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close this bookHIV in Pregnancy: A Review (UNAIDS, 1999, 67 p.)
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View the documentEXECUTIVE SUMMARY
View the documentINTRODUCTION
close this folderSECTION A : HIV IN PREGNANCY
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View the documentEpidemiology of HIV
close this folderSusceptibility of women to HIV infection
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View the documentBiological factors
View the documentSocio-cultural factors
View the documentEffect of pregnancy on the natural history of HIV infection
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close this folderMother-to-child transmission
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View the documentFactors affecting mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1
View the documentInterventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV
close this folderAppropriate interventions to reduce mother-to-child transmission
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View the documentAntiretroviral therapy
View the documentImmune therapy
View the documentNutritional interventions
View the documentMode of delivery
View the documentVaginal cleansing
View the documentModification of infant feeding practice
close this folderVoluntary HIV counselling and testing in pregnancy
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View the documentTesting of antenatal women
View the documentCounselling before and after HIV testing in pregnancy
View the documentCounselling about pregnancy-related issues
close this folderSECTION B : MANAGEMENT OF HIV-POSITIVE PREGNANT WOMEN
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close this folderAntenatal care
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View the documentObstetrical management
View the documentExamination and investigations
View the documentMedical treatment during pregnancy
View the documentAntiretroviral therapy
View the documentCare during labour and delivery
View the documentPostpartum care
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close this folderSECTION C : INFECTION CONTROL MEASURES
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View the documentUniversal precautions
close this folderRisks of needlestick injuries
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View the documentManagement of needlestick injuries and other accidental blood exposure
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Socio-cultural factors

Women are essentially at more risk in cultures and communities that remove their control over their own bodies. Women are often blamed incorrectly as the source of HIV infection and carry the dual burden of infection and of caring for infected family members. Gender inequalities, poverty, less access to education and lack of employment opportunities force many women into commercial sex work in order to survive, and this group of women are at very high risk of HIV infection50,51. Conversely, many more women are monogamous, but are at high risk due to the sexual behaviour of their male partner. Traditional practices and customs such as "dry sex" practices, vaginal douching with non antiseptic compounds, female circumcision and "widow cleansing" may all have an effect on increasing women's risk of HIV infection51,52,53,54,55,56,57. Despite their high risk of infection, cultural practices and pressures often prevent women from taking the necessary precautions to guard against infection. Use of male condoms is low in many developing countries. The desire and the societal pressure to reproduce make it difficult for women to practice protected sex. Young women are at highest risk of infections in developing countries, many of them at the beginning of their reproductive lives. Even after a diagnosis of HIV infection, most women will not change their reproductive choices58,59. There are no methods available for women to use to prevent HIV transmission, independent of the male partner, with the possible exception of the female condom60,61. Female barrier methods remain expensive or unavailable in most developing countries, where male resistance to condom use is common, although the recent introduction of social marketing of the female condom in some southern African countries has demonstrated that there is considerable demand.