|Technical Guide for SMEs in the Dairy Industry (CDI, 1999, 74 p.)|
|PART 1 - DAIRY FARMING|
|CHAPTER I: STOCK-FARMING IN AFRICA|
The indigenous African breeds are not very productive: 1 to 2 kg of milk during the rainy season and 0.4 a 1 kg in the dry season, i.e. 150 to 300 kg per lactation of 200 days. The best, like the Azawak, can produce 2 to 4 kg/day, i.e. 600 to 800 kg per lactation of 250 days.
To make up for this low productivity, exotic milk-producing breeds have been introduced, mostly in East Africa and Southern Africa. The main breeds are still the Holstein, the Jersey and the Alpine Brown. The average production of this group is 6 to 15 kg/day, i.e. 1 500 to 5 000 kg per lactation of 200 to 250 days. This type of stock-farming is usually intensive.
This analysis reveals a number of constraints, the main ones being:
- the shortage of feed,
- the low genetic potential of the local breeds,
- animal health problems,
- the organisation and fluctuation of trade flows,
- the poor organisation of stock-farmers.
The problems are much more acute in West and Central Africa, whilst most countries in East and Southern Africa tend to be self-sufficient in milk.