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close this bookAquaculture - Training Manual (Peace Corps, 1990, 350 p.)
close this folderChapter thirteen: Program design - week four
View the documentSession IV-1: Introduction to surveying
View the documentSession IV-2: Surveying projects
View the documentSession IV-3: Pond interview - week four
View the documentSession IV-4: Trainee evaluation of training - week four

Session IV-1: Introduction to surveying

Total tune: 5 hours


· Familiarize trainees with use and care of surveying equipment;
· Instruct trainees in basic surveying techniques;
· Introduce surveying record keeping system.

Overview: This session will introduce the concepts,methods and equipment used in surveying, a skill that will be extremely important for site selection and pond design. Trainees must become comfortable and familiar enough with these concepts and instruments to be able to apply them to new situations. The session begins with classroom instruction which includes a discussion on the purpose and uses of surveying and an introduction to the equipment and techniques. Field practice is interspersed with classroom work to give trainees hands-on experience and help reinforce the information they receive.

10 minutes - classroom

1. Trainer leads discussion of the definition and importance of slope:

· Ask people to compare object heights at various distances by eye;
· Introduce dumpy level;
· Brainstorm uses for dumpy level (building roads, building bridges, laying out water systems).

10 minutes - classroom

2. Trainer points out parts of a Dumpy Level:

· Scope (will see horizontal and vertical cross-hairs);
· Focus knob (200 foot accuracy);
· Thumb knobs to adjust level;
· Table and compass.

20 minutes - classroom

3. Trainer demonstrates how to set up tripod and level instrument:

· Set tripod to comfortable height, attach dumpy level, level dumpy level.

During this demonstration, trainer also emphasizes the importance of proper care and handling of this equipment, i.e., avoiding over-tightening of screws, stabilizing tripod, proper replacement of level in case, working in rain, etc.

10 minutes- classroom

4. While instrument is set up, trainer shows how to use table and compass to determine angle between two points and does a simple example between two objects.

20 minutes - in classroom or outside

5. Trainer demonstrates use of the stadia rod for measuring differences in elevation:

· Reading the measurements on the rod (may be calibrated in feet and tenths of feet,meters and centimeters, etc.);

· Taking a reading off an object with a known height;

· "Rocking" the stadia rod for accurate readings;

· Using hand signals for communication.

20 minutes - in large classroom, hallway or outside

6. Trainees figure out their pace by walking off a measured distance (100 feet) several times while counting steps.

2 hours 15 minutes

7. Field Practice: If possible, work in groups of four or five trainees, each group having its own set of equipment. A trainer should be assigned to each group.

· 30 minutes. Set up three different stations and have each trainee take readings from the same point (level is set up once and remains in place) and record their readings. Readings of each station should be identical among all the trainees, but some differences will probably occur. Use this to initiate discussion of what different readings mean, how errors in reading can be made and the effects of these errors. Also use the change in readings between stations to discuss and illustrate slope.

· 45 minutes. Set up three permanent stations for each group. Have each trainee practice setting up the dumpy level and taking readings of the three stations. Discuss reasons for differences between people's readings. This will introduce the concept of height of instrument.

· 1 hour. Set up flags at ten different stations which cannot all be seen from one point. Tell the trainees that the first station has an elevation of 100 feet. Tell the trainees that they must determine the elevation at each of the other stations, as well as the average slope between the first and last stations. Each small group does this.

35 minutes - classroom

8. Have the different groups compare how they did the last exercise. This will help introduce the concepts of bench mark, elevations based on a known, back-sighting and record keeping. Trainer now introduces the standard record keeping system that will be used throughout training. Have trainees practice this by putting either a set of sample data or some of their readings from the last exercise into a format like the following:


Back Sight (FS)

Height of Instrument (HI)

Front Site (FS)










































Note: Elevation = HI - FS; HI = Elevation + BS.

10 minutes- classroom

9. Allow time for a question and answer period to discuss ideas that came up in small groups during field practice and to address any remaining points of confusion.

Resources and Materials:

· This session can be facilitated by a staff member or by a guest expert;

· The classroom should be set up so that everyone has a clear view of the demonstrations. Milk boxes, stools or other objects of different heights will be helpful for illustrating slope and elevation changes;

· Blackboard, chalk, eraser and/or newsprint, markers and flip chart stand;

· Prepared poster with blank record-keeping format sheet,to be filled in as part of instruction on this topic;

· Surveying equipment sets, each set to include: tripod,stadia rod, dumpy level, tape measure, several surveying flags.

Trainer Notes:

· Although one person will be the main facilitator, a trainer should work with each small group;

· Trainers should all be aware of exactly what is to be covered during each phase of this set of activities. Although there are alternative methods that can be used for certain aspects of surveying (for example, record-keeping format), all staff must be consistent and work with a standardized version that is agreed upon before the session;

· Some trainees may have prior experience with surveying or progress at a faster rate than others. Additional practice exercises can be given to these trainees. In fact, since this session takes up most of a day, the remainder of the day can be used for additional practice for all trainees. Some suggestions for other exercises include:

· Running circuits: Have trainees run a series of readings around an obstacle necessitating movement of the instrument several times. When they re-read the first station after completing the circuit, the elevation should be the same as what they initially determined it to be. If this does not work out, they should assess possible causes for the error and repeat until they can be accurate;

· Survey a line of ten or twenty stations at five or ten foot intervals with a slope of 1% between stations;

· Survey across a broad dip in the land or a wide ditch. Imagine you have to build a four foot wide, level walkway across the dip, with several sets of supports along the bridge to hold it up. Determine the heights of each set of supports as they would need to be built;

· The day after the introduction to surveying takes place, a quiz can be given to check trainees understanding of and ability to apply the material. The following is a sample quiz:



1. Three 2 sites lie on a straight line. The distance from Site 1 to Site 2 is 40 feet and from Site 1 to Site 3 is 85 feet. The surveying instrument was initially located at Station A from which Sites 1 and 2 could be seen. It was then moved to Station B from which Sites 2 and 3 could be seen. The following survey data was obtained:

Station A

Station B

Back sight of Site 1 = 3.8

Back sight of Site 2 = 4.5

Front sight of Site 2 = 1.9

Front sight of Site 3 = 2.3

Organize the above data in a standard format and calculate the following:

· The slope from Site 1 to Site 2;

· The slope from Site 2 to Site 3?

2. A bench mark (BM) with an elevation of 100 feet and 5 sites lie on a straight line. The distance between consecutive sites including the BM is 25 feet. In order to view each of these sites it was necessary to move the surveying instrument twice. The following survey data was obtained:

Station A

Station B

Station C

Back sight on BM = 3.0

Back sight on Site 2 = 3.1

Back sight on Site 4 = 6.1

Front sight on Site 1 = 3.2

Front sight on Site 3 = 1.7

Front sight on Site 5 = 6.8

Front sight on Site 2 = 2.4

Front sight on Site 4 = 5.7

Organize the above data into a standard format and calculate the elevations of Sites 1 through 5. Also calculate the following:

· The slope between Sites 2 and 4;

· The slope between Sites 1 and 5;

· The slope between Sites 3 and 4;

· The slope between Sites 2 and 5.

Session IV-2: Surveying projects

Total time: 13 1/2 hours (assuming four groups)


· Give trainees practice using surveying techniques;

· Apply surveying techniques to practical uses and basic pond design;

· Practice use of a hand level and hand-made stadia rod;

· Practice speaking before a group, presenting technical material in a formal setting and using visual aids;

· Develop report writing skills (ability to present technical material in an organized, meaningful and professional written form).

Overview: This is actually a set of projects to be completed by trainees either in pairs or small groups as specified. These projects provide practice in the use of surveying equipment and allow for a variety of applications of the principles. Since trainees should have a good grasp of the basic concepts, they are ready to use the hand level as a substitute for the dumpy level. They will do two exercises using the hand level, the first serving to help them improve their accuracy, the second to obtain meaningful information about their own ponds. In addition, they will work in small groups to complete a more complex project which they will later present to the large group. Written reports will be required for two of the projects.

1 hour

1. In pairs using hand levels, run a circuit, or series of readings, around a grove of trees or other obstacle so that all readings cannot be taken from the same spot. When the first station is re-read after completing the circuit, the elevation should be the same as what it was initially determined to be. If this does not work out, trainees should assess possible causes for the error and repeat until they can be accurate. If the final elevation is not equal to the initial elevation, discuss sources of error.

2 1/2 hours

2. With a partner, each trainee surveys hihe/sher own pond. While working on hihe/sher own pond, the trainee's partner serves only as a rod person.

7 hours

3. The following projects are to be done in small groups of four to five trainees. Trainees may choose which instrument they prefer to use for this project, the dumpy level or hand level. Each group is assigned one of the following projects:

A. Find an area with a slope. Starting at a high point, imagine that you will need to begin a trench that is five feet deep at that high point. The trench will continue to be dug at a 1% slope until it reaches a point where it meets natural ground. Stake out the trench at intervals no greater than ten feet (shorter intervals are fine and there is no maximum number of readings). Calculate the depth from the surface to the bottom of the trench at each station, and determine the amount of dirt that would need to be dug out in order to dig this trench. The trench will be one foot wide.

B. Survey an area 100 feet by 100 feet in size. Take readings every 10 feet for a total of 121 readings, moving the level at least two times. Use these readings to make a contour map of the area. (Stress that trainees are to choose an area that includes some irregularities such as hills and/or dips to make this project interesting and better demonstrate how to make and interpret a contour map).

C. Survey the entire pond system at the training site (or another nearby pond system, if more appropriate). Concentrate on the drainage and dike systems. (If water supply is gravity flow, include this as well).

D. Show trainees a water source and, at some reasonable distance, a group of real or imaginary ponds. Tell trainees that they are to determine the best layout and design for a gravity-flow water supply system (using pipes or canals) from the source to the ponds. Each pond should have its own inlet. They should know all critical elevation points.

45 minutes per group - Classroom

4. Two trainees from each group will be assigned to present their group's project to the large group in a classroom session (the selected trainees will be notified the afternoon before the presentations take place). Trainees are told that these presentations will be the only opportunity for the people from the other groups to learn about their projects, so material should be complete and delivered in a clear manner. They are encouraged to use visual aids. Each presentation should take approximately 20 minutes and is followed by a question and answer period. Trainers may encourage a discussion of key concepts or points of confusion that arise. After each presentation there is a short critique by the group which should address technical aspects as well as presentation style.

Resources and Materials:

· Hand levels;

· 1" x 2" boards of six to eight feet in length, markers and rulers to make hand-made stadia rods (sufficient materials to make one rod per pair of trainees);

· Dumpy levels with tripods;

· Stadia rods;

· Surveying flags or tape;

· Newsprint and markers and/or other materials requested for preparation of visual aids;

· Graph paper (for reports).

Trainer Notes:

· Written reports are required for the survey of the trainee's own pond with the hand level and for the group project. Trainees should be made aware of this when the projects are first assigned. Reports should include all data, presented in an organized manner, interpretation of that data, and the materials and methods used in the project;

· When group projects are assigned, it should be stressed that each member of the group should have hihe/sher own set of data and notes. It is not acceptable for one member of the group to serve as record keeper;

· The groups are told which trainees will present the group projects the afternoon before presentations. The reason for this is to ensure that everyone in the group gets involved and puts forth maximum effort to understand all aspects of the project;

· During the field work, trainers should circulate among groups as observers but should not get involved in discussions with or among the trainees or have any input into the implementation of the project. If necessary, trainers may clarify a point of confusion regarding the instructions given for the assignment, and they should assist in providing equipment or materials requested by the trainees if appropriate;

· Trainees should be told at least a day in advance how the presentations will be structured (i.e., time frames) and that there will be a question and answer period, and a description of the critique. There should be some discussion among the trainees about the purpose of the critique, what should be addressed, and how positive and constructive criticism should be delivered and received. This should be discussed again after the presentations are completed or before the next activity that requires similar critiques.

Session IV-3: Pond interview - week four

Time frame: Approximately 10 minutes per trainee


· Evaluate trainees' technical comprehension, and ability and willingness to apply information;

· Motivate trainees to maximize their learning through making the best possible use of their ponds as learning tools;

· Help trainees identify aspects of their pond management that need further thought, modification or action.

Overview: This is not a session design. It is a set of trainer notes that describe the procedure used for implementing pond interviews. Although staff members interact with the trainees at their ponds several times a day, this time is used for more formalized interviews dealing specifically with the trainees' pond work. The interviews take place at the ponds. By asking the trainees specific questions about their management practices and the observations they have made, trainers not only have an opportunity to evaluate the trainees comprehension and work, but also provide the trainees with some food for thought and a reminder of their accountability in their pond work. The questions asked often help trainees focus on aspects of their management they would like to explore further, pique their curiosity about some aspect of their ponds or fish that they had not previously considered, evaluate some of the actions they have already taken in their pond work, or give them ideas for additional management activities.

· Each staff member is assigned certain trainees to interview;

· Each staff member carries a clipboard, on which he/she has one form for each of the trainees he/she is to interview. The forms have the date, the trainee's name, and the questions to be asked in the interview with spaces between each one for the trainer to make comments about the trainee's responses;

· Staff members should review the questions among themselves prior to the interviews. They should make sure they all interpret the questions the same way, that they are consistent in the kind of information they expect to obtain from each, and that they have similar ideas about the kinds of notes they will take during the interviews;

· When the trainees arrive at the training site, they are told to remain at their ponds until a trainer has spoken with them (they will be going directly to their ponds each morning for daily pond time in any case, but it is helpful to give them these instructions anyway in case interviews run late, or in case some trainees plan to spend part of their time away from their ponds to get fertilizer or do some other pond related task);

· For each interview, the trainer approaches the trainee at hihe/sher pond. The trainer informs the trainee, in a polite but formal tone, that he/she will be asking him/her some questions about hihe/sher pond this morning. The trainer has hihe/sher clipboard out and the form prepared so that he/she can make notes as the trainee responds to the questions;

· The trainer asks the trainee the questions listed on the form, noting down the trainees responses as well as other comments (for example, the trainer might note that the trainee knew a great deal of the information without looking in hihe/sher notebook, or that the trainee seemed enthusiastic and eager to discuss hihe/sher pond work in depth, or that the trainee had extremely disorganized notes and was unable to find information requested, etc.);

· The trainer should try not to deviate from the questions listed, though an occasional follow-up question may be unavoidable based upon the trainee's response.

· Upon completion of the interview, the trainer thanks the trainee, provides information regarding the meeting time for the next activity (or whatever is appropriate), and leaves the trainee to resume hihe/sher pond work. The trainer should then go to a reasonably private location to quickly fill in any notes he/she needs to make on the form regarding the interview before continuing on to the next trainee.

· An example of a first pond interview form follows:

First Pond Interview

Date:_____________ Trainee's Name:_______________________________

1. What is the surface area of your pond?

2. What are your thoughts now about your stocking technique?

3. Exactly what did you stock? (Species, weight, number). How do you know?

4. What is actually in your pond now? How do you know?

5. What have you learned so far about the fish in your pond? (Should include whether or not they are on feed and how they know)

6. What have you learned so far about the water quality in your pond?

7. What have you done for your fish today?

8. May I please see your records?

9. How can you best use this pond to maximize fish production and your own understanding of fish culture? What are your short term plans for your pond for the next few days?

Session IV-4: Trainee evaluation of training - week four

Note: For objectives, overview and trainer notes regarding procedures, please see "Trainee Evaluation of Training - Week Two" in Chapter Eleven. The procedure is exactly the same each time, and the form is the same except for the activities that are listed. The actual content of the forms will depend upon exactly what activities have occurred. The only thing that will be included here is a sample of the form used for this week's evaluation.

Name (optional):___________________________________

1. On a scale from 1 to 5, rate the value of the following activities (0 = not at all valuable, 5 = extremely valuable). Please make comments or give suggestions for improvement;

Development of Management Plan (sections not addressed in first evaluation)

Field Trip to___________

Discussion following Field Trip regarding utilization of resources

Fish Dissection

Guest: (Name) (Introduction to Surveying)

Surveying Field Exercises and Presentations

Management of your own pond

2. How satisfied are you with your progress since your arrival at the training program? (very dissatisfied, dissatisfied, satisfied, very satisfied)

3. If you are not "very satisfied" with your progress, what factors are related to your own performance?

4. What factors are related to the training activities, resources, and/or staff?

5. Please rate the following aspects of the program that are not related to technical training. (Unsatisfactory, Fair, Good, Very Good). Please make comments or give suggestions for improvement.

Medical Care
Addressing of Personal Needs (recreation, shopping, mail, etc.)

6. Additional Comments: