Cover Image
close this bookTechnical Guide for SMEs in the Dairy Industry (CDI, 1999, 74 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
View the documentFOREWORD
close this folderPART 1 - DAIRY FARMING
close this folderCHAPTER I: STOCK-FARMING IN AFRICA
View the documentI.1. LIVESTOCK
View the documentI.2. PRODUCTIVITY
close this folderCHAPTER II: REPRODUCTION OF CATTLE
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentII.1. FROM THE ZOOTECHNICAL POINT OF VIEW
View the documentII.2. FROM THE SEXUAL POINT OF VIEW
close this folderCHAPTER III: CONTROLLING REPRODUCTION
View the documentIII. 1. OBJECTIVES
close this folderIII.2. BASES
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View the documentIII.2.1. Progesterone
View the documentIII.2.2. Prostaglandin
close this folderIII.3. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL TOOLS
close this folderIII.3.1. Artificial Insemination
View the document(introduction...)
View the documenta) Method
View the documentb) Results
close this folderIII.3.2. Transfer of embryos
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View the documenta) Advantages
View the documentb) Superovulation
View the documentc) Collection of embryos
View the documentd) Synchronisation of the heat in recipient cows
View the documente) Transfer of embryos
View the documentf) Results
close this folderCHAPTER IV: MILKING
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View the documentIV.1. ANATOMY OF THE UDDER
View the documentIV.2. MILKING RULES
View the documentIV.3. MILKING BY HAND
close this folderIV.4. MACHINE MILKING
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View the documentIV.4.1. Standards
View the documentIV.4.2. Parts of the milking machine
close this folderIV.4.3. Milking installations
View the documenta) Milking in the cowshed
View the documentb) Milking parlours
close this folderIV.4.4. Milking set-up
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View the documenta) Preparation of the udder
View the documentb) Fitting the cups
View the documentc) End of milking
View the documentIV.4.5. Cleaning and maintenance of the milking machine
close this folderIV.4.6. Incidents arising during milking by hand and machine milking
View the documenta) Cow-related incidents
View the documentb) Machine-related incidents
View the documentc) Dairyman-related incidents
close this folderCHAPTER V: FEEDING THE CATTLE
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View the documentV.1. PRINCIPLES
View the documentV.2. NATURE OF NEEDS
View the documentV.3. FEEDING DAIRY CATTLE
View the documentV.4. FEEDING COWS IN FIRST LACTATION
View the documentV.5. FEEDING BULLS FOR SERVICE
close this folderV.6. FODDER CROPS
View the document(introduction...)
View the documenta) Hay
View the documentb) Ensilage
close this folderCHAPTER VI: ACCOMMODATION FOR DAIRY CATTLE
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View the documentVI.1. BASIC DESIGN
View the documentVI.2. STALL-BARN SYSTEM
View the documentVI.3. LOOSE-HOUSING SYSTEM
View the documentCONCLUSION
close this folderPART 2 - THE DAIRY
close this folderCHAPTER I: MILK COLLECTION
close this folderI.1. PAYMENT FOR MILK
View the documentI.1.1. Payment by density
View the documentI.1.2. Payment by composition (Fat and Protein)
View the documentI.1.3. Payment by quality of the milk
close this folderI.2. TRANSPORT
close this folderI.2.1. Influence of transport
View the documenta) Mixing in the collecting tanks of refrigerated milk and milk in non-refrigerated churns
View the documentb) Adding milk of very poor bacteriological quality to the milk-collection tank
View the documentc) Length of collection rounds
close this folderI.2.2. Cooling and collection
View the documentI.2.2.1. Cooling
View the documentI.2.2.2. Collection
close this folderI.3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FACTORY AND FARMERS
View the documentI.3.1. Information for farmers
View the documentI.3.2. Farm liaison agent
close this folderCHAPTER II: PROCESSING AND TECHNOLOGIES
close this folderII.1. DRINKING MILK
View the documentII.1.1. Raw milk
View the documentII.1.2. Pasteurised milk
View the documentII.1.3. Sterilised milk
View the documentII.1.4. UHT milk
close this folderII.2. ACIDIFIED PRODUCTS
View the documentII.2.1. Fermented milks
close this folderII.2.2. Yoghurt
View the documentII.2.2.1. Definition (by the international club of yoghurt manufacturers)
View the documentII.2.2.2. Technology
close this folderII.3. CHEESE
View the documentII.3.1. Fresh cheeses
View the documentII.3.2. Moulded and smoothed fresh cheeses
View the documentII.3.3. Pressed cheeses
close this folderII.4. CREAM AND BUTTER
close this folderII.4.1. Creams for consumption
View the documentII.4.1.1. The different creams
View the documentII.4.1.2. Microbiological criteria
close this folderII.4.2. Butter technology
View the documentII.4.2.1. Preparation of creams
View the documentII.4.2.2. Butter-making in a churn (discontinuous technique)
close this folderII.5. ICE CREAMS
close this folderII.5.1. Manufacture
View the documentII.5.1.1. Preparation of the mix
View the documentII.5.1.2. Pasteurisation
View the documentII.5.1.3. Homogenisation
View the documentII.5.1.4. Cooling of the mix
View the documentII.5.1.5. Maturing
View the documentII.5.1.6. Chilling or pre-freezing
View the documentII.5.2. Shaping
View the documentII.5.3. Freezing or hardening
View the documentII.5.4. Ice cream lollies and choc-ices
close this folderII.6. PROCESSING AIDS
View the documentII.6.1. Fermenting agents
close this folderII.6.2. Enzymes used in the dairy industry
View the documentII.6.2.1. Definition
View the documentII.6.2.2. Strength of coagulating enzymes
View the documentII.6.2.3. Practical conditions for adding rennet to milk
View the documentII.6.3. Sodium chloride: properties and utilisation in cheese-making
View the documentII.6.4. Other additives
close this folderCHAPTER III: SOME INVESTMENT EXAMPLES
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIII.1. Dairy of 2 000 litres a day
View the documentIII.2. Dairy of 10 000 litres a day
View the documentIII.3. Dairy of 30 000 litres a day
close this folderCHAPTER IV: HYGIENE IN THE DAIRY
View the documentIV. 1. GOOD HYGIENE PRACTICES
close this folderIV.2. SOME STANDARDS TO BE OBSERVED IN EUROPE
View the documentIV.2.1. Raw milk
View the documentIV.2.2. Cheeses
close this folderANNEXES
View the document· List of some trade reviews and magazines for the dairy industry
View the document· List of some specialised manuals for the dairy industry (bibliography)
View the document· Some suppliers of equipment and medicines for the dairy industry
View the document· Some suppliers of dairy equipment, fermenting agents and enzymes
View the documentTHE CDI's ACP ANTENNAE NETWORK
View the documentTHE CDI'S EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONAL NETWORK
View the documentBACK COVER

II.2. FROM THE SEXUAL POINT OF VIEW

During her genitally active period, the female experiences a number of structural modifications which occur in the same order at periodic intervals: these constitute the sexual cycle or oestrous cycle. These activities are only interrupted by gestation or certain gynaecological problems.

The length of the cycle is 21 days for cows and 20 days for heifers.

The cycle is subdivided into 3 stages:

- pro-oestrus, which corresponds to the stage of follicle growth,

- oestrus

- and post-oestrus. The follicle, which has ovulated, turns into a corpus luteum with a stage of formation, functioning and dehiscence.

The most important element for the farmer is oestrus. This is the only visible element. It is marked by the arrival of the female’s heat and, above all, acceptance of coupling. It is therefore the favourable period for artificial insemination or covering, and subsequently impregnation.

It is essential for this strategic period to be identified.

There are several identification methods:

- Direct observation by the farmer, which can be continuous for 24h/24h or discontinuous for 20 minutes an hour.

- Indirect observation with the help of markers placed either in the male (ink system) or the female (paste placed on the sacrum, which is rubbed off during coupling).

Direct observation produces better results than indirect observation, which can be misleading due to unproductive couplings.

The duration of the heat is very short for native breeds: 10 to 13 hours, whilst it is 12 to 24 hours for exotic breeds.

Signs of a cow being on heat comprise:

- A major sign is acceptance by the cow in question of coupling with one of her fellow creatures,

- secondary signs such as:

· emission of cervical mucus
· congestion of the vulva
· tonus of the uterine horn
· extreme mobility on the part of the cow