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close this bookSPORE Bulletin of the CTA No. 24 (CTA Spore, 1989, 16 p.)
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View the documentSmall-scale dairying, stimulus for improving farm livelihoods
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Intermediate Technology Development Group

Myson House

Railway Terrace

Rugby CV21 3HT- UK

UK Services for dairying industries

The United Kingdom Dairy Association (UKDA) represents the scientific, technological, educational, and commercial organisations of the UK dairy production and processing industries. It offers services to countries developing their dairying industries.

UKDA will act as a link organization to the UK dairy industry and help inquirers contact appropriate organisations, it provides information on a wide range of scientific, technological, educational, and commercial services relevant to dairy development, and issues a list of the UK dairy research and training institutes and colleges; UKDA initiates special managerial and technical courses often in the country concerned; it assists in placements within the UK for practical experience and it assists in meeting special needs.

The Secretary - United Kingdom Dairy
Associabon - Giggs Hill Green
Thames Ditton - Surrey KT7 OEL

Native ruminants improve productivity

Indigenous sheep and goats Mozambique and Rwanda which are adapted to the stresses of the African environment, could help increase the reproductive performance of small ruminants in semi-arid regions throughout Africa.

Two breed characterisation studies, one done at API (Animal Production Institute) in Mozambique, and one at ISAR (Institut des sciences agronomiques du Rwanda) have been collecting data on native sheep and goats for the past several years, and have noted their remarkable litter sizes. Mozambican goats produced approximately 1.57 kids per litter, and

Rwandan goats 1.58, against the African average of 1.-2 to 1.4. Sheep produced 1.43 and 1.41 lambs m Rwanda and Mozambique respectively, against the continents averages of 1.05 to 1.15. Thus these African landraces could well have a beneficial effect in breeding programmes soon.

Dr Trevor Wilson - ILCA (International
Livestock Centre for Africa) PO Box 5689 Addis Ababa - ETHIOPIA

Croptilter improves spraying

If a cereal crop is slightly pushed over just before it is sprayed, then twice as much chemical will land and remain on the leaves. Consequently less chemical is blown away. This simple technique has just been confirmed as being effective by the Arable Crops Research Institute at Long Ashton, UK.

A flexible bards fitted just below the spray boom and, as the tractor moves forward, the bar gently pushes the top of the crop forward. As the plants springback they cause a draught of air which attracts falling chemical spray.

Studies by the Institute have shown also that the spray is deposited much more evenly on the upper parts of the plant. Using the Croptilter, the flag leaves and ears of wheat, for example, received twice as much spray as a control plot sprayed conventionally. It was also evident that far less spray blew away as drift or reached the soil.

The Arable Crops Research Institute
Long Ashton - Bristol BS 18 9AF - UK

Courses and Conferences

Development and Organization of Dairy Operations

July 2-September 21,1990, at the International Cooperative Training Centre, Stanford Hall, Loughborough, UK. A course for senior or middle managers responsible for the organisation and expansion of dairy operations, and government officers responsible for dairy development schemes or projects. Course objectives are to improve the understanding and skills of participants in planning, implementing, managing and developing dairy operations.

Elizabeth Cobbald - The Plunkett Foundation for Cooperative Studies -
31 St Giles - Oxford OX1 3LF - UK

Integrated data processing in agriculture May 27-30,1990, the Third Annual Congress for Computer Technology at Frankfurt am Main. The theme will be "Integrated Decision Support Systems in Agriculture - Successful Practical Applications".

Deutsche Landwirtschafk;-Gesellachaft e. V - Zimmerweg 1B - D-600 Frankfurt a M -

Fourth International Rangeland Congress

April 22-26,1991, at Montpellier, France. The meeting will emphasize issues related to Mediterranean and sub-tropical isoclimatic zones, but will address general issues of methodologies and management techniques and problems pertaining to other ecoclimatic zones. H.M le Houerou - CNEARC - BP 5098 - F-34033 Montpellier Cedex - FRANCE

International Soil Tillage Research Organization July 1991 Institute for Soil Fertility - PO

Box 30003 - 9750 RA Haren GN-

Milk Production, Collection, Dairy Operations and Management

July 1-September 20,1991, at the International Cooperative Training Centre, Stanford Hall,

Loughborough, UK. A course for milk collection centre and dairy staff, field and extension officers, government department officers, and technical and managerial personnel. The course objectives are to develop the participants' understanding of the processes of milk production, collection, processing, distribution and marketing, and to improve skills in managing dairy operations.

Elizabeth Cobbald - The Plunkett Foundation for Cooperative Studies - 31 St Giles -
Oxford OX1 3LF - UK

Smallholder Irrigation Manual

Irrigation at farm level means giving a crop enough water for it to grow; at scheme level it means the proper and fair distribution of available water; and above that it may mean negotiating the rights to use water from a river or other source. Irrigation covers a wide and complex range of activities, not just the application of water to a field.

"Smallholder Irrigation Manual" focuses on irrigation schemes which are operated and managed by farmers themselves. For the purposes of this book, a smallholder is someone who farms anything from a vegetable garden to a few hectares. The prime concern of the manual is basin irrigation, which is the simplest and most widely used method in most Third

World countries.

The manual is divided into two volumes, the first concerned with extension (on-farm management, water supply, farmer participation and organization) ; the second with design (physical requirements, canals, water distribution and measurement, and the waterhose level).

"Smallholder Irriation Manual". by Dr A. Scheltema. available from:
Ministry of Agriculture end Fisheries Agricultural Education Department
PO Box 20401 - 2500 EK The Hague THE NETHERLANDS

Pulling together: comprehensive volumes on animal power

Three volumes by the same author on animal draft power have recently been published in

English by GATE (Deutsches Zentrum fur Entwicklungtechnologien) and GTZ (Deutsche

Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit).

Paul Starkey is an authority on the subject. In "Animal-Drawn Wheeled Toolcarriers -

Perfected yet Rejected" he tells the story of the animal-drawn wheeled toolcarriers, whose simple solution to the problems of carriage somehow remains unacceptable to farmers.

Starkey draws hits information from more than 30 countries, and synthesizes it into a detailed history of three decades of research, development and promotion.

The toolcarriers enjoyed considerable success on research stations, but were rejected by the farmers in the field. However, organizations continue to sponsor them as the problems have rarely been opernly admitted by institutions and aid agencies. Starkey concludes and urges that a greater involvement of farmers at research stage and more open discussion would permit the valuable lessons of past failure to become future success.

The second volume, edited by Paul Starkey and Fadel Ndiame, "Animal Power in Farming Systems", includes the proceedings of the Second West Africa Animal Traction Workshop, held in September 1986 in Sierra Leone.

This workshop brought together people from 20 countries and a broad range of ecological zones. Despite these differences, the editors tell us, the 80 participants worked "intensely" together to try and find technical and organizational solutions to their common problems.

The editors present with clarity the experiences shared and lessons learned through reports of local field visits, group discussions on soil conservation and tillage, selection and development of equipment, animal management and health, research and evaluation methodologies for animal traction programmes, social and economic aspects, farmer needs for extension and training, and evaluation.

The third volume "Animal Traction Directory: Africa" by Paul Starkey gives a brief overview of animal traction in 48 African countries, giving numbers of draft animals and equipment used, main uses of animal traction, and the difficulties encountered, and addresses, telex numbers and descriptions of key institutions and their acronyms: ministries, development projects, research organisations, NGOs, training institutions, aid agencies, and manufacturers. It has a detailed index, bibliographical references, and information request forms in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. It is clearly laid out and easy to follow, and obviously an excellent reference work.

"Animal-Drawn Wheeled Toolcarriers: Perfected yet Rejected. A cautionary tale of developmenr', Paul Starkey 1988, 161pp, ISBN 3 528 01034 2

"Animal power in farming systems", EdPaul Starkey and Fadel Ndiame, 1988, 363pp, ISBN 3 528 02047 4

"Animal traction directory: Africa", Paul Starkey, 1988, 155pp, ISBN 3 528 02038 5, available from:

GATE/GTZ- Postbox 5180 - D6238 Eschborn 1- GERMANY

Women and the Food Cycle

Traditional food processing forms the basis of gainful employment for millions of rural people around the world, mainly working part-time in their own households, and often provides the main source of income for poor women.

"Women and the Food Cycle" is a collection of case studies which first appeared in the journal "Appropriate Technology" between t980 and 1985, now brought together in a volume with an introduction by Marilyn Carr.

It includes grain processing, fruit processing, baking, beekeeping, and small- scale oil production.

These studies demonstrate the problems involved in setting up and running small-scale food processing operations, but also how such initiatives can be of immediate and lasting value to the women involved. Their families gain, too, not merely from the increase in income, but also from improved nutrition.

The challenge, states Marilyn Carr, is to help such people to protect their source of income and to maintain their hold on industry.

The need is for the technologies and methodologies which have been used in successful projects to be repeated on a widespread basis, and for the correct economic and policy environment to be created so that this will occur.

"Women and the Food Cycle" Marilyn Carr, 1989, 86 pp, price UKL 5.95 ISBN 185339 available from:

Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd
103-105 Southampton Raw - London

Proceedings: the following proceedings of seminrars, workshops and conferences have now been published and are available from CTA:

The care and management of bees for honey production, workshop at the USP center,

Raratonga, Cook islands, july 18-22 1988

Viral diseases of animals in Africa, edited by Willimans and W.N. Masiga, Lagos, Nigeria,

1988 published by OAU/ STRC and CTA

Food production Systems around rural homesteads, proceedings of a workshop held at the IRETA Fale, USP school of agriculture, Alafua Campus, Apia, Western Samoa,

March 2, 1987.

Legumes of Africa - a check list

The legume family is important in Africa, for it contains many species of economic value.

Many tropical timbers come from leguminous rain-forest trees, and in drier zones many important forage plants are legumes while others yield useful gums. A few species are valuable food crops.

A check-list provides a valuable summary of current information, and highlights objectives for future work. ILDIS - the International Legume Database and Information Service - provided the stimulus for the compilation of this list, which draws on recent flora and revisions of larger genera. This list of the legumes of Africa; Zanzibar, Pemba, Socotra,

Cave Verde islands, and the islands of the Gulf of Guinea, a 619-page volume, has been compiled by J.M. Lock of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in the United Kingdom, as a contribution to ILDIS Coordinating Centre.

In the book, the data are presented mostly as abbreviations and codes which are explained on a fold-out sheet inside the back cover, though an expanded format is available from the computer. References contain details of habitat, geography, and literature pointers.

Legumes of Africa: a check-list J.M.. Lock, 1989, 619pp paperback, ISBN 0 94764310 9, price UKL15.00, available from:

The Orangery Bookshop- Royal Botanic Gardens - Kew - Richmond

Surrey TW9 JAB - UK

Compost-making manual for the Tropics

The need for maintaining and improving soil fertility m the Tropics and sub-tropics has never been greater. But it needs to be done without recourse to expensive inorganic fertilisers. So, the publication of "Soil management: Compost production and use in Tropical and Subtropical environments" is timely.

Teaching farmers how to recycle waste organic materials as sources of crop nutrients must be the key to putting agriculture on a more sustainable basis, and that is what this new publication sets out to do.

The reader is asked to think of the compost heap as a living structure composed of millions of organisms: these are essential for turning organic wastes into valuable compost. The part each species plays and how it can be encouraged is well documented. Useful figures and photos illustrate every aspect of the process. There are comprehensive lists of the best materials to use, and suggestions for augmenting them if something is in short supply, such as night soil.

Different compost making systems from around the world are discussed, from the Chinese

High Temperature Stack through various heaps, and pits to the Mazibuko Trench system suitable for badly eroded soils.

Finally there are suggestions for training and teaching extension staff and farmers. The manual is written in simple English without detracting from the science of the process.

There should, therefore, be no problem for people whose first language is not English in understanding and learning from the manual.

"Soil management: compost production and use in Tropical and Sub-tropical environments".

Available from:

FAO - Via delle Terme di Caracalla

00100 Rome Italy