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close this bookSourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in East and Central Europe (UNEP-IETC, 1998)
close this folderPart A - Introduction
View the document1. Background
View the document2. Definitions
View the document3. Methodology
View the document4. Results of the survey
View the document5. Organization of the Source Book

2. Definitions

In this Source Book, technology is broadly defined, including technologies that range from the reintroduction of beaver to the use of water-saving products and ecological information campaigns. While a more narrow definition of technology limits the use of the term to the use of technological equipment, in the sense of machinery, it fails to perceive or include the sense of relationship between nature and society as being affected by the technology and ignores the greater framework within which the technology is developed and selected. Technology, in the broadest sense, encompasses both its forms (as knowledge and know-how, or as embodied in equipment and products) and use as a key factor in all human activities and walks of life. Technologies that maximize the efficiency of use of existing freshwater resources or augment existing sources of water, in this broader sense, are a vitally important element of development in all countries. However, such technologies are especially important in Eastern and Central European countries because, during the era of ideological and economic domination by the Soviet Union in this region, urbanization and industrial development were performed without regard for the proper measures of water management that this broader definition of technology implies.