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close this bookAquaculture - Training Manual (Peace Corps, 1990, 350 p.)
close this folderChapter thirteen: Program design - week four
View the documentSession IV-1: Introduction to surveying
View the documentSession IV-2: Surveying projects
View the documentSession IV-3: Pond interview - week four
View the documentSession IV-4: Trainee evaluation of training - week four

Session IV-2: Surveying projects

Total time: 13 1/2 hours (assuming four groups)


· Give trainees practice using surveying techniques;

· Apply surveying techniques to practical uses and basic pond design;

· Practice use of a hand level and hand-made stadia rod;

· Practice speaking before a group, presenting technical material in a formal setting and using visual aids;

· Develop report writing skills (ability to present technical material in an organized, meaningful and professional written form).

Overview: This is actually a set of projects to be completed by trainees either in pairs or small groups as specified. These projects provide practice in the use of surveying equipment and allow for a variety of applications of the principles. Since trainees should have a good grasp of the basic concepts, they are ready to use the hand level as a substitute for the dumpy level. They will do two exercises using the hand level, the first serving to help them improve their accuracy, the second to obtain meaningful information about their own ponds. In addition, they will work in small groups to complete a more complex project which they will later present to the large group. Written reports will be required for two of the projects.

1 hour

1. In pairs using hand levels, run a circuit, or series of readings, around a grove of trees or other obstacle so that all readings cannot be taken from the same spot. When the first station is re-read after completing the circuit, the elevation should be the same as what it was initially determined to be. If this does not work out, trainees should assess possible causes for the error and repeat until they can be accurate. If the final elevation is not equal to the initial elevation, discuss sources of error.

2 1/2 hours

2. With a partner, each trainee surveys hihe/sher own pond. While working on hihe/sher own pond, the trainee's partner serves only as a rod person.

7 hours

3. The following projects are to be done in small groups of four to five trainees. Trainees may choose which instrument they prefer to use for this project, the dumpy level or hand level. Each group is assigned one of the following projects:

A. Find an area with a slope. Starting at a high point, imagine that you will need to begin a trench that is five feet deep at that high point. The trench will continue to be dug at a 1% slope until it reaches a point where it meets natural ground. Stake out the trench at intervals no greater than ten feet (shorter intervals are fine and there is no maximum number of readings). Calculate the depth from the surface to the bottom of the trench at each station, and determine the amount of dirt that would need to be dug out in order to dig this trench. The trench will be one foot wide.

B. Survey an area 100 feet by 100 feet in size. Take readings every 10 feet for a total of 121 readings, moving the level at least two times. Use these readings to make a contour map of the area. (Stress that trainees are to choose an area that includes some irregularities such as hills and/or dips to make this project interesting and better demonstrate how to make and interpret a contour map).

C. Survey the entire pond system at the training site (or another nearby pond system, if more appropriate). Concentrate on the drainage and dike systems. (If water supply is gravity flow, include this as well).

D. Show trainees a water source and, at some reasonable distance, a group of real or imaginary ponds. Tell trainees that they are to determine the best layout and design for a gravity-flow water supply system (using pipes or canals) from the source to the ponds. Each pond should have its own inlet. They should know all critical elevation points.

45 minutes per group - Classroom

4. Two trainees from each group will be assigned to present their group's project to the large group in a classroom session (the selected trainees will be notified the afternoon before the presentations take place). Trainees are told that these presentations will be the only opportunity for the people from the other groups to learn about their projects, so material should be complete and delivered in a clear manner. They are encouraged to use visual aids. Each presentation should take approximately 20 minutes and is followed by a question and answer period. Trainers may encourage a discussion of key concepts or points of confusion that arise. After each presentation there is a short critique by the group which should address technical aspects as well as presentation style.

Resources and Materials:

· Hand levels;

· 1" x 2" boards of six to eight feet in length, markers and rulers to make hand-made stadia rods (sufficient materials to make one rod per pair of trainees);

· Dumpy levels with tripods;

· Stadia rods;

· Surveying flags or tape;

· Newsprint and markers and/or other materials requested for preparation of visual aids;

· Graph paper (for reports).

Trainer Notes:

· Written reports are required for the survey of the trainee's own pond with the hand level and for the group project. Trainees should be made aware of this when the projects are first assigned. Reports should include all data, presented in an organized manner, interpretation of that data, and the materials and methods used in the project;

· When group projects are assigned, it should be stressed that each member of the group should have hihe/sher own set of data and notes. It is not acceptable for one member of the group to serve as record keeper;

· The groups are told which trainees will present the group projects the afternoon before presentations. The reason for this is to ensure that everyone in the group gets involved and puts forth maximum effort to understand all aspects of the project;

· During the field work, trainers should circulate among groups as observers but should not get involved in discussions with or among the trainees or have any input into the implementation of the project. If necessary, trainers may clarify a point of confusion regarding the instructions given for the assignment, and they should assist in providing equipment or materials requested by the trainees if appropriate;

· Trainees should be told at least a day in advance how the presentations will be structured (i.e., time frames) and that there will be a question and answer period, and a description of the critique. There should be some discussion among the trainees about the purpose of the critique, what should be addressed, and how positive and constructive criticism should be delivered and received. This should be discussed again after the presentations are completed or before the next activity that requires similar critiques.