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close this bookHealth and Environment in Sustainable Development - Five Years after the Earth Summit (WHO, 1991, 128 p.)
close this folderPart II. Essential media and reagents for isolation and identification of clinical pathogens
close this folderPriority grading of pathogens, culture media, and diagnostic reagents
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentBlood culture
View the documentCerebrospinal fluid specimens
View the documentUrine
View the documentStool culture
View the documentLower respiratory tract
View the documentUpper respiratory tract
View the documentUrogenital specimens for agents of sexually transmitted diseases
View the documentPus and exudates
View the documentList of recommended culture media and diagnostic reagents for the intermediate microbiological laboratory

Blood culture

Common pathogens

Pathogens with high priority

Salmonella typhi and non-typhi
other Gram-negative rods
Neisseria meningitidis streptococci (S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, viridans streptococci)
Staphylococcus aureus

Pathogens with intermediate priority

Haemophilus influenzae
Bacteroides fragilis
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Pathogens with low priority

Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans
Pseudomonas pseudomallei
non-fermenters other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Culture media and diagnostic reagents

Blood-culture broth

Priority code

tryptic soy broth (TSB) (can be replaced by any rich broth - for example, brain heart infusion broth)


optional: addition of sodium polyanethol sulfonate (SPS), 0.25 g per litre “anaerobic” blood-culture broth:


thioglycollate broth or Schaedler broth or

Wilkins-Chalgren anaerobe broth

Isolation media

subculture on blood agar, chocolate agar, and MacConkey agar


Identification media and reagents

oxidase reagent


optochin disc, bacitracin disc


b-lactamase test reagent


V and XV factors


Neisseria meningitidis agglutinating serum (polyvalent and specific groups A, B, C)


Haemophilus influenzae type b antiserum


coagulase plasma


Salmonella agglutinating antisera