

SCUDDER, Thayer (1982) Regional Planning for People, Parks and Wildlife in the Northern Portion of the Sebungwe Region. Working Paper 3/1982. Department of Land Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe. [Ch. 11]

SHANAN, L., and N.H. TADMOR (1979) Micro-Catchment Systems for Arid Zone Development: A Handbook for Design and Construction. 2nd ed. Centre of International Agricultural Cooperation, Hebrew University, and Ministry of Agriculture, Jeruselem and Rehovot, Israel. vii+73pp. [Ch. 11] Summarizes existing practices and proposes design criteria with figures and illustrations. Based on projects in Israel, but takes into account work done elsewhere.

SHARMA, K.D., O.P. PAREEK, and H.P. SINGH (1982) Effect of runoff concentration on growth and yield of jujube. Agricultural Water Management 5:73-84. [Ch. 11] Reports 5 years of experiments in semiarid India. Effect of catchment slope, length, and CGAR on fruit production. No statistical analysis, no data on catchment treatment or erosion.

SHRIMPTON, Roger (1989) Vitamin A deficiency in Brazil: Perspectives for food production oriented interventions. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 23:261-271. [Ch. 2]

SIMPSON, Kenneth L. (1983) Relative value of carote-noids as precursors of vitamin A. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 42:7-17. [Ch. 15]

SINGLETON, V.L., and F.H. KRATZER (1973) Plant phenolics. In NAS 1973:309-345. [Ch. 2]

SMALE, M. (1980) Women in Mauritania: The effect of drought and migration on their economic status and implications for development problems. Office of Women in Development, U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, DC, USA. [Ch. 3]

SMITH, P.D., and W.R.S. CRITCHLEY (1985) The potential of runoff harvesting for crop production and range rehabilitation in semiarid Baringo. In Soil and Water Conservation in Kenya. Proceedings of a Second National Workshop. Pp. 305-322. Institute for Development Studies and Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. [Ch. 11]

SMITH, R.J., and N.H. HANCOCK (1986) Leaching requirements of irrigated soils. Agricultural Water Management 11:13-22. [Ch. 12] An alternative method of calculating LR is developed based only on salinity of irrigation water and acceptable salinity of soil. This method is compared with other widely used methods, from which it differs significantly.

SOLERI, Daniela (1989) Hopi gardens. Arid Lands Newsletter 29:11-14. [Ch. 6,9]

SOLERI, Daniela and David A. CLEVELAND (1989) Hopi Crop Diversity and Change: A Report on a Preliminary Survey of Hopi Crop Genetic Resources. Project Report of Sources of Seed in a Native American Farming Tradition: Hopi Crops After A Half Century of Culture Change. 59pp. Native Seeds/SEARCH*, Tucson, Arizona, USA. [Ch. 12,14]

SOLON, Florentine, Tomas L. FERNANDEZ, Michael C. LATHAM, and Barry M. POPKIN. (1979) An Evaluation of strategies to control vitamin A deficiency in the Philippines. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 32:1445-1453. [Ch. 2]

SOMMER, Alfred, Ignatius TARWOTJO, Gusti HUSSAINI, and Djoko SUSANTO (1983) Increased mortality in children with mild vitamin A deficiency. The Lancet 1983 2:585-588. [Ch. 2]

SOMMER, Alfred, Ignatius TARWOTJO, Edi DJUNAEDI, Keith P. WEST, A.A. LOEDEN, and Robert TILDEN (1986) Impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood mortality. The Lancet 19861:1169-1173. [Ch. 2]

SOMMER, Alfred, Ignatius TARWOTJO, and Joanne KATZ (1987) Increased risk of xerophthalmia following diarrhea and respiratory disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45:977-980. [Ch. 2]

SOMMERS, Paul (1984) Dry Season Gardening for Improving Child Nutrition. UNICEF*, New York, New York, USA. 48pp. [Part I]

SPRADLEY, James P. (1979) The Ethnographic Interview. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, USA. vi+247pp. [Ch. 4,9]

SPRADLEY, James P. (1980) Participant Observation. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, USA. xi+195 pp. [Ch. 4]

STEGMAN, E.G., J.T. MUSICK, and J.I. STEWART (1980) Irrigation water management. In Jensen 1980:763-816. [Ch. 10,12]

STERN, Peter (1979) Small Scale Irrigation: A Manual of Low-Cost Water Technology. Intermediate Technology and International Irrigation Information Center, London, UK, and Bet Dagan, Israel. (Available from IT Publications”) 152pp. [Ch. 10,11,12] A brief general introduction covering some basic information, but mostly for applications larger than household gardens; not enough detail for field use; few references given. Little consideration of traditional systems of irrigation or of how Western techniques presented in more detail could be integrated with existing techniques, e.g. planting in rows is usually assumed (pp. 43-44).

STOLER, Ann (1979) Garden use and household economy in Java. In Agriculture and Rural Development in Indonesia. G.E. Hansen, ed. Pp. 242-254. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA. [Ch. 2,3]

STOLL, Gaby (1987) Natural Crop Protection: Based on Local Farm Resources in the Tropics and Sub-tropics. 2nd ed. Verlag Josef Margraf. 187pp. [Ch. 13] Order from TRIOPS, Tropical Scientific Books, Raif-feisenstr. 24, D-6070 Langen, FR Germany. Available in English, German and Spanish. An annotated bibliography emphasizing the use of local resources. Has sections for specific crops and for field and storage methods.

STONE, M. Priscilla, Barbara PERQUIN and Sarr HAMIDOU (1987) Vegetable Production Along the Senegal River. A Reconnaissance Survey of Gardens in the Brakna and Gorgol Regions. Mauritania Agricultural Research Project II, College of Agriculture, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA. [Ch. 3]

TAIT, Joyce and Banpot NAPOMPETH, eds. (1987) Management of Pests and Pesticides: Farmers’ Perceptions and Practice. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA. (Source of Atteh 1987)

TAKAHASHI, K., and H. ARAKAWA (1981) Climates of Southern and Western Asia. Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. xiii+333pp. [Ch. 11]

TAMANG, Jyoti P., Prabirk SARKAR, and Clifford W. HESSELTINE (1988) Traditional fermented foods and beverages of Darjeeling and Sikkim: A review. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 44(4):375-385. [Ch. 15]

TARWOTJO, Ignatius, Alfred SOMMER, Tito SOEGIHARTO, Djoko SUSANTO, and MUHILAL (1982) Dietary practices and xerophthalmia among Indonesian children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 35:574-581. [Ch. 2]

THOMSON, James T. (1980) Preliminary evaluation: OXFAM Micro-Catchment Project, Ouahigouya, Upper Volta. mss. submitted to OXFAM UK*. [Ch. 11]

TITILOYE, E.O., E.O. LUCAS and A.A. AGBOOLA (1985) Evaluation of fertilizer value of organic waste materials in south western Nigeria. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 3:25-37. [Ch. 9]

TODARO, Michael (1985) Economic Development in the Third World. 3rd ed. Longman, New York, USA. [Part I, Ch. 3] A popular textbook; makes the standard assumptions about the necessity of economic growth and industrial agriculture.

TRICAUD, Pierre-Marie (1987) Urban Agriculture in Ibadan and Freetown. Food Energy Nexus Research Report No. 23, Food Energy Nexus Program, United Nations University, Paris, France. 45pp. [Ch. 3]

TROEH, Frederick R., J. Arthur HOBBS and Roy L. DONAHUE (1980) Soil and Water Conservation for Productivity and Environmental Protection. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA. xv+718pp. [Ch. 9,10] Beginning textbook, with basics in easy-to-read style, although oriented toward large-scale production in the United States. Chapter 14, “Water Conservation” (pp. 454-489), is on drylands.

TUCK, Brian (1985) personal communication and draft mss., Le SaheLAn Agricultural Production Manual. [Ch. 14]

TULLY, Dennis (1988) Culture and Context in Sudan: The Process of Market Incorporation in Dar Masalit. State University of New York Press, Albany, New York, USA. xiii+306pp. [Ch. 8,12]

UDS (Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Science, University of Dar es Salaam) (1983) Proceedings of a Workshop on Resource-Efficient Farming Methods for Tanzania, May 16-20,1983. Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA. 128pp. [Ch. 9]

UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) (1983) Rain and Stormwater Harvesting in Rural Areas. Published for UNEP by Tycooly International, Dublin, Ireland. vii+238pp. [Ch. 11] Based on limited review of the literature and personal observations, from a discussion by UNEP consultants in 1979. Provides a general review of a great variety of water harvesting and floodwater farming methods with many photographs and drawings but few technical details.

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) (1977) Map of the World Distribution of Arid Regions. MAB Technical Notes 7. UNESCO, Paris. 54pp+world map 1:25,000,000 scale, 100 × 65 cm, in color. [Ch. l] This is the best map of world drylands we have seen. Accompanying booklet gives brief summaries of climate, vegetation, and land use for dryland countries or regions and diagrams showing the relationship between rainfall and potential ETm for 93 representative sites.

UNICEF (1985) Gardening for Food in the Semi-Arid Tropics. A Handbook for Programme Planners. A WHO/UNICEF Joint Nutrition Support Programme Publication. UNICEF*, New York, New York, USA. [Part I]

USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) (1975) Soil Taxonomy: A Basic System of Soil Classification for Mapping and Interpreting Soil Surveys. Agriculture Handbook No. 436. Soil Conservation Service, USDA, Washington, DC, USA. [Ch. 9]

USDA (1982) Composition of Foods: Fruits and Fruit Juices. Agricultural Handbook No. 8-9. USDA, Washington, DC, USA. vi+283pp. [Ch. 2]

USDA (1984a) Composition of Foods: Vegetables and Vegetable Products. Agricultural Handbook No. 8-11. USDA, Washington, DC, USA. vi+502pp. [Ch. 2]

USDA (1984b) Composition of Foods: Nut and Seed Products. Agricultural Handbook No. 8-12. USDA, Washington, DC, USA. v+137pp. [Ch. 2]

USDA (1989) Composition of Foods: Cereal Grains and Pasta. Agricultural Handbook No. 8-20. USDA, Washington, DC, USA. iv+137pp. [Ch. 2]

VAN DEN BOSCH, Robert, P.S. MESSENGER, and A.P. GUTIERREZ (1982) An Introduction to Biological Control. Plenum Press, New York, USA. xiv+247pp. [Ch. 13] Written as a beginning college text. Clear explanations with many examples.

VAN DOORNE, J.H. (1985) A review of small-scale irrigation schemes in Kenya. AGL/MISC/2/85. FAO*, Rome. 90pp. [Ch. 11]

VAN EPENHUIJSEN, C.W. (1978) La Culture des Lmes Indigs au Niga. FAO*, Rome. (Also in English) xiv+108pp. [Ch. 8,18] Promotes the production of local vegetables, but industrial growing methods. Includes descriptions of local Nigerian vegetables. See Brownrigg (1985) for description of the FAO project out of which this publication came.

VARISCO, Daniel Martin (1983) Irrigation in an Arabian valley. Expedition 25(2):26-34 [Ch. 10]

WALLERSTEIN, Immanuel (1974) The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. Academic Press, New York. xiv+410pp. [Ch. 3]

WARREN, D.M., L.J. SLIKKERVEER and S.O. TITILOLA, eds. (1989) Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. CIKARD*, Ames, Iowa, USA. 186pp. [Part I]

WATERLOW, J.C. (1982) Nutrient needs for man in different environments. In Food, Nutrition and Climate. Kenneth Blaxter and Leslie Fowder, eds. Pp. 271-283. Applied Science Publishers, London. [Ch. 2]

WATSON, J.D. (1976) Ascorbic acid content of plant foods in Ghana and the effects of cooking and storage on vitamin content. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 4:207-213. [Ch. 15]

WATT, S.B. (1978) Ferrocement Water Tanks and Their Construction. IT Publications*, London, UK. [Ch. 11]

WATT, S.B. and W.E. WOOD (1979) Hand Dug Wells and Their Construction. 2nd ed. IT Publications*, London, UK. 253pp. (First published 1977) [Ch. 11,12]

Based on field experience and clearly written with many useful diagrams and photographs. The 8 middle chapters describe in detail the construction of one type of well: “a reinforced concrete lined circular shaft well of 1.3 m internal diameter, excavated through sedimentary soils to an open aquifer having a water table some 20-30 m below ground surface. The wellhead is open, extraction of water will be by buckets and ropes, and construction is by ‘self-help’ methods employing local labour” (53). Details for making tools and equipment and for estimating labor, costs, and materials needed are given. The orientation is toward programs that will be building a number of wells and can therefore justify some fairly costly equipment. The authors give some alternative methods appropriate for building one or two wells using more local and less expensive materials; the principals remain the same.

WELTZIEN, H.C. and N. KETTERER (1986) Control of downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola (de Bary) Berlese et de Toni, on grapevine leaves through water extracts from composted organic wastes. Journal of Phytopathology 116:186-188. [Ch. 13]

WERNER, David (1977) Where There is No Doctor. The Hesperian Foundation*, Palo Alto, California, USA. [Ch. 2,11,13,16] An excellent manual for field use emphasizing prevention and inexpensive medical care. Available in Arabic, French, Spanish, and many other languages.

WERNER, David (1986) Report Concerning Diarrhea Control in Mozambique. Based on a 1986 visit by David Werner to Mozambique as a consultant to the Ministry of Health. The Hesperian Foundation*, Palo Alto, California, USA. 32pp. [Ch. 16]

WERNER, David, and Bill BOWER (1982) Helping Health Workers Learn: A Book of Methods, Aids and Ideas for Instructors at the Village Level. The Hesperian Foundation*, Palo Alto, California, USA. [Ch. 4,16] See the Resources section of Chapter 4 for a description of this valuable book.

WESTPHAL, E., et al. (1981) L’Agriculture Autochtone au Cameroun. Miscellaneous Papers 20 (1981), Lanbouwhogeschool, Wageningen, The Netherlands. H. Veenman & Zonen B.V., Wageningen, The Netherlands. (In French) 175pp. [Part II]

WESTPHAL, E., et al. (1985) Cultures Vivris Tropicales avec Rrence Spale au Cameroun. Pudoc, P.O. Box 4,6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. (In French) 514pp. [Part II]

WHO (World Health Organization) (1982) Control of Vitamin A Deficiency and Xerophthalmia. WHO Technical Report Series 672. WHO*, Geneva, Switzerland. 70pp. [Ch. 2] Popular to semipopular review of current knowledge on vitamin A deficiency, its assesment, distribution, treatment and control. Advocates gardens as a good source of vitamin A while warning that vitamin A content of foods given in food composition tables is unreliable and that more research is needed on how to improve consumption of indigenous DGLVs.

WHO (1986) Guidelines for Training Community Health Workers in Nutrition. (Revised ed.; First ed., 1981). Prepared by K. Bagchi. WHO*, Geneva, Switzerland. [Ch. 16] A good resource for training in maternal and child health and nutrition. A series of brief, accessible training modules provide a framework for addressing nutritional needs of mothers and children. These modules could easily be integrated with garden activities.

WILKEN, Gene C. (1977) Manual irrigation in Middle America. Agricultural Water Management 1:155-165. [Ch. 12] Describes manual irrigation from shallow wells; common for high-value vegetable crops in semiarid highlands.

WILKEN, Gene C. (1987) Good Farmers: Traditional Agricultural Resource Management in Mexico and Central America. University of California Press, Berkeley, California, USA. [Ch. 8,9]

WMO (World Meteorological Organization) (1983) Guide to Climatological Practices. 2nd ed. Secretariat of the WMO, Geneva, Switzerland. [Ch. 11]

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WORLD NEIGHBORS (1985) Introduction to Soil and Water Conservation Practices. World Neighbors, 5116 N. Portland Ave., Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73112, USA. 33pp. [Ch. 9]

WORSLEY (1984) Three Worlds: Culture and World Development. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA. xiv+409pp. [Ch. 3]

WRIGHT, Peter (1984) Report on runoff farming and soil conservation in Yatenga, Upper Volta. Report to OXFAM, Oxford, UK. (Cited in Pacey and Cullis 1986) [Ch. 9]

YOON, Soon Young (1983) Women’s garden groups in Casamance, Senegal. Assignment Children 63/64:133-153. [Ch. 3,15]

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ZEHRER, W. (1980) Traditional methods of insect pest control in stored grain. In GTZ 1980:98-129. [Ch. 14]

ZEHRER, W., E. WEGMANN and D. AKOU-EDI (1980) The effect of traditional pest control substances on the development of Callosobruchus maculatus in stored beans. In GTZ 1980:148-157. [Ch. 14]

ZEHRER, W. (1984) The effect of the traditional preservatives used in northern Togo and of neem oil for control of storage pests. In Schmutterer and Ascher 1984:453-460. [Ch. 14]

ZIMMERMAN, Sonia D. (1982) The Women of Kafr al Bahr: A Research Into the Working Conditions of Women in an Egyptian Village. (English translation by Rosemary Risseeuw) Research Centre, Women and Development, State University of Leiden, Institute for Social and Cultural Studies, Stationsplein 10, 2312 AK Leiden, The Netherlands. [Ch. 3]


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FOOD FROM DRYLAND GARDENS encourages gardens that serve local needs, that are based on local knowledge, and that conserve natural resources and the biological diversity of traditional crops. It was written for field workers, extension agents, students, project workers, and program planners. Both a beginner's guide and a reference for those with more experience, this book helps the reader observe and work with local people to ask appropriate questions about the community, the environment, and the potential for gardens to improve nutritional, economic, and social well-being.

Food from Dryland Gardens draws on painstaking and wide-ranging research and repeatedly makes wise judgements.

- Joe Collins, Institute for Food and Development Policy; co-author of Food First


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Food from Dryland Gardens is the best book I have seen for a small-scale, people-centered approach to agriculture. This book is not only ecologically sound, but shows a remarkable understanding of, and sensitivity to, local traditions, culture and politics. Most important of all, perhaps, it clearly "puts the last first" and will provide an extremely useful tool in the process of empowering marginalized peoples to take greater charge of their health and their lives.

- David Werner, Hesperian Foundation; author of Where There is No Doctor

Simply put, Food from Dryland Gardens should be required reading for development educators, extension workers, rural organizers and others working with community-based agriculture, especially in the Third World. Above all, it is a people-oriented approach that values local knowledge and traditional methods, and emphasizes local participation and self-reliance as the key to sustainable food production. It is a timely, critical resource for the 1990s and beyond.

- Hope Shand, Research Director, Rural Advancement Fund International

Food from Dryland Gardens is an impressively comprehensive and clear book that stands out from the gathering stampede of literature on "sustainable agriculture." It is both an analysis of gardening strategies and a practical guide for those working in the Third World. Its emphasis on "social sustainability" - local self-determination and a just distribution of resources - adds a needed dimension to the measure of "environmental sustainability" now being stressed in much of the ecodevelopment literature. Food from Dryland Gardens is a smooth blend of indigenous and Western scientific knowledge, mixing the strategies of gardeners and farmers throughout the world with an understanding of the sciences of nutrition, soils, and plant growth.

- Mac Chapin, Program Director Cultural Survival


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CENTER FOR PEOPLE, FOOD AND ENVIRONMENT

ISBN: 0-9627997-0-X