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close this bookSpecial Public Works Programmes - SPWP - Anti-Erosion Ditches - Training Element and Technical Guide for SPWP Workers, Booklet No. 1 (ILO - UNDP, 84 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. What is erosion?
View the document2. How to recognise erosion
close this folder3. Different types of anti-erosion ditches
View the document(introduction...)
View the document3.1 Silt catchment pits
View the document3.2 Forest tiering
View the document3.3 Forest terracing
View the document3.4 Cropping terraces
close this folder4. Worksite organisation
View the document(introduction...)
View the document4.1 Good management of the workers
close this folder4.2 Good selection of tools
View the document(introduction...)
View the document4.2.1 Surveying Instruments
View the document4.2.2 Tools used in the digging of ditches
close this folder5. Procedure
View the document5.1 Site selection
View the document5.2 Siting of the ditches
View the document5.3 Plotting the dimensions of the ditch
View the document5.4 Preparing the surface soil of the ditch site
View the document5.5 Excavating the ditch
View the document5.6 Checking the dimensions of the ditch
View the document5.7 Constructing the retaining banks
View the document5.8 Checking that the retaining banks are horizontal
View the document5.9 Improving the waterways
View the document5.10 Protecting the slopes
View the document6. Maintenance of the retaining banks

4.1 Good management of the workers

Erosion control works undertaken within the scope of SPWPs are of direct benefit to the community. The works must be carried out correctly and overseen by skilled supervisors who will be able to give the benefit of their knowledge and experience to the groups of farmers or villages concerned in the works.

An anti-erosion construction site comprises:

- a site foreman;
- gang foremen;
- unskilled workers.

(1 gang foreman is assigned to every 20 to 30 workers.)

The site foreman is responsible for the siting of the ditches. In addition, he supervises the entire worksite and makes sure the work is carried out properly and in compliance with safety regulations.

Before work is commenced, the site foreman and gang foremen clearly explain to the workers the different aspects of the task that lies ahead.

During the course of the work, the workers are free to ask questions and make suggestions with a view to improving the constructions.

On site, a choice of two forms of remuneration may be offered:

- daily rate;
- piecework rate.

The piecework rate applies when a worker is paid for a clearly-defined amount of work or "task". The worker is paid upon completion of the task, regardless of time taken. The piecework rate system is well-adapted to ditch construction.



Workers trained in the making of posts
Workers trained in surveying


20 to 30 workers


Transport of water
Repair of tools


20 to 30 workers