Cover Image
close this bookSupport Measures to Promote Rental Housing for Low-Income Groups (HABITAT, 1993, 132 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentFOREWORD
close this folderINTRODUCTION
View the documentA. Rental housing in a global perspective
View the documentB. History of legislative intervention and government policies on rental housing
View the documentC. Basic changes in housing policies in developing countries
View the documentD. Why rental housing should receive more official attention
close this folderI. CHARACTERISTICS OF TENANTS AND OTHER NON-OWNERS AND LANDLORDS
View the documentA. The nature of owners, tenants and sharers
View the documentB. Preferences for owning, renting or sharing
View the documentC. The choice between different kinds of non-ownership
View the documentD. Who invests in rental housing?
close this folderII. THE EFFECTS OF LEGISLATIVE AND POLICY INTERVENTION
View the documentA. Rent-control legislation
View the documentB. Effectiveness of rental laws in controlling rent levels and evictions
View the documentC. Legislation and the needs of low-income groups
View the documentD. Planning and zoning regulations affecting production of rental housing
View the documentE. Different forms of legislation affecting provision of rental housing in different cities
close this folderIII. THE CLIMATE FOR INVESTMENT
View the documentA. Profitability of rental investment
View the documentB. Rent levels relative to prices, income and cost of owner-occupation
View the documentC. Taxes on rental property
View the documentD. Government efforts to encourage owner-occupation through incentives to builders
View the documentE. The rationale of small-scale landlords
close this folderIV. SUPPORT FOR FORMAL-SECTOR RENTAL HOUSING
View the documentA. The public sector
View the documentB. Subsidies, targeting and non-economic rents
View the documentC. Sub-letting of public housing
View the documentD. Encouraging formal sector private investment in rental housing
View the documentE. The roles of employers, community organizations, NGOs and cooperatives
close this folderV. SUPPORT FOR INFORMAL-SECTOR HOUSING CONSTRUCTION
View the documentA. Impact of upgrading and legalization programmes
View the documentB. Impact of legalization programmes
View the documentC. Incentives for encouraging informal sector rental housing
close this folderVI. LANDLORD-TENANT RELATIONS
View the documentA. Informal controls on landlord-tenant relationships, joint agenda and the symbiosis of owning and renting
View the documentB. The role of the courts, local tribunals, community arbitrators and local controllers
close this folderVII. FUTURE ACTION
View the documentA. The key tasks
View the documentB. Rent controls
View the documentC. Planning and zoning regulations
View the documentD. Public-sector housing
View the documentE. Encouraging formal-sector private investment in rental housing
View the documentF. Subsidies, targeting and non-economic rents
View the documentG. The role of employers, community organizations, NGOs and cooperatives
View the documentH. Incentives for public and private sector collaboration
View the documentI. Rental housing in the central city
View the documentJ. Incentives for encouraging informal-sector rental housing
View the documentK. Changing the role of the courts, local tribunals, community arbitrators and local controllers
View the documentL. Options for landlord-tenant collaboration
View the documentVIII. CONCLUSION
View the documentBIBLIOGRAPHY
View the documentBACK COVER

E. Different forms of legislation affecting provision of rental housing in different cities

Usually the rental legislation shows few differences between cities in the same country. In Mexico, while the state authorities are responsible for most regulations covering rental housing, they tend to adopt similar guidelines and usually follow the example of the Federal District. Of course, the local authorities sometimes take an exceptional line, usually for political reasons. During the 1980s, for example, the states of Puebla and Michoacboth introduced regulations which limited rent rises (Gilbert and Varley, 1991: 57-58).

In Egypt, the rent-control legislation incorporated certain variations between areas, with controls not applying to rural areas or to a number of tourist centres (Serageldin, 1993: 14). In Nigeria, state governments are responsible for housing but all the legislation follows central government guidelines (Ozo, 1993: 6). For example, the rent-control ordinances that were introduced in every state after the Civil War, adopted the pattern laid down by the Federal Government. In India, however, the controls over rents in different states do vary a great deal (Wadhva, 1993: 17-19). The main variations relate to the flexibility given to the landlord to choose tenants, the degree to which rents can be raised, the kinds of project that are exempt from control, maintenance standards, eviction procedures and the rules under which tenancies can be inherited. To what extent these differences actually influence the amount of renting in each state is uncertain.

On the whole, local legislation has much less influence on the functioning and development of rental housing than a number of other factors. The nature of the land market, particularly the cost of urban land, the way in which the authorities permit or prohibit land invasions, the nature of the transport system, and cultural attitudes to renting and ownership all influence the tenure structure of a city much more than local regulations. This is clear when rural tenure patterns are compared with urban tenure patterns in the same country. The typical ownership pattern of the countryside and the greater importance of renting in most cities cannot be explained in terms of the planning regulations. Similarly the major variations between Indian cities in the amount of renting cannot be explained in terms of the legislation. The difference between Calcutta with 76 per cent of its population renting or sharing and the 30 per cent in Lucknow is simply too large to be explained in terms of planning regulations, regulations which in any case are only partially applied (NIUA, 1989).