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close this bookEnvironmental Handbook Volume I: Introduction, Cross-sectoral Planning, Infrastructure (GTZ, 1995, 591 p.)
close this folderGuidelines for conducting a comprehensive study of a project's environmental aspects
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. Definition of the area(s) affected
View the document2. Existing stresses and stability/stress resistance of ecosystems
View the document3. Description of stresses originating from the project
View the document4. Assessment of future overall stresses and their impacts
View the document5. Recommendations for environmentally sound options
View the document6. Overall assessment and decision-making aids

4. Assessment of future overall stresses and their impacts

4.1 Overall stresses affecting the individual subsystems and comparison with quantitative/qualitative standards

4.1.1 Atmospheric pollution (Individual aspects as above)

4.1.2 Stresses affecting surface waters and groundwater (Individual aspects as above)

4.1.3 Stresses resulting from recycling of residual (waste) materials and from disposal of solid wastes and wastewater

- in connection with the project (cf. 3.2.4)
- outside the project (cf. 3.2.4)

4.1.4 Stresses affecting the soil (Individual aspects as above)

4.1.5 Stresses caused by noise and vibration

4.1.6 Stresses affecting flora and fauna

4.1.7 Stresses affecting the entire ecosystem

4.2 Impacts of future environmental stresses on environmental components requiring protection

4.2.1 Health and well-being

- Health and safety of employees/users

- Direct adverse effects: immissions caused by air pollution, noise and vibration, pollutants in drinking water, pollutants in food, occurrence of pathogens fostered by presence of wastewater and solid wastes

- Indirect impacts: breaking-up of living environments through construction of traffic routes, destruction of settlement landscape by large buildings, resettlement necessitated by large-scale projects, disruption of traditional ways of life, possibility of uncontrolled new settlement

4.2.2 Microclimate

(Air temperature, duration of shade, evaporation rate, amount of precipitation, wind circulation, frequency of fog, formation of haze, risk of frost).

4.2.3 Soil and groundwater

(Salinisation, nutrient leaching, puddling, compaction, erosion, desertification, soil organisms).

4.2.4 Surface waters

(Eutrophication, degradation, canalisation, impounding to create stagnant waters, aquatic fauna and flora).

4.2.5 Vegetation and land use

(Exclusion of various forms of use, building over, sealing of open areas, monoculture, permitting of changes in land use).

4.2.6 Flora and fauna

(Eradication of endangered species [has a study of an international convention on species protection been carried out], breaking-up of living environments and migratory routes, changes in the spectrum of species).

4.2.7 Physical and cultural assets meriting protection

(Corrosion of structures, loss of historical buildings, impairment of suitability for recreational purposes [loss as a tourist destination], devaluation of residential areas, religious facilities).

4.2.8 Adverse effects on other forms of economic activity

4.3 Summary and weighting of stresses and disturbances likely on the basis of point 4, where appropriate with special consideration of their contribution to global environmental problems

(It must be stated whether environmental impacts are acceptable given the chosen project design, i.e. including protective measures where appropriate, and the specified evaluation criteria).