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close this bookAIDS Resource Manual - A Guide for Teaching about AIDS in Thailand (Peace Corps, 1993, 83 p.)
View the documentInformation
View the documentHow to use the AIDS resource manual
Open this folder and view contentsSection I - Basic facts about AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsSection II - Teaching about AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsSection III - Games and activities
View the documentSection IV - Resources
View the documentSection V AIDS vocabulary
View the documentAcknowledgements

Information

Peace Corps
Information Collection & Exchange
R0082

Peace Corps/Thailand

Printed with permission by
Peace Corps
Information Collection & Exchange
R0082

April 1993

INFORMATION COLLECTION & EXCHANGE

Peace Corps' Information Collection & Exchange (ICE) was established so that the strategies and technologies developed by Peace Corps Volunteers, their co-workers and their counterparts could be made available to the wide range of development organizations and individual workers who might find them useful. Training guides, curricula, lesson plans, project reports, manuals and other Peace Corps-generated materials developed in the field are collected and reviewed. Some are reprinted "as is"; others provide a source of field based information for the production of manuals or for research in particular program areas. Materials that you submit to ICE thus become part of the Peace Corps' larger contribution to development.

Information about ICE publications and services is available through:

The Peace Corps Internet Web Site address:

http://www.peacecorps.gov

Please note the new Peace Corps Mailing Address from July 1998 on is:

ICE/ Peace Corps
1111 20th Street N.W.
Washington, DC 20526
USA

Add your experience to the ICE Resource Center. Send materials that you have prepared so that we can share them with others working in the development field. Your technical insights serve as the basis for the generation of ICE manuals, reprints, and resource packets, and also ensure that ICE is" providing the most up-to-date, innovative problem solving techniques and information available to you and your fellow development workers.

PEACE CORPS

The Peace Corps of the United States of America is please to have the opportunity to participate in the education and awareness of the people of Thailand as both countries work together in the effort to overcome the threat of AIDS here. We are proud of this manual and hope it will by of assistance to you.

Ginny Kirkwood
Country Director
Peace Corps/Thailand

How to use the AIDS resource manual

What it is -

· This is a resource manual, meaning you can use it in whatever way fits your needs. Read it from cover to cover or scan the table of contents for specific information.

· It is a brief look at AIDS transmission and prevention; in addition, it provides a few suggestions on games and activities which might be used to enhance education.

· It is a tool which can help you and your co-worker develop teaching ideas or simply share information.

What it isn't -

· It isn't Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about AIDS Education, and it isn't a text book for students.

· It contains no statistics because they change rapidly and can be easily misinterpreted.

· But it does tell you how to get more information if you want it.

What next -

· Supplements will be prepared as information changes, as new games and activities are developed - perhaps by you. Your teaching ideas and constructive suggestions will always be welcome.

The goal of this manual -

· The brightest goal is that someday soon an AIDS resource manual will be totally unnecessary for AIDS will have been eradicated.

· As reaching that goal does not look promising for the near future, the goal is that this manual will help you gain an understanding of AIDS, an understanding which goes beyond knowledge of facts, and that it will help you share your understanding with others in a variety of ways.

(introduction...)

The starting point for teaching about AIDS is to provide yourself with the basic facts about transmission and prevention. It takes little study to learn the few facts you need to teach the basics. Statistics are not necessary and may even be a hindrance as they divert attention from the real message.

Most people have at least a little knowledge of HIV/AIDS, but it is often clouded by incorrect information. Much of your teaching may involve dispelling myths and overcoming unnecessary fears.

his section will provide you with the basic facts you need to get started. The next and most important step, getting people to choose healthy behavior, may depend more on your creative efforts to make people act on their knowledge. Other parts of the manual offer some ideas for creative teaching.

Information in this section is from World Health Organization (WHO).

Aids background · Q & A

QUESTION: Where did AIDS come from?

AIDS comes from a virus called HIV, but where this virus came from is not known. To find out, more information is being gathered through new research But as new facts are discovered about viruses, like HIV, the question of where HIV came from is becoming more complicated to answer. It is best to refocus this curiosity and attention on how to stop the spread of this disease. Questions of where and when it started can be answered later.

QUESTION: How can there suddenly be a disease that never existed before?

If we look at AIDS as a worldwide epidemic, it is something new and rather sudden. But if we look at AIDS as a disease and at the virus that causes it we get a different picture. We find that both the disease and the virus that causes it are not new. They were here well before the epidemic.

We know that viruses sometimes change genetically. A virus that was once harmless to humans can change and become harmful. This is probably what happened with HIV long before the AIDS epidemic.

What is new is the rapid spread of the virus. It may be compared with a weed that someone brings home from a distant place. In its original environment the weed survives, but does not spread much. However, once it gets started in the new environment, conditions may allow it to grow much better than it did in its old surroundings.

It spreads, chokes out other plants, and becomes a nuisance and then a widespread problem. The spread of HIV is somewhat similar.

Researchers believe that the virus was present in isolated population groups years before the epidemic began. Then the situation changed. People moved often and travelled more; they settled in big cities; and lifestyles changed, including patterns of sexual behavior. It became easier for HIV to spread, through sexual intercourse and contaminated blood. As the virus spread, the isolated disease already existing became a new epidemic.

AIDS and HIV infection · Q & A

QUESTION: What is AIDS?

AIDS is a disease caused by a virus that can break down the body's immune system and lead to fatal infections and some forms of cancer.

Before this brief answer is given more detail, six abbreviations that are often used need to be explained (some are used more often in Thailand than in other countries):

· AIDS stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

· ARC stands for AIDS Related Complex.

· HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, which causes the disease. In other words, HIV is the AIDS virus.

· HIV infection (HIV positive) means infection with the AIDS virus or AIDS virus infection.

· PWA stands for Person with AIDS.

· STDs stands for all Sexually Transmitted Diseases (formerly VD).

QUESTION: How does the virus cause AIDS?

The virus causes AIDS by disabling or destroying certain kinds of white blood cells that normally help the body fight disease. This system of cells is called the immune defence system. Without a healthy immune system the body can't defend itself against infections and other diseases.

Because of this, within 10 years of being infected with the virus, at least 50 percent of HIV-infected persons will have developed AIDS. Persons with AIDS are open to attack from infections and cancers that a healthy person who does not have AIDS can resist.

A diagnosis of AIDS is based on symptoms and illnesses, as well as an examination of the blood cells to determine the condition of the immune system.

People with AIDS may lose more than 10 percent of their weight and may have chronic diarrhea, and have fever for more than a month. They may suffer with problems of the skin, glands or throat. More critically, they are very vulnerable to deadly diseases like pneumonia and some cancers.

Although they may get different illnesses, all persons with AIDS have something in common: their immune defence systems are not working because of infection with the AIDS virus.

People do not die of AIDS. They die of the diseases acquired because their immune system does not protect them any longer.

The majority of people who have been diagnosed with AIDS die within two years of the diagnosis. A few have survived longer.

QUESTION: What happens to people infected with the AIDS virus?

After infection with the virus most people have a prolonged period without AIDS virus-related illnesses. They are considered to be HIV positive or infected with the AIDS virus. It is important to realize that at this stage they do not have AIDS.

They may, however, experience other symptoms and illnesses as the immune system loses its ability to protect the body. This stage is sometimes referred to as ARC or AIDS Related Complex.

It is important to understand that although the HIV-infected person may show no signs of illness, he or she can transmit the virus to others through shared needles, sexual intercourse or from infected mother to unborn child.

QUESTION: Can you tell who has HIV infection by looking at them?

No, there is no way of telling if a person has the AIDS virus just by looking at him or her. Many people who have HIV infection look and feel healthy for a long time, but they are carrying the virus and can pass it on to others.

QUESTION: Can you have HIV infection (AIDS virus infection) and not be sick?

Yes, some people have HIV infection but are not sick for as long as ten years. Almost all will eventually start to show symptoms of AIDS at some point.

Transmission, prevention and cure · Q & A

QUESTION: Who can get AIDS?

People who choose certain dangerous behaviors are at risk of HIV infection. Risky behavior determines who will become infected, NOT risk groups.

QUESTION: Are some people more at risk of getting AIDS than others?

Yes. Some people are more likely to get HIV infection than others. It depends on their behavior. This is because of the way the virus spreads.

At high risk are:

· people who have extra marital affairs

· people who have multiple sex partners

· people who already have other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and are sexually active, especially with multiple sex partners

· people who sleep with HIV infected person

· people who get injections with needles that are not sterilized properly or who inject themselves, or who share needles

· people who receive blood transfusions with contaminated blood

· infants born to mothers who have HIV infection.

QUESTION: Why not test as many people as possible to find out who has the infection?

Widespread testing for AIDS may tell us more about the epidemic, but it can also create many other problems.

Testing by itself does not stop the spread of AIDS. Widespread testing requires widespread follow-up work, and the testing must be matched by an equal capacity for counselling everyone who is tested, depending on their positive or negative result.

It is difficult for tests to give the full picture. There is a latency period, called a "window period," between the time when the virus enters the body and when its presence shows up on the test. Thus, a test shortly after the virus enters someone's body may find the person not infected. Testing blood during this window period may not give the correct result.

It is also difficult to reach all the persons for whom testing might be important, and if testing is made compulsory, it may drive underground the very people one is trying to help. It would certainly run counter to the voluntary testing and counselling that are important parts of a national AIDS program.

QUESTION: How can you avoid AIDS?

It is fairly simple to avoid AIDS, even if some people find it hard to change their behavior. Many people are not at risk: they do not have sex with casual acquaintances or commercial sex workers, nor do they have multiple sex partners. For someone to be as safe as possible, he or she should stay with one sexual partner who is faithful to them and not infected.

If they have more than one sexual partner, men should use condoms every time they have sex and women should make sure that their partners use condoms. Remember, condom use alone is not 100% safe against infection. A properly used condom, however, can significantly reduce your chances of HIV infection.

Also, to avoid AIDS, needles and syringes used for injections should always be sterilized. This rule applies to any instrument that comes into contact with blood, such as ear piercing needles, knives and razor blades.

Finally, drugs such as alcohol are known to impair judgement and create situations that may put individuals at risk for HIV infection. Being aware of one's behavior is vital. Therefore, drug use must be checked to insure safe practices. Being under the influence of a drug such as alcohol has been known to raise risk factors towards HIV infection.

QUESTION: if you have HIV infection, can you still have sex?

You can hug and caress safely, but any sexual activities that involve sharing of sexual fluids will put your sexual partner at risk of getting the infection from you. Both you and any potential partner must know and understand the risk. You are responsible for informing your partners and for agreeing with them on what is safe. Health workers can help you with this sensitive question.

QUESTION: When should you use condoms?

Use condoms whenever you have sex with a person who is not your regular partner or who might be infected. If your regular sexual partner has sex with other people, the best practice is always to use condoms with him or her each time you have sex.

QUESTION: Is there a cure or vaccine for AIDS?

There is presently no cure for AIDS. There are some medicines that have prolonged the lives of some people. There is hope that additional treatments will be found to prolong life. Treatment is not the same as cure. There is no cure.

There is also no vaccine to prevent uninfected people from getting the infection. Researchers believe it may take years for an effective, safe vaccine to be found.

The most effective way to prevent AIDS is avoiding exposure to the virus, which you can control by your own behavior.

Questions about transmission · Q & A

QUESTION: What happens if you live close to a person with AIDS?

Living someone who has AIDS or who is infected with the AIDS virus (HIV positive) will not give you AIDS. You can live in the same neighborhood, building, or village and this will not give you the disease. In fact, you can live quite safely in the same room with someone who has AIDS, provided that he or she is not your sexual partner.

QUESTION: But what if an HIV infected person coughs on you?

The AIDS virus spreads through sexual fluids and through blood. It does not spread through the air, through breathing, or coughing. So if someone infected with HIV coughs on you, it is much the same as anyone else coughing on you; you may catch a cold, if the person has a cold, but you will not catch AIDS.

QUESTION: What about using the same toilet?

You will not get AIDS from toilets. This applies to both public and private toilets, and is true even if they are dirty.

QUESTION: If I am bitten by an insect that has just bitten a person with the AIDS virus, will I become infected?

Many people worry about AIDS from insects, but the evidence is that the AIDS virus is not spread by insects. If it were spread in this way everyone bitten by insects would be at high risk of infection.

QUESTION: Why can't mosquitos spread AIDS?

There are various reasons why mosquitos don't spread HIV. From the way they bite it might be thought that a mosquito was like a flying hypodermic needle, contaminated and spreading the virus by injection whenever it bites. This is an imaginative idea but it is NOT correct.

Mosquitos do not inject blood, they draw blood. When they bite, they inject a substance that keeps blood from dotting and then suck blood out. When they fly off, they do so to digest their meal, not to inject it into another human being. What is more, only tiny amounts of blood are involved, with a very low likelihood of the AIDS virus being present even in blood from an infected person. After a mosquito has drawn blood, there is another obstacle for any virus that might be inside the mosquito's body. We know that the virus lives in some cells of the human body and that it does not live in insect's cells; in other words, mosquitos are not a suitable home for HIV. The virus is NOT like the malaria parasite.

QUESTION: What about injections?

Avoid injections unless absolutely necessary. If you must have an injection, make sure the needle and syringe come straight from a sterile package or have been sterilized properly; a needle and syringe that have been cleaned and then boiled for 20 minutes are ready for reuse. Finally, if you inject drugs, of whatever kind, never use anyone else's equipment.

QUESTION: What about having a tattoo or your ears pierced?

Tattooing, ear-piercing, and acupuncture all involve instruments that must be sterile. In general, you should avoid any procedure where the skin is pierced unless absolutely necessary.

QUESTION: What about going to the dentist?

Most all dentists today follow what are known as universal precautions. Going to the dentist today and having invasive work done is usually quite safe. If you have any concerns or questions about procedures used to clean instruments or needles, discuss them with your dentist. Ask him or her to explain safety and sterilization techniques before you have work done. Also, your dentist should be wearing proper gowns and sterile gloves during the operation as well.

QUESTION: AIDS is a deadly disease, isn't it?

Yes, but that does not mean it is everywhere or in everything, just waiting to infect you. Infection does not spread through the air, by touch, or through food and drink. You can sit next to people with AIDS, work beside them, or ride in a crowded bus amongst them. The virus does not spread by this kind of contact.

Infection in the work place and loss of income from illness · O & A

QUESTION: Is it safe to work with someone infected with the AIDS virus?

Yes. Most workers face no risk of getting the virus while doing their work. If they are HIV positive themselves, they are not at risk to others because of their work.

QUESTION: What about working every day in close physical contact with an infected person?

You may share the same telephone with other people in your office or work side by side in a crowded factory, but that will not give you the AIDS virus, even if one of your co-workers is infected. You may have a job with lots of dirt and sweat or you may share the same food, and that kind of contact will not give you the infection.

QUESTION: Who are at risk while they work?

Health care workers, for example, doctors, dentists, nurses, laboratory technicians, and others have to take special care against possible contact with blood that may contain the AIDS virus. They can protect themselves by using the simple precautions (universal precautions) that are commonly taken in their type of work.

Other people at risk while working, and often overlooked, are Commercial Sex Workers (CSWs). Specifically in Thailand, female and male CSWs may service five, ten or even twenty people a night. Very often, they have to deal with a guest who has been drinking. Thus, the guest arriving at the place of entertainment is very rarely in a cooperative state. The Royal Thai government is implementing various projects, in cooperation with the bar and entertainment owners, to help protect the CSW from HIV infection.

QUESTION: If a worker has HIV infection, should he or she be allowed to continue work?

Workers with HIV infection who are healthy should be treated in the same way as any other worker. Infection with HIV is not a reason in itself for termination of employment.

QUESTION: What will happen in the future when more people become sick with AIDS and AIDS-related illnesses?

Many countries today, especially in Southeast Asia, are beginning to realize the dangerous implications of a high number of persons infected with the AIDS virus. Governments are just beginning to understand the enormous responsibility of health care, child care, and other costs associated with the disease.

Furthermore, these governments are realizing the economic relationship involved between AIDS and loss of workers from the work force. This has enormous implications, including loss of over all economic growth, loss of labor, and most important, loss of income for individual families. For Thailand, a National AIDS Committee (NAC) chaired by the Prime Minister has been set up. This NAC is responsible for budget allocation to all ministries in the control and prevention of AIDS at the national, provincial and district levels.

QUESTION: How can a family lose their income from AIDS?

A family can lose their income from AIDS when an infected head of the household starts to show symptoms severe enough to prevent them from earning a living. Thus, he or she is no longer providing an income, and this puts the burden of care and support for the remaining family on someone else.

AIDS and the family · Q & A

QUESTION: How can the HIV virus enter the family?

The HIV virus enters the family usually by one married partner becoming infected outside the marriage first, and then infecting the other partner.

A married partner may become infected by one or more of the following ways:

· having unsafe (i.e. unprotected) sex outside the marriage
· using unclean needles to shoot drugs or sharing needles and syringes with HIV infected person
· receiving a blood transfusion that is HIV infected.

QUESTION: Can a woman who a has HIV infection become pregnant?

Yes.

QUESTION: What happens to a woman with HIV infection if she becomes pregnant?

Pregnancy may increase the risk of her actually developing AIDS, instead of just carrying the virus. This has not been proved conclusively, but it is possible, especially if she has been infected for a long time.

QUESTION: What happens to a child born to a woman with HIV infection?

The child may be born infected with the virus. There is a real danger that a mother may pass the AIDS virus on to her child before or during childbirth.

Research suggests that up to 50 percent of infants from infected mothers will be born infected with the virus. In addition, infants will get HIV infection during delivery.

Infants with AIDS virus will develop severe illnesses during their first year of life. The majority of the infected infants will not survive until their fifth birthday.

QUESTION: How can I protect my family from AIDS/HIV infection?

The most important way to protect your family and yourself from infection is to know your marriage partner. This begins before you get married. Because of the danger of STDs, including HIV infection, both men and women should seriously consider abstaining from sex until you are in a serious relationship. You should also choose a partner that will remain faithful to you in your relationship.

Once you have found yourself in a serious relationship, you and your partner should consider having the HIV antibody test performed if there is any question about anyone's past sexual history or drug use.

If you are married already, and suspect that your partner is engaging in unsafe behavior, you should use a condom every time you have sex. Also, strongly encourage your partner to go with you to get HIV testing and counselling at the local Provincial or District Anonymous Clinic or ask your local Public Health Office for the testing and counselling clinic nearest you.

(introduction...)

Successful teaching includes a good mix of knowledge, creativity and common sense. The following section provides simple tips and guidelines, some specific to Thailand, many appropriate anywhere.

Especially helpful are the "Age-Appropriate AIDS Education Guidelines" and "Hints on Talking to Children about AIDS."

10 tips for talking about AIDS

AIDS education is about living, not about dying.

1. DO assure people it is easy to avoid the AIDS virus by using safe behavior, and that everyday casual contact is safe even with HIV infected persons.

2. DO assure people that they don't need to be afraid of AIDS because the virus only spreads by blood or sexual fluids, i.e., by sharing needles, from infected mother to child, and by unsafe sex.

3. DO suggest that the best method for avoiding AIDS is to stay with one partner for life.

4. DO emphasize the importance of counselling and testing before marriage or before getting pregnant.

5. DO emphasize that testing by itself is not a guarantee of safety. Counselling and education about what the test means are an essential part of testing.

6. DO emphasize that there is no cure and no vaccine and neither is likely for at least 10 years, if then. Prevention is the only method.

7. DO emphasize the economic impact of AIDS. If father or mother has AIDS and die, who will support and care for the family? Who will grow the rice?

8. DO learn the difference between an HIV infected person and a person with AIDS and use the appropriate term.

9. DO use sensitive wording which respects the humanness of all people, e.g., Commercial Service Worker instead of prostitute. Words influence behavior.

10. DO emphasize that an HIV infected person can live a rewarding life. AIDS is not a death sentence.

5 Techniques to Avoid

1. AVOID talking about high risk groups, e.g., commercial service workers, IV drug users, farangs, gays, instead, focus on high risk behavior. AIDS is a disease of all people.

2. AVOID focusing on the possible origin of AIDS. It dilutes the message.

3. AVOID using statistics or use sparingly. Emphasize life, family.

4. AVOID giving the same message to all people. Tailor your message to the audience. There are many important messages that are not about sex and drugs.

5. AVOID lecturing. Make it fun and participatory.

Some hints on talking to children about AIDS

AGES 3-5:

Very young children need only the most basic information: that there are many serious diseases and AIDS is one of them and that there is little danger either you or they will get it. Beyond that, your major job is to provide a basis for the more detailed education they will need later.

AGES 5-8:

Children in elementary school need more information. Although they're still not ready to hear all the details, they do need to know that AIDS is caused by a virus. Reassure them that they can't get it from casual contact such as door knobs, toilet seats, hugging, glasses, dishes, coughing or sneezing.

Listen carefully to the child's questions. If she/he seems particularly concerned or curious about transmission, you may need to be more specific. Explain that AIDS is passed during sex or when using needles to take illegal drugs with someone who has AIDS. Try to keep your answers simple and concrete. Let them know AIDS can be prevented and that neither of you is likely to get it.

Teach about good social and cultural values.

Finally, teach them some basics about disease transmission in general. When they cut their finger or scrape their knee, explain that one way disease enters the body is through the blood.

AGES 9-12:

In middle school years, children need a better understanding of the facts. Between ages 9 and 12, you will need to be increasingly specific about transmission and prevention of AIDS.

By early adolescence, children should know that AIDS is transmitted mainly through IV drug use and sex; that it is passed through blood, semen and vaginal secretions; and that you can get it from vaginal and anal intercourse and oral sex. They need to know that using condoms can help prevent AIDS. Let them know that they can talk with you about AIDS.

Introduce ideas on non risk behavior and give suggestions on how to avoid risk behavior.

Communicating with Children

Here are some suggestion to help your conversation about AIDS go more easily.

· Stay calm. Keep your tone simple and direct.

· Use specific, dear terms. Ask questions to make sure he or she understands what you are saying.

· If you feel uncomfortable, say so. Let them know that AIDS is too important not to talk about, even if talking's not easy or comfortable.

· Listen carefully to any questions the children might ask. These may be a clue to specific fears or areas of misinformation that you can dear up. Understanding AIDS makes it less frightening.

· If you don't know the answer, maybe you can find out together. The facts about AIDS can be confusing and working together may help your communication.

· Use the children's age and development and your own feeling as a guide about how much information to present.

· Be careful not to preach. Because AIDS is so frightening, parents and educators may be tempted to use scare tactics. Your conversation will be more successful if you simply explain your concerns and then listen to what they have to say.

· Be clear about the values you want to present.

· Make sure you talk more than once. You'll do a better job if you continue to talk about AIDS often, as the topic comes up.

Age-appropriate AIDS education guidelines

This section identifies the AIDS specific information that is Introduced (1), Emphasized (E), and Reviewed (R) at the appropriate grade levels. This plan design is from the California State School System, but has been reviewed and modified by the Curriculum Design Center of the Ministry of Education, Thailand.

CONCEPTS

Kinder-
garten -

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

HIGH SCHOOL



B.1

B.2

B.3

B.4

B.5

B.6

M.1

M.2

M.3

M.4

M.5

M.6

1. AIDS is a serious disease.

I

R

R

R

R

E

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

2. The AIDS virus is not transmitted by casual contact.

I

R

R

R

R

R

R

E

R

R

R

E

R

3. People with HIV/AIDS should be treated in a supportive manner.

I

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

E

4. Saying no assertively can help students avoid risky situations.





I

R

E

R

R

R

R

R

R

5. AIDS is caused by a virus.





I

R

E

R

R

R

R

R

R

6. The AIDS virus is too small to be seen with the eyes.





I

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

7. The AIDS virus destroys the immune system and stays in the body forever.





I

R

E

R

R

R

R

R

R

8. People infected with HIV/AIDS can infect others even though they have no symptoms.





I

R

R

R

R

R

E

R

R

9. Abstinence from sexual intercourse (pre marital and extra marital) is the only 100% protection from the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS.






I

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

10. Abstaining from sexual intercourse (pre marital and extra marital) and not sharing needles are the best protections from the HIV/AIDS virus.






I

E

E

E

E

E

E

E

11. The AIDS virus can be transmitted through three body fluids: blood, semen, and vaginal fluids.






I

E

R

R

R

R

R

R

12. Personal decisions regarding behavior can reduce or eliminate the risk of being infected by HIV/AIDS.






I

E

R

E

R

R

R

R

13. The AIDS virus can be transmitted through sexual intercourse.







I

R

E

R

R

R

R

14. The AIDS virus can be transmitted by infected mother to unborn baby.







I

R

R

R

R

R

E

15. The AIDS virus can infect all people.







I

E

R

R

R

R

R

16. There may or may not be signs and symptoms of infection with the AIDS virus.







I

R

R

E

E

R

R

17. There is no cure or vaccine for HIV/AIDS.







I

R

R

R

R

E

R

18. Syringes, needles, knives, and razors or any sharp instrument can transmit infected blood.







I

R

E

R

R

R

R

19. The proper use of latex condoms reduces (not removes) the risk of infection with the AIDS virus.








I

E

R

R

R

R

20. The blood supply from Red Cross of Thailand is almost completely safe.








I

R

R

R

E

R

21. There are more people who are infected with the AIDS virus than have AIDS.









I

R

E

R

R

22. An exclusive monogamous relationship can reduce the risk of transmitting the HIV/AIDS virus.










I

R

R

E

23 People can be tested for the AIDS antibody.












I

E

24. AIDS antibody test results can be used in making decisions about the future.













E

How to use a condom

Using a condom correctly can increase its effectiveness by 30%.

BEFORE SEX


1. Open package carefully. Rough handling, rings and fingernails can tear condoms. - 2. If uncircumcised, pull back the foreskin. - 3. Press the air out of the condom tip.


4. While holding onto the tip of the condom, use the other hand to unroll it, covering the entire erect penis. Be sure the rolled rim is on the outside. - 5. If desired, apply water soluble lubricant on the condom and/or on your partner.

AFTER SEX


6. After ejaculation, while the penis is still hard, wrap tissue around the base of the condom and withdraw.


7. Remove the condom. Do not let semen spill or leak from the condom.


8. Dispose of the used condom safely. Throw it in the garbage.

Note: If semen does spill or leak, quickly wash semen away with soap and water.

Tips for using condoms

· BE sure to a have a condom before you need one.

· ALWAYS use condoms for vaginal, anal or oral sex.

· ALWAYS put the condom on BEFORE your erect penis touches your partner.

· USE water soluble lubricants, such as K-Y Jelly@, or spermicides to increase condom comfort and protection.

· NEVER use oil based lubricants such as Vaseline@, cold cream or lotion because they will damage condoms.

· DO not use a condom more than once.

· USE another condom, if the one you have:
- has torn or damaged packaging
- is past its expiration date or bears a manufacturing date of more than three years
- is uneven or changed in color
- feels brittle, dried out or very sticky.

Instructions for cleaning IV drug works

The AIDS virus can get into used needles, syringes, cookers, cotton, and water. If you share any of these, you can get AIDS, or pass the virus to someone else. Bleach kills the AIDS virus. You can clean your works and rigs with bleach, and help protect yourself from getting AIDS. Bleach will not damage the needle or syringe.

First with bleach


1. Draw up bleach


2. Squirt bleach


3. Draw up bleach


4. Squirt bleach

Then with water:


5. Draw up water


6. Squirt water


7. Draw up water


8. Squirt water

Important: Soak any other part of your works (tops, caps, cooker, spoon) in bleach. Rinse your works with water before using. Do not reuse cotton

From:
REACH Program, Ohio
AIDS/HIV Program, Michigan
American Red Cross
U.S.A.

(introduction...)

"When people laugh they remember," says Khun Mechai Viravaidya. Khun Mechai, Chairman of Population and Community Development Association (PDA), is known for helping people remember the messages of AIDS prevention by using a lighthearted, humorous approach to teaching a serious subject.

Try a similar approach yourself and you will find few people sleeping in your sessions. Alternate presentations with games and interaction. Give your students a chance to teach each other through peer teaching, role play and plenty of question and answer time.

Caution: Be sure the fun doesn't completely hide the message. Before playing a game tell the audience what message the game demonstrates. After the game, ask. participants what they learned.

Most of the activities in this manual indicate a target audience. If your audience differs, think of ways you can modify the activity to fit the audience.

Activities included here were created or modified by AIDS Peace Corps Volunteers unless otherwise noted.

Good luck and have fun.

Activity 1: The basics of AIDS

Objective:
· To introduce basic AIDS information through self teaching methods. To stimulate discussion about AIDS.

Target Group:
· Secondary students and adults

Materials:
· Copies of the AIDS information Sheet, scissors, colored pens
Note: You will need one sheet for every five people, e.g., if you have 25 people you will need five sheets.

Preparation:
· Mark copies of the AIDS Information Sheet by drawing a circle of the same color around each numeral. For example, draw a red circle around #1 through #5. Do this to a few sheets marking each sheet with a different color, such as green or blue.

· Cut each sheet into the five separate sections making certain that each slip includes the number, message and color identification. Mark and cut enough sheets to provide one slip for each participant.

Directions:
· Distribute one slip cut from the AIDS Information Sheet to each participant.

· Have all the participants separate into groups according to the number on their slip (e.g. all the #Is form a group etc.).

· Give these groups approximately 10 minutes to discuss their messages among themselves.
** During this time the facilitator should be moving among the groups answering any questions brought up or adding information, as deemed appropriate.

· Now instruct all the participants to separate into new groups according to their color. Each group should include 5 people, each with a different number, 1 through 5.

· In turn, each person will read their message to their group starting with the person with message #1. The groups will present and discuss the messages for approximately 15 minutes.
** Once again, facilitators should move among the groups answering questions and adding information.

· Ask the groups to help summarize the activity together.

AIDS INFORMATION SHEET

1. AIDS is caused by a virus (HIV) which attacks and disables the body's defence system.

- This defence system is called the immune system.

- People who are infected with the AIDS virus are HIV positive.

- People with AIDS die. Life expectancy for HIV infected persons is five to fifteen years. They die because they have little or no protection (no antibodies) from many diseases. These opportunistic diseases include:
* cancer
* typhoid fever
* tuberculosis (TB),
* pneumonia...and many others.

2. AIDS is a very dangerous disease.

- There is no vaccine.

- There is no cure.

- People infected with the AIDS virus may not know they have the disease. They may show no symptoms and feel perfectly healthy for three to fifteen years. During this time they are capable of transmitting AIDS to others. Eventually, they will get very sick and they will die.

3. How is AIDS transmitted (how do people get the disease)?

- By having sexual intercourse with someone who is infected with the AIDS virus. (One sexual contact can allow the AIDS virus to pass from one person to another.)

- By exchanging blood.

- Drug users who share needles are at risk.

- Women who are HIV positive can pass the disease to their unborn children. This is happening all over Thailand.

4. You can not get AIDS by:

- casual touching or hugging
- eating or drinking together
- swimming in pools
- telephones or other objects
- sharing clothes
- sharing bathrooms
- mosquitos or other insects
- tears, saliva, sweat

5. How do you protect yourself and your family?

- Say "No" to casual sex. Wait until you are truly sure your partner is not HIV positive.

- Safe sex. The best way is one partner. Your partner should not have sex with anyone else. If there ever is a question, you must use a condom every time.

- Never use some one else's needle (syringe).

- Do not use drugs, stay sober. This will help you control your risk behavior.

YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR YOUR HEALTH. HELP OTHERS UNDERSTAND AIDS.

Activity 2: AIDS True/False test

Objective:
· To evaluate target groups' knowledge about AIDS and to spark discussion about AIDS

Target Group:
· Secondary students and-adults

Materials:
· AIDS True/False Sheet

Preparation:
· Copy the AIDS True/False Sheet

Directions:

· Variation 1: Cut the sheet into strips and use when playing AIDS condom time bomb (Activity 6).

· Variation 2: Divide the group into smaller discussion groups and give each group one or two statements to discuss. Have a representative from each group report to the larger group.

· Variation 3: Use the questions as a pre-test. Have the group vote if the statement is true or false. Concentrate your presentation on the topics that receive the most votes for false.

· Variation 4: Give the sheet as a homework activity. Have the students survey 3 people in his/her neighborhood and report the results the next day in class.

KEY TO AIDS TRUE/FALSE TEST
ALL OF THE STATEMENTS ARE TRUE

AIDS TRUE/FALSE SHEET

1. Whether you are a man or woman you can get AIDS.

TRUE

FALSE

2. You cannot tell by looking at someone whether he or she has the AIDS virus.

TRUE

FALSE

3. You can protect yourself from becoming infected with the AIDS virus.

TRUE

FALSE

4. It is not possible to catch the AIDS virus from someone by holding hands, eating together, or using the same bathroom.

TRUE

FALSE

5. You cannot get the AIDS virus by donating your blood.

TRUE

FALSE

6. Sharing needles for drug use is putting oneself at high risk for becoming infected with the AIDS virus.

TRUE

FALSE

7. Babies born to parents who use needles to take recreational drugs are at risk for having the AIDS virus.

TRUE

FALSE

8. It is safe for a person to go to school or work with someone who has the AIDS virus.

TRUE

FALSE

9. Testing positive on a blood test for AIDS antibodies usually means that someone has the AIDS virus.

TRUE

FALSE

10. Condoms, when properly used, can protect you from infection with the AIDS virus.

TRUE

FALSE

Note: Answers are on Page 30

From: The Ohio Public Schools AIDS Manual

Activity 3: AIDS myth or fact game

Objective:
· To evaluate target groups' knowledge about AIDS. To spark discussion about AIDS

Target Group:
· Secondary students and adults

Materials:
· Myth or Fact Sheet, small box

Preparation:
· Copy the Myth or Fact Sheet and cut out each of the statements. Place the slips of paper in a cardboard box.

Directions:
· Divide the group into 2 teams.

· The first participant draws a slip of paper from the box and reads the statement to him/herself.

· The participant then states aloud either "MYTH" or "FACT" and proceeds to read the statement aloud so that the facilitator and rest of the group can judge whether he/she is correct.

· Teams alternate choosing questions until time is up or the questions are all read.

· The team with the most correct answers wins.

Note:
· You may not wish to use all of the questions. Select those which seem most appropriate to the age level and maturity of the group.

Variation:
· The group may generate additional questions to be used.

AIDS Myth or Fact Game
Facilitator's Key

1. MYTH
2. FACT
3. FACT
4. MYTH
5. MYTH
6 FACT
7. MYTH
8. MYTH
9. MYTH
10. MYTH
11. MYTH
12. FACT
13. MYTH
14. FACT
15. FACT
16. MYTH
17. MYTH
18. MYTH
19. MYTH
20. MYTH
21. FACT
22. MYTH
23. MYTH

From The Ohio Public Schools AIDS Manual

AIDS MYTH OR PACT STATEMENTS

1. A person can get AIDS from sitting next to a person who has it.
2. A person can get AIDS by having sex with a Commercial Sex Worker.
3. An unborn child can get AIDS if his/her mother is infected.
4. Insects like bedbugs and cockroaches can be AIDS carriers and give it to people.
5. If a mosquito bites a person with AIDS the next person it bites may get AIDS.
6. Men with AIDS may sexually transmit it to women.
7. You can get AIDS by using a phone which was just used by someone with AIDS.
8. You can get AIDS if a person with AIDS coughs or sneezes near you.
9. You can get AIDS from a toilet seat.
10. If you kiss a person with AIDS on the cheek, you can get the disease.
11. You can get AIDS by drinking from the same glass as a person who has it.
12. You can get AIDS by having oral sex with a man who has it.
13. If a person with AIDS cries and his/her tears touch you, you can get AIDS.
14. It is safest to avoid having a blood transfusion.
15. Persons who have sex with many different people are at risk of getting AIDS.
16. You can get AIDS by eating food which is cooked by someone who has AIDS.
17. You can get AIDS from swimming pools.
18. You are likely to get AIDS if you sleep in the same bed as someone with AIDS without having sexual intercourse.
19. You can get AIDS by hugging a person who has it.
20. Children can get AIDS by sitting next to or playing ball with a student who has AIDS.
21. A person can get AIDS by having sexual intercourse with an infected person.
22. Brothers and sisters of children with AIDS usually also get AIDS.
23. Doctors and nurses who treat AIDS patients often get AIDS as well.

Activity 4: Vocabulary aid

Objective:
· To help students learn vocabulary to be better able to explain to others how AIDS is transmitted, how AIDS is not transmitted and how AIDS can be prevented.

Target Group:
· Secondary students and adults

Time:
· 10 minutes

Materials:
· AIDS Vocabulary Worksheets, one per student and Teacher's Key, one only

Directions:
· Give each student a copy of AIDS Vocabulary Worksheet.

· Match the correct statement in column B to the appropriate vocabulary word or phrase in column A.

TEACHER'S KEY

AIDS VOCABULARY

1. f

2.b

3.i

4.c

5.e

6. g

7. h

8.d

9. a

10.j

AIDS VOCABULARY WORKSHEET

Column A

Column B

1. __ HIV

a. a person who gives blood to be stored and used for transfusion

2. __ opportunistic disease

b. a disease that occurs because the body's immune system been damaged

3. __ risk behavior

c. part of the blood which is responsible for destroying infections that enter the body

4. __ white blood cells

d. a communicable disease that results in a breakdown of the body's ability to fight infection

5. __ immunity

e. the body's ability to resist disease

6. __ communicable

f. the most widely used name for the virus that disease causes AIDS

7. __ AIDS Related Complex (ARC)

g. a disease that is passed from one person to another

8. __ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

h. a condition caused by the HIV infection in which a person tests positive and has some symptoms

9. __ blood donor

i. a behavior that increases their chances of becoming ill

10. __ abstinence

j. choosing not to have sexual intercourse

Activity 5: Take a stand

Objective:
· To evaluate the level of knowledge of the target audience

Target Group:
· Children and adults of all ages

Materials:
· Statements about AIDS (see the AIDS Myth or Fact Game, Activity 3)

Preparation:
· None necessary, though facilitator may want to make 2 signs that say "Agree" and "Disagree" and post them on either side of the room.

Directions:
· Facilitator explains:
Today you must take a stand. I will read statements and you must stand on the side of the room which best represents your view about the statement. We will start by lining up in the center of the room. When I read the statement you must move either to the "Agree" side or to the "Disagree" side. You may not stand in the middle.

· Facilitator reads the statement, participants move.

· Facilitator asks reasons why participants chose one side over the other, and explains which answer is correct and why.

· Repeat process with new statements.

Note:
· This exercise can be used as a springboard for more concentrated activities in areas where there is much misunderstanding or as an introduction for a discussion of AIDS.

Variation 1:
· Substitute "AIDS CAN BE TRANSMITTED" and "AIDS IS NOT TRANSMITTED" for Agree and Disagree and read statements of various transmission myths and facts.

Variation 2:
· Participants pick statements individually and move to appropriate side. The participant's choice is then discussed.

Activity 6: Condom time bomb

Objective:
· To reduce the discomfort level with condoms; to ask questions about AIDS in a fun way

Target Group:
· Secondary students and adults

Time:
· 15 minutes. Time will vary with the number of condoms passed around and the time in between questions.

Materials:
· Condoms, questions on small pieces of paper, a radio/tape player

Preparation:
· Unroll condoms, place one question inside condom, blow up like balloons. Have group stand in a circle.

Directions:
· Start the music and begin passing a condom balloon around in a circle. When the music stops, the person with the condom must sit on it or step on it to break it and answer the question inside.

QUESTIONS FOR CONDOM TIME BOMB

Question 1: Who can get the AIDS virus?

Anyone can get the virus if they participate in risk behaviors or are born of an infected mother.

Question 2: Can people get the AIDS virus from animals and plants?

No.

Question 3: Where does the AIDS virus live?

It lives in white blood cells in the blood and in semen and vaginal fluids.

Question 4: Can we protect ourselves from AIDS?

Yes! We can say no to IV drugs, wait to have sex until we are ready for a mutually monogamous relationship or use condoms everytime we have sex.

(Additional questions can be taken from the "AIDS Myth or Fact Game," Activity 3, or the AIDS True/False Test, Activity 2.)

Activity 7: Other suggestions for activities with condoms

· When playing board games, use different colored condom packets as markers.

· When talking to adult groups, use condom packets as tokens for correct answers.

· Use condoms in the following games:
- Over-and-under relay
- Condom water balloon toss
- Pass the condom (similar to pass the orange)
- Condom pinatas
- Condom volley ball
- Condom corner ball (similar to soccer)

Activity 8: Shaking STD's

Objective:
· To illustrate through a simulated activity how STDs (1)are transmitted, (2) are not transmitted, and (3) ways to reduce risks of infection.

Materials:
· 3 x 5 cards, pencil for each participant, one right handed glove

Direction:
· Hand cut 3 x 5 cards to participants.

· Tell them to write numbers 1-2-3-4-5 down left side of card.

· Five people will receive cards which have special instructions on back.
- Person 1: Do Not shake hands.
- Person 2: Shake hands only with Person # 3.
- Person 3: Shake hands only with Person # 2.
- Person 4: Shake hands only with a glove on your hand.
- Person 5: After you shake hands, sign the card as "Person 5" and tell that person to sign all future cards as "Friend of Person 5."

· Instruction to Group: Each participant is to go and introduce him/herself to another, shake their hands, and sign each other's card. Repeat this 4 times until you have five names on your card and then sit down.

Discussion:
· For this activity, shaking hands is symbolic of having sexual contact.

· Person 1 was instructed not to shake hands with anyone. This person was symbolically practicing abstinence.

· Persons 2 and 3 were instructed to shake hands only with each other. They were symbolically practicing monogamy.

· Person 4 was instructed to only shake hands with a glove on his/her hand. This person was symbolically practicing a barrier method, such as a condom.

· Person 5 symbolically had an STD. He/She signed cards as "Person 5" and told those people to sign others' cards as "Friend of Person 5."

· Persons 1, 2, and 3 would not transmit the disease since STDs are prevented with abstinence and monogamous relationships.

· Person 4's risk of infection was reduced but not eliminated by the use of a barrier method such as the glove which was symbolic of a condom.

· Person 5 exposed his/her contacts to STDs.

· Person 5, please stand up.

· Everyone now look at your 3 x 5 cards.

· Look at Number 1. If your card says Person 5, please stand up.

· Look at Number 2. If your card says Person 5 or Friend of Person 5, please stand up.

· Look at Number 3. If your card says Person 5, or Friend of Person 5, please stand up.

· Look at Number 4. If your card says Person 5, or Friend of Person 5, please stand up.

· Look at Number 5. If your card says Person 5, or Friend of Person 5, please stand up.

Note:
· Not everyone exposed to an STD infected person will contract an STD, but sometimes only one contact is necessary. Rates of infection depend on the particular STD, the type of sexual contact, the sex of the participants, the number of participants, other STDs acting as co-factors, geographic locations, sexual history of partners, as well as other factors.

Variation:
· Ask the persons standing, "How do you feel about being infected?" (surprised, embarrassed, angry, etc.?).

· Ask Person 1, "How did you feel when others tried to shake your hand and you couldn't respond?" (rejected, foolish, bashful, etc.?).
· Ask Persons 2 and 3, "How did you feel when you could only shake hands with each other?" (left out, rejected, special, etc.?).

· Ask Person 4, "How did others respond to the glove on your hand when you shook hands?.' (surprised, questioned, reluctant to shake hands, etc.?).

· Ask Person 5, "How did you feel knowing you possibly infected all these people?" (embarrassed, sorry, didn't know what he/she was doing, etc.).

· When did this STD really start to be transmitted?

· Discuss the effectiveness of the following methods to reduce the risks of STD infection:
- abstinence: best, most effective, way
- monogamy: effective if neither is already infected
- limited number of partners: reduce but risky
- limit partners who have multiple partners: reduce but risky
- condoms: reduce but do not eliminate possibility of infection.

From: Ohio Public Schools AIDS Manual

Activity 9: The immune system role play

Objective:
· To demonstrate how the AIDS virus affects the body

Target Group:
· Students B5-B6, M1-M6

Materials:
· Cardboard or stiff paper, markers, string, scissors

Preparation:
· Use the cardboard or stiff paper and markers to make signs: AIDS Virus, Body, Pneumonia Virus, Influenza Virus, Diarrhea Bacteria.

Directions:
· Choose one student to come to the front of the class and play the part of the body. Have him/her wear the "Body" sign.

· Have 4 or 5 students come forward to play the part of the immune system, (white blood cells), that will come to protect the body. They should stand around the body and all of them will hold a ribbon/string forming a circle around the body. Explain to the students that the white blood cells are like a barrier against diseases that invade the body.

· Have the 3 students wearing the signs Pneumonia Virus, Influenza Virus, and Diarrhea Bacteria come and try to enter the protective circle around the body. Have the white blood cells move around to protect the body from invasion.

· Now have one more person (could be the teacher) wear the AIDS sign. This person will have scissors and will cut the string /ribbon that is forming a circle around the body. The other diseases can now get near the body. The teacher and students should summarize together that if the immune system is weakened by AIDS, other diseases can attack and do damage to the body.

Activity 10: ''I have AIDS'' - A role play

Objective:
· To sensitize the group that persons with AIDS (PWA) should not be ostracized but supported

Target Group:
· Primary and secondary students and adults

Materials:
· Sign that says, "I have AIDS", 4 cards

Preparation:
· On the 4 cards write the following, one reaction per card:

Reaction #1 Touch the PWA's (Person with AIDS) shoulder and when you read the sign he/she is wearing, you pull your hand away. Then you run to the restroom and wash your hands. (Pretend you are doing this.)

Reaction #2 You read the sign and say "You're kidding, right?" Then you ask the PWA how he/she could be admitted to school with this deadly, contagious disease. Also say that you are going to contact the school administration and have the PWA dismissed from school. Then leave the room.

Reaction #3 You read the sign and say "Oh, you must be one of those drug addicts. You should be locked up somewhere where you can't hurt the rest of us normal people." Then leave the room.

Reaction #4 You read the sign, shake the PWA's hand and say, "It's nice to meet you." Then sit down in the chair next to the PWA's seat.

· Distribute the signs and the cards to 5 students in the class who you think are good actors. Allow a few minutes for them to read the cards before actually playing the role play. Try to pick a student who is self confident to be the PWA since he/she may be teased for having AIDS by fellow classmates.

Directions:
· One participant wears the sign, "I have AIDS." The participant with the PWA sign is a high school senior and is sitting at a desk in a classroom.

· Other students (1-4) come into the classroom and the PWA introduces himself/herself to them.

· The four have the reactions described above.

· At the conclusion of each situation, ask the group if the person's reactions are based on fact or fear.

· Discuss each situation individually.

· Ask the PWA how he/she felt in each situation.

Variation:
· With adult groups, have the situation be a village, a mothers group, a factory, etc. Adjust the reactions according to the situation e.g., if the situation is a factory, in reaction #2, the reacting participant would threaten to speak to the boss to have the PWA fired.

From: The Ohio Public Schools AIDS Manual

Activity 11: The AIDS risk game

Objective:
· A self-teaching activity to learn about AIDS transmission.

Target Group:
· Secondary students and adults

Materials:
· One test sheet for each person, colored paper, pencils

Preparation:
· Copy one sheet for each person.

· Cut strips of colored paper the length and width of the "Correct Answer" column, and paste or staple to top of "Correct Answer" column.

Directions:
· Each person writes their answers to questions in the "Your Answer" column, using the code at the top of the question sheet.

· After completing all questions, individuals or groups look to see if their answers are correct.

Variation:
· Draw the activity on a large sheet of paper, big enough to be seen by the whole group.

· Have everyone answer the questions as a group and check the answers as a group.

· Allow time for questions and discussion.

CODE:
N = No Risk
R = Risk

PRACTICE

Your Answer

Correct Answer

Abstinence


N

Blood transfusions after screening


N

Blood transfusions using unscreened blood


R

Breast feeding by an infected mother


R

Cleaning blood spill without gloves


R

Coughing


N

Dry kissing


N

Ear piercing with shared needle


R

Hugging


N

Intercourse using an oil-based lubricant and condom


R

IV drug needle sharing


R

Massaging


N

Masturbation


N

Mutually monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner who does not use IV drugs


N

Proper use of condom with non oxynol 9 spermicide


N

Sharing facilities with an infected person at school or work place


N

Sharing food and utensils, living and toilet facilities with an infected person


N

Sneezing


N

Tattooing


R

Unprotected vaginal sex when one partner is HIV positive or HIV status is unknown


R

Using a shared needle that has been cleaned with bleach


R

From: The AIDSED CENTER, WHO/UNESCO, Bangkok, Thailand

Activity 12: AIDS problem situations

Objective:
· To spark discussion/thought in problem solving on AIDS related topics.

Target Group:
· Secondary students and adults

Materials:
· Copies of "Problem Situations" and "Form for Solving Problems" for all participants, or write on flip chart or chalkboard where everyone can read easily.

Directions:
· Explain that in this activity we will do two things:
- examine and discuss some common questions about AIDS transmission
- learn how to look for solutions by using a four-step process.

· Ask participants to read the situations on the "AIDS Problem Situations" list and choose one they would like to work on.

· Ask participants to divide into three groups based on the situation they have chosen to solve. Groups should be about the same size. If not, invite a few people to change groups.

· Using the "Form for Solving Problems," participants should try to solve their problem by following the four-step process. This may be done as a group or each individual may fill out the form, sharing the results with the small group afterwards.

· After sufficient time for small group discussion, a spokesperson from each small group can make a brief presentation to the entire group, describing the process and the solution reached.

AIDS PROBLEM SITUATIONS

1. Supap hasn't had sex with anyone, but she shoots intravenous drugs with her friends. Since reading that AIDS can be passed by sharing IV drug needles and syringes, she wonders if she has gotten the AIDS virus.

2. Porntip dates Somgiet, and they often have sex. Porntip doesn't have sex with others but she thinks that Somgiet does. Porntip also believes that Somgiet may have had sex with someone at increased risk for AIDS. Neither has taken the AIDS antibody test to determine if they have been exposed to the AIDS virus. Porntip wants to continue having sex with Somgiet but isn't sure what can be done to prevent exposure to the AIDS virus.

3. Mayuree works very hard to maintain good health. She reads about all aspects of health so that she can know the best preventive health practices. Mayuree has received a little information in school about AIDS, but doesn't feel it was enough. She wants to learn more about AIDS and keep current in the future.

FORM FOR SOLVING PROBLEMS

Following the steps in this decision-making process can help you discover the best solutions to most problems. Use this process to help solve the AIDS problem situation you have chosen.

Check the AIDS problem situation you want to solve: 1__ 2__ 3__

Directions:
· After reading the problem situation on the "AIDS Problem Situations" list, answer the questions below.

1. What is THE PROBLEM?
2. What are THE IMPORTANT FACTS about the situation?
3. What are THE BEST POSSIBLE ACTIONS?
4. What is THE BEST SOLUTION?

From: The Ohio Public Schools AIDS Manual

Activity 13: Eliminating barriers to individual AIDS prevention

Objectives:
· To look for solutions to barriers in personal AIDS prevention.

Target Group:
· Secondary students (M3-6) adults

Materials:
· Blackboard and chalk, flip charts and markers (optional)

Preparation:
· None necessary.

Directions:
1. Identify Barriers to use of AIDS Prevention Methods
· Write the following AIDS sex and drug risk-reduction precautions on the chalkboard:
- Sexual abstinence
- Avoid exchange of body fluids by using condoms
- Careful selection of partners then monogamous relationships
- Don't use drugs
- Avoid sharing of drug needles and syringes.

· Ask participants to identify barriers or reasons why people do not utilize AIDS prevention. Possible barriers to the strategies listed above might be:
- Inability of a couple to resist peer pressure to be sexually active
- Belief that sex is not pleasurable with a condom
- Embarrassment in getting condoms.

· Write all ideas on the chalkboard.

2. Prioritizing Barriers
· Once all the barriers have been listed on the board, asked participants to select what they think are the five most important barriers to use of AIDS prevent on methods.

· The most important barrier is given five points, and so on to one point for the least important. If the group is small this can be done through group discussion.

Variation:
· If the group is large, break into smaller groups. Each group should prioritize the list. After about ten minutes, groups reconvene and share their lists. Total the point groups have given to each barrier to determine order of priority.

3. Finding Solutions to Eliminating the Barriers
· Divide the group into five groups and one of the top five barriers assigned to each group. Through discussion, the groups are to create solutions for eliminating the barrier assigned to them. They may write their solutions on flip charts. Solutions should be imaginative.

4 Discussion of Solutions
· A spokesperson for each group should report the created solutions to the entire class. These solutions, as well as other possible solutions from the rest of the group, should be discussed.

From: The Ohio Public Schools AIDS Manual

Activity 14: The story of four friends

Objective:
· To stress the importance of abstinence and monogamy in AIDS prevention

Target Group:
· Secondary students

Materials:
· Flip chart picture cards

Preparation:
· Prepare the flip chart cards beforehand or ask students to help to draw the cards.

Hints for the facilitator:
· Read the story ahead of time to yourself. Memorize the story picture by picture so that you do not have to read the story from this paper.

· Change the names of the people in the story so that they suit the people of your area. Add other details about the characters' backgrounds to make them more personal.

· Have the students sit near you. Or walk slowly around with each chart so everyone can see the pictures.

· Hold the charts up high enough so that everyone can see. Hide your fingers as much as you can. Point the pictures to the students, not towards yourself

· Point out details in the pictures and ask students questions. Ask "Do you see the four friends in the picture?" "Does this woman look healthy or sick?" "What is happening in this picture here?"

STORY

CHART 1: The Four Friends

Malee, Sompong, Tong-Chai and Cha-on (give your own local names to these people in the story) were good friends. They had all been going to school since Patome 1. Sompong and Malee liked each other very much as did Tong- Chat and Cha-on. Both couples dreamed of getting married some day, after they had finished secondary school.


Figure

CHART 2: Teacher Talks to Class

One day at school, the teacher announced that they would be having a special lesson about the new disease called AIDS. Some of the pupils had already heard a little about it, but no one was really sure about the facts. The lecture about AIDS was very interesting. The teacher explained that by following one simple rule you could almost always avoid this terrible disease. He said that by saying no to IV drugs and by choosing just one person for marriage and being faithful to them and they to you, you would not get this illness. He explained that though AIDS can be spread in other ways, it is usually spread by people who had sex with many other people, or who shoot drugs.


Figure

CHART 3: Two Boys Begin to Argue

Soon after the lesson Sompong and Tong-Chai were talking about what the teacher said about AIDS. Tong-Chai was surprised when Sompong said he didn't believe what the teacher said. Sompong said that to prove you were a man you should have sex with as many women as possible and go to prostitutes. An older boy had told Sompong that all sexually transmitted diseases could be cured easily with one big injection. Tong-Chai reminded Sompong that AIDS could not be cured at all and that it caused a painful death.


Figure

CHART 4: The Boys Go Their Separate Ways

Tong-Chai tried as hard as he could to convince Sompong that he was wrong. Tong-Chai knew that it was exactly Sompong's kind of thinking that was causing AIDS to spread very rapidly. Tong-Chai kept trying until Sompong got angry with him and left to go talk with some other friends. Tong-Chai realized that these friends were the ones who had been the source of Sompong's mistaken ideas. Sompong's friends had all dropped out of school several years earlier and spent most of their time sitting around drinking Mekhong and talking about women. Tong-Chai went to his other friends who were serious about their studies.


Figure

CHART 5: Two Girls Talk Together

Strangely enough, while this was happening, Malee and Cha-on were having a very similar conversation. Cha-on was shocked to find out that Malee had already started having sex with several older men who were buying many nice things for her. In spite of all her arguments, Cha-on couldn't convince Malee that she had to believe what they had been taught.


Figure

CHART 6: Boy and Girl are Betrothed

Several years went by and the two couples went their separate ways. Tong-Chai and Chaon both studied to become doctors. They had to work hard but they enjoyed their work. Soon Tong-Chai asked Cha-on to marry him.


Figure

CHART 7: An Idle Life

Neither Sompong or Malee finished school since they thought it was a waste of time. Sompong found odd jobs from time to time but most of his money was wasted on drinking and on prostitutes at the coffee shops. He knew that people said this was dangerous but he didn't care any more. Malee made her living by having sex with rich politicians and businessmen who would pick her up in their Mercedes. She was very unhappy but didn't know how else she could make money.


Figure

CHART 8: A Girl in Trouble

One day, Malee found out that she was pregnant. As her pregnancy progressed she slowly became sicker and sicker. She started to cough and have fevers every night. Instead of gaining weight she actually lost weight as the baby grew. By now, none of her rich friends would have anything to do with her. By chance, she went to the same hospital where Cha-on was doing her training. When Malee saw her, she begged Cha-on to help her.


Figure

CHART 9: At the Clinic

After examining Malee, Cha-on thought from her medical experience that Malee had AIDS. Blood tests proved that her old friend was dying of AIDS and that nothing could save her. It was very difficult, but Cha-on summoned her courage and sat down to tell Malee. Through her tears, Malee cried, "If only I had listened to you when we were back in school!"


Figure

CHART 10: At the Funeral

Soon after she had her baby, Malee died. Malee's aunt agreed m care for the baby even though it was sickly. Tong-Chai and Cha-on told the aunt they would help her care for the baby as much as possible to give the child a chance at survival.


Figure

CHART 11: A Friend's Advice

One day after the funeral, Sompong came to see Tong-Chai. Sompong told Tong-Chai that he had been tested for the AIDS virus and that the infection was present in his blood. Although he was not having any symptoms, Sompong was very scared and asked Tong-chai what he should do. Tong-Chai told Sompong to stop having sex with all women to keep him from spreading AIDS. Tong-Chai told Sompong to stop smoking cigarettes and greatly reduce the amount of alcohol he drank. He encouraged him to eat a healthier diet and to exercise daily. All these were all difficult changes for Sompong to make but he was determined to try his best after hearing Malee's fate. Tong-Chai was very sorry for Sompong and he promised to help him with his struggle for life.


Figure

CHART 12: The Unbeliever Believes and Helps Others

In his spare time Sompong now began to study as much as he could about AIDS. When attending a community lecture about AIDS one day, a man at the back of the crowd told Sompong he did not believe what he heard about AIDS. Sompong gave the man a private man-to-man talk about AIDS and convinced the man to change his ways and understand the truth about AIDS. Sompong was determined to live as long as he could and to help as many people as possible to avoid his own terrible fate.


Figure

QUESTIONS FOR THE FOUR FRIENDS STORY

Ask the pupils questions about Sompong, Malee, Tong-Chai and Cha-on and what happened in the story. Show the charts again as you discuss the events, such as:

· What was the important way to stop AIDS which the teacher told the class? Who did not believe this? Why did they not believe it?

· Why did Sompong get angry with Tong-Chai? If you had a friend like Sompong, what would you do? What if Sompong were your brother?

· Why was Malee keeping company with older men? Did the nice things Malee got make her happy? What would you say to her if Malee was your friend?

· How did Tong-Chai and Cha-on keep from getting AIDS?

· What were the things that Tong-Chai told Sompong to do when he knew he had AIDS virus in his blood? Will these things cure the AIDS? How will they help others?

· Could the things that happened to Sompong and Malee happen to you? How will you stop it from happening?

From: The Uganda School Health Kit on AIDS Central

PICTURE CARDS

Activity 15: Tic-tac-toe

Objective:
· To encourage proper pronunciation of vocabulary; to reinforce AIDS information.

Target Group:
· Students of all levels, 5-50 players

Time:
· 15 minutes

Materials:
· Blackboard, chalk

Preparation:
· Draw a tic-tac-toe grid on the board and fill the grid in with AIDS vocabulary.

Directions:
· Divide the group into two teams: X and 0.

· Choose 2 students from team X.

· The first team member chooses a square e.g., "Top Right" and pronounces the word(s) in the square, e.g., "Dirty needles."

· The second team member makes a sentence about the word e.g., "You can get AIDS from sharing dirty needles."

· If the student does this correctly, the words in the square are erased and an X is put in the square.

· Team O follows the same procedure.

· If one team gets 3 Xs or Os in a row, they win.

Example for Tic-Tac-Toe

AIDS

Shoot Drugs

White Blood Cells

X

Mosquitos

HIV Virus

Blood

O

Immune System

Activity 16: Concentration

Objective:
· For target group to identify/recall/review vocabulary or other information and to check for understanding

Target Group:
· Students of all levels, 6-50 people

Time:
· 15 minutes

Materials:
· 18-20 cards (scrap paper), crayons, markers, blackboard ledge, tape or pocket chart. There is an AIDS concentration game (in Thai) in the Peace Corps Library as well as stencils to make your own set of cards.

Preparation:
· On half of the cards/paper, draw a picture related to AIDS, e.g., needles, condoms, two people holding hands, etc., and on the other half of the cards write the word that corresponds to the picture. The cards can be made in advance or made by the participants.

Directions:
· Place the cards face-down against a blackboard, propped on the ledge, or in a pocket chart.

· Number and letter the cards so that they can be easily identified.

· Divide the group into 2 teams.

· Each team takes turns asking to see a pair of cards.

· The facilitator turns the cards over each turn. If they match, the team asking gets the cards and a point; if they don't match, the cards are turned face down again and it is the other team's turn.

· Continue playing until all the cards are matched.

· The team with the most points wins.

Variation 1:
· In order for the team that matches the cards to gain a point, the team must answer a question related to the cards that they matched, i.e., if the cards matched are a picture of a condom and the word "condom" the facilitator can ask, "Does a condom help to prevent AIDS or not?"

Variation 2:
· Instead of the cards being pictures and vocabulary words, the cards could be questions and answers or sentences cut into two halves.

Activity 17: AIDS and ladders

Objective:
· To make players aware of behaviors and attitudes can either promote or prevent HIV infection and AIDS

Target Group:
· Upper level primary school students, secondary students

Materials:
· Large playing board for classroom use or smaller playing boards for small groups, colored buttons or other markers, a playing die

Preparation:
· Make playing board and large playing die.

Directions:
· Each team will roll the die to see who goes first. The highest roll goes first.

· The team moves its marker however many spaces as indicated by the number rolled.

· Teams alternate turns. When a team/player lands on a space with a written phrase in it they must read the phrase out loud to the other players.* If it is a behavior or attitude which prevents HIV infection the team/player may climb the ladder to the space at the top of the ladder. If it is a behavior or attitude which promotes HIV infection, the team/player is swallowed by the snake and must move to the space marked by the snake's tail. The team/player which reaches HOME SAFE HOME first is the winner.

* Encourage the students to discuss the behaviors and attitudes. Why do some promote infection and why do some prevent it?


Aids & Ladders

Adapted by K D.C. Perera, Assistant Director Community Health, Sri Lanka Red Cross Society, Sry Lanka

Section IV - Resources

The resource section is provided to supplement the AIDS Resource Manual. If you need more information, materials, or want to enlist the assistance of others who work in the fight-against AIDS, this section provides some suggestions.

Three sources of additional information are listed:

· AIDS Division, Communicable Disease Control Department, Ministry of Public Health
· Communicable Disease Control Offices
· Provincial Health Office
· Peace Corps Volunteers working in the AIDS prevention and control program.
· Materials available in the Peace Corps Office in Bangkok
· NGOs and other Organizations

The flow chart, "Making the Right Contacts," is provided to help you contact the appropriate sources as you plan and follow up on your AIDS activity.

Resources

A. Peace Corps Volunteers assigned to the Ministry of Public Health, AIDS Division, Office of Communicable Disease Control.

AIDS Volunteers may be able to help you in a variety of ways. Check with the health office at Peace Corps Headquarters for a list of current volunteers and their site assignments.

B. Peace Corps Headquarters, Bangkok: AIDS Section in the Library.

1. Audio and video tapes: soap operas, cartoons, clinical instruction, et. al.

2. "Education" folder:
· Into Adolescence: Learning about AIDS, a fairly sophisticated series of lessons with scripts, work-sheets, glossary - all exploring myths and truths about AIDS and addressing AIDS related social problems.
· The TEFL Resource Manual. AIDS Education is officially part of the TEFL agenda.
· Let's Talk About AIDS - An Information and Activities Book, 8 pages of games, activities, etc., in English and Thai.
· AIDS Answers for Teens. Grades 7 -12, a fairly comprehensive manual for teaching AIDS to teenagers. Participatory learning techniques are stressed. In English and Thai.
· Education to Prevent AIDS/STDs in the Pacific. A Teaching Guide for Secondary Schools, World Health Organization and UNESCO, 1989, 109 pages, 13 lessons. Table of Contents includes: "Purpose," "Teaching Materials," "HIV Antibody Positive - What Next?," "Cultural/Personal/Community Values about Sexual Expression and HIV/AIDS," "How to Say 'No'," "Talking to Parents about STD and AIDS," and others.
· Little Deer, a Thai children's book about how children worry about AIDS because they don't understand that you can't get it from normal activities. An important message for children through at least B3. A good teaching tool at teachers' workshops, or as a script or idea for a skit.
· and more...

3. "Brochure" folder:
· Samples of Thai language brochures, pamphlets, booklets, etc., ranging from the very sophisticated, often quite technical, to the very simple outline format, with short sentences.
· "AIDS & Pregnancy-Is Your Unborn Baby at Risk?", Sarasota County Department of Health, Florida
· Cards/calendars: "AIDS Safety Tips," in English and Thai, sponsored by PDA and other organizations. Everyone should carry several as cue cards and to give to friends, co-workers, etc. Available on request from Peace Corps Librarian.
· "When a Friend Has AIDS," distributed by Impact AIDS, Inc., San Francisco, California.

4. "Newsclippings" folders/book
· "A Plague Awaits," New York Times Magazine, 1991. A fairly hard-hitting article on the AIDS pandemic in Thailand and The Royal Thai Government response.
· Many articles which address all facets of the AIDS story: education, condoms, orphans, economic implications, prostitution, prejudice, treatments, statistics, etc.

5. "Lesson Plans" folder:

Plans for conducting training sessions, seminars and classes on AIDS. Two components of AIDS Education are stressed: information and behavior modification.

6. Games and Activities:
· "The AIDS Box," a compendium of games and activities, created and collected by PCV Kelly Nelson, for use in schools. The ideas can be adapted for sessions on the environment, social issues, etc. Look it over and make your own.
· "Life Should Be," a play by PCV Everett Briggs, in English and Thai, for use in schools and at community gatherings.
· Ohio Public Schools AIDS Game Folder, tests, worksheets, discussion questions, attitude surveys, role playing.
· "AIDS for Teens" with Stop AIDS Game.

C. NGOs and other Organizations.

Many can help you with information and materials. There is a complete list of NGOs working on AIDS in the Peace Corps Library. Be sure to check NGOs working in your region. Your Salaklang Changwat (Provincial Capital) may have a current list.

Please use caution in contacting NGOs in Bangkok unless they are referenced here. The AIDS Division Peace Corps Volunteers are in touch with these organizations and, unless they are referenced here, they may not be set up to answer your inquires or give you materials.

When contacting NGOs for information or materials, you will have greater success if you approach the organizations with specific requests, a plan of action. Few organizations will be impressed by or be able to offer substantive assistance to, "I want to do an AIDS project in my village/school, please send me what you can."

The information exchange between NGOs and you is a two-way street. Be sure to give feedback on the help and materials these organizations give you and thank them for their assistance.

1. WHO/UNESCO

AIDS Education and Health Promotion Materials Exchange
Center for Asia and the Pacific (AIDSED Center)
Darakarn Building
920 Sukhumvit Road
Bangkok 10110
Tel: 391-0577 ext. 127

Contact: Dr. Anwar Ali Khan, Chief, Regional Advisory Team on Population Education. The AIDSED Center has a wealth of materials: books, posters, tapes, etc. Check the UNESCO catalogs at the Peace Corps Library before you trek out to the WHO/UNESCO office building.

2. ASIN (Association for Strengthening integrated National Population and Health Development Activities in Thailand)
101 Prapinkao Nakhonchaisri Road
Talingchan, Bangkok 10170
Tel: 448 6462

Contact: Dr. Jumroon Mikhanorn, Secretary General. ASIN has a program on AIDS and the work place. Visit the ASIN (free) Library which is well stocked with printed materials as well as audio and video tapes. ASIN has a Community Care Project for PWAs (Persons with AIDS) in Lampang.

3. PDA (Population and Community Development Association)
8 Sukhumvit 12
Bangkok 10110
Tel: 256 0080

Contact: AIDS Prevention and Information Bureau. PDA is Thailand's largest NGO. It is involved in development projects addressing many issues: health, agriculture, small business management, community development, etc. PDA has led the private sector in Thailand's war on AIDS. When in Bangkok, visit the PDA Headquarters, with its unique restaurant, "Cabbages and Condoms", on the ground floor. The PDA owned and managed village craft shop, on the second floor of Sukhumvit Plaza, sells family planning and AIDS items, e.g., Tshirts, key rings, condom flowers as well as village crafts.

Before approaching PDA Bangkok, be advised that PDA has branch offices in many provinces. These branch offices often service a large area (6-8 provinces), and can give you the same materials you would find at the Sukhumvit headquarters building, with the added advantage of more personalized and quicker service. It is recommended that you actually visit the office nearest you.

Check the PDA branch offices in the Amphur Muang of the following provinces:

Chiengrai 57000, Tel: (053) 713-410
Phitsanuloke 65000, Tel: (055) 259-319
Nakhonratchasima 30000, Tel:(044) 258-100-2
Mahasarakham 44000, Tel: (043) 711 060.

And in the following locations:

Wieng Pa Pao, Chiengrai 57170
Nang Rong, Burirum 31110, Tel: (044) 612-119
Puthaisong, Burirum 31120, Tel: (044) 689-120
Chakaraj, Nakhonratchasima 30230 Tel: (044) 399-168
Pak Chong, Nakhonratchasima 30130 Tel: (044) 258-100-2
Ban Pie, Khon Kaen 40110, Tel: (043) 242-032
Kao Khor, Phetchaboon 67110, Tel: (056) 701-520
Sangkla, Surin 32150, Tel: (044) 571-045
Aranyaprated, Prachinburi 25120, Tel: (037) 231-313

4. Thai Red Cross Society
Rama IV Road
Bangkok 10330
Tel: 256-4107-8

Contact: Professor Dr. Praphan Phanuphak, Director. Check your regional Red Cross Offices also. The Thai Red Cross provide some posters and brochures. The Thai Red Cross has also sponsored the Thai version of the very clever/popular video, "Street Kids," copies of which can be obtained at the Peace Corps Library.

The Thai Red Cross Society is recommended as the most professional/confidential of various HIV testing/anonymous counselling clinics.

MAKING THE RIGHT CONTACTS

Whether you wish to plan a Train the Trainer workshop or a Student AIDS Day activity, it is helpful to make the right contacts. This outline may help you contact the right sources. Always begin with contacts in your own Amphur or Changwat. Work with your co-worker on all phases of the process.


This outline may help you contact the right sources

Section V AIDS vocabulary

Words have Power

· When speaking about AIDA or People with AIDS, it is important to use not only the most accurate terms but also those which are sensitive to people's need for acceptance any understanding.

· The following Guides and Vocabulary List were prepared to promote correct language in addressing sin the sensitivities of this social disease. Because some terms used in Thailand may differ from those used in other countries, a Thai-Specific Style Guide is included.

Guide # 1: HIV/ AIDS Style Guide

TERMS TO AVOID

WHY?

USE INSTEAD

1. Aids

First, because the word already means many things. Second, because it is an acronym and using capital letters helps to remind readers.

AIDS

2. AIDS virus

Often used as a shorthand term, this can easily cause confusion between HIV and AIDS unless used with caution. (See Thai Style Guide for exception.)

HIV

3. Carrying AIDS AIDS Carrier AIDS Positive

This confuses the two distinct phases of being infected with HIV and having AIDS. People can have AIDS, but they can not carry it.

HIV positive/People with HIV

4. AlDS test

The most commonly used test detects antibodies to HIV. There is also an antigen test, which detects the presence of the virus itself. This is not widely used.

HIV antibody test

5. Catching AIDS (i.e., becoming infected with HIV)

It is not possible to catch AIDS. It is possible to catch HIV, but even this is misleading as it suggests transmission is similar to colds or flu.

Contract HIV/Become HIV positive

6. Catch AIDS

As in #5

Develop AIDS

7. AIDS sufferer

Having AIDS does not mean being ill all the time. Someone with AIDS can continue to work and live a normal life for some time after diagnosis. Suffering is therefore not appropriate.

Person with AIDS (PWA)

8. AIDS victim

Suggests helplessness, which is no longer appropriate.

Person with AIDS/ Person who has AIDS

9. Innocent victim

Suggests anyone else with AIDS is guilty.

PWA / Person who has AIDS

10. High risk group

It is now clear that there is risk behavior, not high risk groups. The fact of being classified as a member of any particular group does not put anyone at greater risk, but what he or she does, regardless of groups, may.

High risk behavior

11. Full blown AIDS

When the correct distinction between HIV and AIDS is always made, there is no need to use the term "full blown".

AIDS

USE WITH CARE


1. Promiscuous

Implies a moral overtone which may be inappropriate; also very imprecise.

2. Prostitute

Attaches a negative stigma which may prevent appropriate care.

3. AIDS patient

Only appropriate when someone is ill. Care is needed to distinguish this from HIV infection, when "patient" is not appropriate.

4. Catastrophe Disaster

There are still very few parts of the world where this is an accurate description.

5. Plague

Plague suggests a contagious disease, which AIDS is not. Epidemic is a better description.

Source: National Union of Journalists, London, and the UK NGO Consortium

Guide # 2: HIV/ AIDS Style Guide - Thai Specific

The words listed under the heading "English" are from the "Use Instead" column on Style Guide # 1 (i.e., the politically correct terms to be used). The comment section of this guide is to explain difficulties in the translation from English to Thai. Some terms are used incorrectly in Thailand, however, for simplicity, the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) chooses not to correct them.

ENGLISH

DIRECT TRANSLATION

COMMENTS

1. AIDS

AIDS disease


2. HIV

AIDS virus

This term is not totally correct. The MOPH has adopted the use of an incorrect translation for simplicity. In many areas of the world HIV is referred to as the "AIDS virus".

3. HIV positive, People with HIS

Person who has the AIDS virus

It is important to distinguish between people who are HIV positive (people with the AIDS virus) and people with AIDS. Most Thais will say those who are HIV positive already have AIDS.*

4. HIV antibody test

Check blood for the AIDS virus

Most Thais will incorrectly say they are checking for AIDS. The MOPH has adopted "checking blood or saliva for the AIDS virus."

5. Contract HIV

Get the AIDS virus /Positive blood for AIDS

As in #3

6. Develop AIDS

Have AIDS


7. Person with AIDS (PWA)

Person with AIDS /AIDS patient


8. PWA



9. PWA



10. High risk behavior

High risk behavior

Often, incorrectly, high risk groups are still classified in Thailand. **

11 AIDS

AIDS first, second and third stages

Thailand is using the two stage classification of HIV and AIDS.

* Most People with HIV will incorrectly be called a Person with AIDS (see Vocabulary List for pronounciation). It is very important to remind people of the difference.

** The term "high risk group" is no longer appropriate (see Style Guide). When referring to health education for a specific audience, the term "target group" is preferred over "high risk group."

AIDS Related Vocabulary List

Code:
(TS) = Tap sap (i.e., the same word is used in Thai and English)
* = see explanation at end of section
# = see Style Guide
@ = brand name in Thailand

Phonetic key to vowels:
ae - as in "bat"
ai - as in "I"
aw - as in "law"
ee - as in 'bee"
oe - as in "Boeing"
oo - as in "moon"
ow - as in "cow"

ENGLISH

PHONETIC

General

ROKE-AID

AIDS (TS)

ROKE POOM KOOM GAN

Acquired immune

BOHG PRONG

Deficiency Syndrome

POO BEN AID, POO PUEY ROK AIDS

Person with AIDS

POO DIT CHUA-AID

Person with HIV #

CHUA-WAI-RUS ROKE AID

HIV (TS) #

MEE AGAHN SAM PAN GAHB AID

ARC (TS)

RE-BOPE POOM KOOM GAHN

immune system

MED LUE-ED KOW

white blood cell

POOM DOHN TAHN

antibody

CHUAVI-RUS

virus

GAHN RE-BAHT

epidemic

OO BAHD-EE GAHN

incidence

SA TAHN A-GAHN

situation

BOW MAI

goal

ROENG PAI-YA-BAHN

hospital

CLINIC

clinic (TS)

GAHN BONG GAHN BAB

universal precautions

KRAWP JAHK-A-WAN

Prevention

GAHN BONG GAHN

protection

GAHN BONG GAHN

abstinence

MAI MEE PET SAM PAN

condom (TS)

TOONG YAHNG ANA-MAI

K:Y, JL, or

K Y, J L, X Y YELLEE

XY Jelly (TS) @


lubricant

SAN LAW LUE-EN

mutually faithful partner

RAHK DIEOW JAI DIEOW

safer sex (TS)

PET SAHM PAN TEE BLAWD PAIGWA

spermicide

YA KAH TUA AR-SU-CHI

virgin (female)

POO YING BUREE-SOOT

virgin (male)

POO CHAI BUREE-SOOT

Transmission/ Non-transmission (see sentences at the end also)

to transmit

GAHN DIT DAW

risk behavior

BITEEGAHM SIENG

high risk group

GLOOM PRA-CHA-KORN THEE MEE


PRUTE- TI -KAM SIENG SOONG

target group

GLOOM BOW MAI

bisexual (TS)

RAHK SONG PET

Commercial Sex

CHAI REU YING

Worker (CSW)*

BUREEGAHN TAHNG PET

client of CSW

KAEK MA TEEO


CHAI CHOB TEE-O


POO MA CHAI BUREEGAHN


TAHNG PET

farmers

GASSET DE GAWN

fishermen

CHOW BRA-MONG

hemophiliac (TS)

ROKE LEU-ED

heterosexual

RAHK DANG PET

homosexual (TS)

RAHK RUAM PET/GAY

housewives

MAE BAHN

IV drug users

POO DIT YA SEPT DIT

laborers

KONE NGAN

pimp/brothel manager

MAENG DA, POO-JAD-KAN SATAN


BO-RI-KAN

pregnant women

YING MEE KLAWD, YING MEE TONG

prisoners

NAHK TOTE

tribal people

CHOW KOW

sex industry establishment

SATAHN BUREE-GAHN TANG PET

brothel

SONG

coffeeshop (TS)

COFFEE SHOP

gay bar (TS)

BAR GAY

massage parlor

SATAHN AB OB NOO-ED

tea house (TS)

ROANG-NAM-CHA

promiscuity

GAHN SAHM SOHN PET

sexual relations

PET SAHM PAHN

sexual intercourse

GAHN RUAM PET

anal sex

GAHN RUAM PET TAHNG TAWAHN,


GAHN RUAM PET GOEN

oral sex

GAHN RUAM PET TAHNG BAHK

vaginal sex

GAHN RUAM PET TAHNG


CHONG KLAWD

fantacizing

GAHN SAHNG JIN DA NA


GAHN REU-ENG REUM PET

masturbation

CHUAY TUA AING


SAM-RED KUAM-KRAI


DUY TUA-AENG

non-penetrative sex

PET SAHM PAHN TEE MAI SAWD SAI

kiss

JOOB

deep kissing

JOOB BAB DOOT DUE-EN

pregnancy

GAHN DAHNG KLAWD, MEE TONG

to shoot drugs

CHIT YA SEPT DIT

bleach

NAM YA FAWG KOW


HAITER

needle

KEM CHIT YA

syringe

GRA-BAWHK

bodily fluids

NAHM NAI RAHNG GAI

blood

LEU-ED

breastmilk

NAHM NOME MAE


NAHM NOME MAHN-DA

mucus

NAHM MUE-EHK,


NAHM MOOHK

semen

NAHM GAHM/NAHM CHUA

saliva

NAHM LAI

tattoo

ROI SAHK

tears

NAHM DA

vaginal fluids

NAHM NAI CHONG KLAWD

STD

GAMA ROKE

chancroid

PLAE RIM ON

chlamydia (TS)

CHLAMYDIA

gonorrhoea

NONG NAI

herpes (TS)

HERPES, REUM

syphillis (TS)

SYPHILLIS

vaginitis

CHONG KLAWD ACHT SEPT

Symptoms

A-GAHN

none

MAI MEE

diarrhea

TONG RUANG, TONG DEU-EN

dry cough

Al HAENG

fever

KAI

night sweats

NGEU-E OOG DOHN GLANG KEUN

open sore

PLAE

swollen Iymph nodes

DAWM NAHM LEUNG DOE

thrush

FA KOW NAI BAHK

weight loss

NAHM NAHK LOTE

opportunistic diseases

ROKE DIT CHUA CHOO-AYE O-GOT

cancer

MA-RANG

pneumonia

ROKE BAWD BOO-EM

tuberculosis

WAHN-A ROKE

Treatment


no cure

RAHK-SA MAI DAI

AZT (TS)

YA DAN CHUA WAI-RUS


CHA-NID NUENG

DDI (TS)

YA DAN CHUA WAI-RUS


CHA-NID NUENG

quarantine

GAHN GAHK GAHN ROKE

therapeutic community

CHOOM CHON BAHM BAHT

Testing


counsellor (TS)

POO Hl KAHM BRUEHK-SA

counselling (TS)

GAHN Hl KAHM BRUEHK-SA

pretest (TS)

PRE TEST, KON TRUDE

post-test (TS)

POST TEST, LUNG TRUDE

no-test (TS)

NO TEST, MAI MEE KAN TRUDE

anonymous clinic

CLINIC NEE LA NAHM

to test blood

DRUE-ED LEU-ED

to reveal one's status

BURD PUEYEE WA TID CHUA AIDS


LUE MAI

incubation period

RAY YA FAHK DOO-WA

window period (TS)

RAY YA FAHK DOO-WA TEE YOUNG


TRUDE MAI POBE

patient

POO BOO-AY

diagnose

GAHN WEE NIT CHAI

Health Education

SOOK-KA SUHK SA

leaflet/pamphlet

PAEN BLIEW, EGASAN NAE NAHM

poster (TS)

POS-DTER

screen

CHAHK

slides (TS)

S-LIDE

sticker (TS)

S-DIG-GER

video (TS)

WEE DEE O

dildo

A WAI-U-WA PET POO CHAI TEE-YEM HOON

evaluation

GAHN BRA-MERN PONE

implementation

GAHN BAHD DEE BAHT NGAHN

planning

GAHN RA-WAHG PAN

policy

NAI YO BAI

research

WEE JAI

survey

GAHN SAHM REU-ED

Miscellaneous


in the body

U NAI DOO-WA

in the blood

U NAI LEU-ED

cold virus

CHUE-A WHAT

safe

BLAWD PAI

dangerous

AHN DE RAI

* The following words are considered to be rude or derogatory terms for female commercial sex workers:
YING ACHEEP PEE SET
SO PAY NEE
GA-LEE (very rude)

SENTENCES:

1. HIV is transmitted three ways.....
CHUA AID SA-MAHT DIT DAW DAI SAHM TAHNG.....

2. HIV is not transmitted by:
- CHUA AID MAI SA-MAHT DIT DAW DOI-E TANG or CHUA AID DIT DAW MAI DAI

- hugging

GAWD GAHN

- mosquito bite

YOONG GAHT

- shaking hands

JAHB MEUR GAHN

- sneezing

JAHM

- swimming pools

SAHT WAI NAHM

- telephones

TOR LAH SAHP

- wearing the same clothes

CHAI SEUA-PA RUEM GAHN

- eating with a Person with HIV/AIDS
GIN KOW DUA-GAN GAHB POO DIT CHUA/POO BEN AID

- attending the funeral of a person who died with AIDS
GAHN BAI GNAHN SOPE KONG POO DAI TEE BEN AID

3. Always use a condom when you have sex
CHAI TUNG YAHNG ANAMAI TOOHK KRAHNG TEE MEE PET SAHMPAHN

4. Do not reject people with HIV
YA RAHNG-GEEYET POO TEE DIT CHUA AID

Acknowledgements

Thank You to So Many People

An amazing number of people helped to produce this manual.

We are proud to be team members with the AIDS Division of the Ministry of Public Health. They deserve a gold medal for the time spent reviewing the manual and making important suggestions.

A gold medal is due also to the Peace Corps Staff for guidance, for supporting the value of this project, and for sharing technical skill. Special thanks to Khun Pimsuda Tiandum and Ms.Kathy Judd, Health Program Managers, and to Khun Sumalee Hirunpanich, who did all the computer input and graphic design.

We give ongoing thanks to all the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) who have responded to our quest for information and materials, and who have supported us in many ways.

Special thanks to all the Peace Corps Volunteers who thoughtfully critiqued the draft manual, and thanks to all of you who are trying to help others understand about AIDS and who act as role models.

Most especially, we thank our wonderful Thai co-workers who were and are the backbone of AIDS education in Thailand.

Thank you all.
The AIDS Volunteers
Peace Corps, Thailand
June 1992

Jo Young
Denise Moos
Barbara Methvin
Mark McMillan
Kent Klindera
Karla Imbus
Jenny Goedken
Greg Carl
Everett Briggs