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close this bookBalancing the Scales - Facilitators' manual (Ministry of Gender, Labor and Social Development - Uganda, 1999, 50 p.)
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(introduction...)

Addressing Gender Concerns in National Policies, Plans and Programmes

Published by
The Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development
P.O. Box 7136, Kampala, Uganda
June 1999

1: Introduction

This Facilitators’ Manual is a trainer’s guide for workshops run by the Ugandan Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development to address gender concerns in national policy-making and development programmes. It is designed as a companion to the corresponding Participants’ Manual, Balancing the Scales - Addressing Gender Concerns in National Policies, Plans and Programmes. The two manuals, published by the Ministry in June 1999, form the key resource for a series of workshops aimed at developing the gender analysis, policy-making and planning skills of Permanent Secretaries, Directors, Heads of Department and other senior government officers.

Although this training programme has been designed for the top managers and policy-makers in Uganda, its potential scope is much broader. The focus of the manual is on participatory and experiential training methods that stimulate frank and open discussions on gender-related issues and problems. Although most of the exercises and role-plays are East African in their flavour and setting, they cut across all borders - racial and geographical - in the clarity of their message. Gender concerns are, after all, universal concerns.

As a gender facilitator, it is of great importance that you appreciate and adhere to the basic precepts of gender training. Gender training is not purely about women’s empowerment; rather, it is about society as a whole, about attitudes and behaviours towards gender issues - and the need to change certain attitudes and behaviours to create a more progressive and equal society.

The management of national policies and development programmes is inextricably linked to gender concerns. Without taking account of women’s roles in national development programmes, their access to resources and control over development initiatives, a country’s development cannot move forward. Uganda has realised the vital role that women play in its development, and through the Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development (MGLSD) is endeavouring to ensure that their opinions and priorities become an integral part of its national development agenda.

This training programme was born from Uganda’s commitment to a gender-responsive development agenda, as outlined in the country’s Constitution and its National Gender Policy, and from the MGLSD’s commitment to breaking through age-old gender barriers. In order to break such fundamental new ground - and to generate a high-level commitment to change - the ministry realised that its training would have to be participatory and interactive, based on the sharing of experiences and ideas, and the promotion of a common, gender-sensitive vision.

The result is a series of training manuals designed to be both informative and interesting. For this reason, each new chapter and exercise in the Participants’ Manual is individually illustrated, and many of the illustrations are replicated as ‘watermarks’ in this Facilitators’ Manual for easy cross-referencing.

All the exercises and case studies have been carefully selected and written to cover the most important gender issues and training points of their respective subjects. At the end of each section in both manuals, you will find a series of ‘Discussion Points’ designed to promote and guide an in-depth discussion of these issues. Clearly, not every point can be covered in a workshop setting - and it will be up to the individual facilitator to decide which subjects can most usefully be covered by their particular participants.

Many sessions in the Facilitators’ Manual also include a comprehensive list of ‘Key Issues’. These ‘checklists’ of vital points are designed as a guide to help you raise the issues that you consider most appropriate and important to your particular workshop - or to the group at hand.

Very few of the exercises or case studies in the manual are compulsory. Many of the sections - for example, those on proverbs, newspaper clippings, and statistics - have a wide range of information grouped under several headings. For this reason, it is important that you take time to study the Participants’ Manual before the workshop, and decide which subjects are most appropriate to the setting and people involved.

Because workshops involving senior officers are often pressed for time, a number of ‘Options’ are offered in this manual to help you keep to a tighter schedule - or to allocate less time to certain issues. In Session 4, for example, the exercises entitled ‘The Choice is Yours’ and ‘Two Families’ are designed to raise similar cultural and moral issues; however, if you have only time for one exercise, the first option will probably be preferable. The Timetables on the following pages recommend a selection of exercises for a three-day and a two-day workshop - although a facilitator could just as easily design a shorter or longer timetable.

As many of the training sessions as possible have been based on real-life situations, which some of your participants may themselves have experienced. Likewise, the sections on planning and analysis methodologies are backed up with examples of how some tried and tested tools have been put to use in the field.

The same experiential approach pervades the chapters on policy-making and management, in which several women employees and leaders recount their experiences as a springboard to a fuller discussion of the influence of gender in bureaucratic settings. The management section also includes a very lively role-play exercise, ‘The Problem Group’, which offers participants the chance to witness and appraise a more animated, physical working environment.

Lastly, the Participants’ Manual covers in some depth the different levels of gender-sensitive policy formulation, and the planning and monitoring tools involved. The closing chapters focus primarily on the Logical Framework Analysis, or ‘Logframe’, which the MGLSD advocates as a central tool for planning and monitoring the gender perspective of development programmes and the gender oriented policies of government ministries - as well as reporting their progress to the ministry and to each other.

2: Objectives

The overall objective of the MGLSD’s training programmes is to enhance the institutional gender-responsive planning and management skills necessary for supporting the effective implementation of government development policies.

The specific objectives of the national-level gender training workshops are:

To increase awareness of senior officials in line ministries of the importance of gender issues in achieving government development objectives.

To enhance the partnership between the MGLSD and other ministries in order to facilitate the development and implementation of gender-responsive policies and programmes.

To provide an opportunity for developing a common language and perspective for defining and fostering gender-focused development approaches.

To strengthen the gender sensitivity of senior civil servants so that they can oversee the integration of gender-sensitive policies and programmes in their ministries.

3: Timetables

Timetable for a Three-Day Workshop

Day One: Gender Concepts

Time

Topic

Method

Resources

08.30-09.00

1. Introductions

Welcoming address Introductory exercise in pairs


09.00-10.00

2. Orientation

Review of expectations, objectives and workshop agenda

Individual recording of hopes and fears for the workshop

Plenary discussion Presentation of objectives and timetable

Cards
Flipchart
Statement of objectives and timetable in Participants’ Manual

10.00-10.30

3. Official Opening

Speech by chief guest


10.30-11.00

Tea Break



11.00-13.00

4. Attitudes towards

Gender Exploration of participants’ views on gender differences

Mini-case studies
Small group and plenary discussions

‘The Choice is Yours’ or ‘Two Families’ (2.1&2.2)
‘Proverbs & Sayings’ (2.3)
‘Cultural Rules for Women and Men’ (2.4)
‘The Stake’ (2.5)

13.00-14.00

Lunch



14.00-15.00

5. Gender Concepts

Key concepts related to gender issues and relationships

Plenary discussion

Flipcharts of key points from previous discussions ‘Gender Concepts’ (3)

15.00-15.15

Tea Break



15.15-16.45

6. Identifying Gender

Issues Exploration of situations in which differences mean inequalities

Dramatic sketch
Small group and plenary discussion

‘A No Win Situation’ or a commissioned drama (4.1)

16.45-17.15

7. Reflection

Review of ideas and issues arising from the previous case studies

Plenary discussion

Flipcharts of key points from previous discussions ‘Common Opinions’ (4.2)

17.15-17.30

8. Evaluation

Arrangements for daily feedback sessions

Plenary discussion

Flipchart

Day Two: Gender Analysis

Time

Topic

Method

Resources

08.30-08.45

9. Recap

Review of Day One

Presentation by ‘daily evaluation committee’


08.45-10.00

10. Gender Facts, Figures & Opinions

A situation analysis of gender issues according to sectors

Small group discussion
Feedback in plenary session

‘Gender Facts, Figures and Opinions’ (5)

10.00-10.45

11. The Policy Environment

Review of Ugandan-specific and global statements on gender equality

Small group and plenary discussions

Sections 6.1-6.6

10.45-11.00

Tea Break



11.00-11.45

12. Gender Analysis

Introduction to the main participatory methods

Presentation and plenary discussion

Sections 7.1-7.2

11.45-12.30

13. Daily Activity Profile

Introduction to an important gender analysis tool

Small group exercises and presentation

‘Tools for Gender Analysis’ (7.3, Part 1)

12.30-13.30

Lunch



13.30-14.45

14. Roles and Access & Control Profiles

Identifying roles, access and control

Presentation in plenary and small group exercises

‘Tools for Gender Analysis’ (7.3, Part 2)

14.45-15.15

15. Practical and Strategic Gender Needs

Distinguishing between practical and strategic gender needs

Mini case-study and plenary discussion

‘Practical and Strategic Gender Needs’ (7.4)

15.15-15.45

16. Gender Equality and Empowerment Framework

A tool for empowering women in development programmes

Presentation, case-study and plenary discussion

‘Gender Equality and Empowerment Framework’ (7.5)

15.45-16.00

Tea Break



16.00-17.30

17. Gender Issues in the Workplace

Case studies and plenary discussion

‘Namusoke’s Journey Between’ (8.1). ‘The Power Game’(8.2)

Day Three: Gender in Management. Policy Formulation and Programme Planning

Time

Topic

Method

Resources

08.30 - 08.45

18. Recap

Review of Day Two

Presentation by ‘daily evaluation committee’


08.45-10.30

19. Gender Issues in Management

Role play, case study and plenary discussion

‘The Problem Group’ (8.3)
‘The Challenge’(8.4)
‘Lessons Learnt’ (8.5)

10.30-11.00

Tea break



11.00-13.00

20. Gender-Responsive Policy Making

Synopses of six ministries’ gender policies, action plans and plenary discussion

Sections 9.1-9.7

13.00-14.00

Lunch



14.00-15.30

21. Gender-Responsive Planning

Introduction of planning tools and plenary discussion

‘General Guidelines’ (10.1)
‘Using the Logframe’ (10.2)

15.30-15.45

Tea break



15.45-17.00

22. Monitoring and Evaluation

Presentation and plenary discussion

Sections 11.1-11.7

17.00-17.30

23. Workshop Conclusion

Evaluation questionnaire


Timetable for a Two-Day Workshop

Day One: Gender Concepts and Sender Analysis

Time

Topic

Method

Resources

08.30-08.45

1. Introductions

Short welcoming address


08.45-09.00

2. Orientation

Presentation of workshop objectives and timetable


09.00-09.15

3. Official Opening

Speech by chief guest


09.15-10.30

4. Attitudes towards Gender

Exploration of participants’ views on gender differences

Mini-case study Small group brainstorms and plenary discussion

The Choice is Yours’ (2.1)
‘Proverbs and Sayings’ (2.3)

10.30-11.00

Tea Break



11.00-11.30

5. Gender Concepts

Key concepts related to gender issues and relationships

Plenary discussion

‘Gender Concepts and Terminology’ (3)

11.30-12.30

6. Gender Facts, Figures & Opinions

A situation analysis of gender issues according to sectors

Small group discussion Feedback in plenary session

‘Gender Facts, Figures and Opinions’ (5)

12.30-13.00

7. The Policy Environment

Review of Ugandan-specific and global statements on gender equality

Small group and plenary discussions

Sections 6.1-6.6

13.00-14.00

Lunch



14.00-14.45

8. Gender Analysis

Introduction to the main participatory methods

Presentation and plenary discussion

Sections 7.1-7.2

14.45-16.00

9. Roles and Access & Control Profiles

Identifying roles, access and control

Presentation in plenary and small group exercises

‘Tools for Gender Analysis - Roles and Access & Control Frameworks’ (7.3)

16.00-16.15

Tea Break



16.15-17.15

10. Gender Issues in the Workplace

Case study and plenary discussion

‘The Power Game’ (8.2)

Day Two: Gender in Management. Policy Formulation and Programme Planning

Time

Topic

Method

Resources

08.30-08.45

11. Recap

Review of Day One

Presentation by ‘daily evaluation committee’


0845-1030

12. Gender Issues in Management

Role play, case study and plenary discussion

‘The Problem Group’ (8.3)
‘The Challenge’ (8.4)
‘Lessons Learnt’ (8.5)

10.30-11.00

Tea break



11.00-13.00

13. Gender-Responsive Policy Making

Synopses of six ministries’ gender policies, action plans and plenary discussion

Sections 9 1-97

13.00-14.00

Lunch



14.00-15.30

14. Gender-Responsive Planning

Introduction of planning tools and plenary discussion

‘General Guidelines’ (10.1)
‘Using the Logframe’ (10.2)

15.30-15.45

Tea break



15.45-17.00

15. Monitoring and Evaluation

Presentation and plenary discussion

Sections 111-117

17.00-17.30

16. Workshop Conclusion

Evaluation questionnaire


Session 1: Introductions - Two ways of starting a workshop: ‘The Pairs Exercise’ and ‘What’s In Your Pocket?’

Objectives

To welcome the participants.
To establish an appropriate atmosphere of professionalism and relaxation.



Duration

30 minutes.



The Pairs Exercise



Sequence

1. Welcome the participants to the workshop. Inform them of the main theme - to address ways in which gender issues can be incorporated in national policies and programmes - and explain that the next session will focus on the workshop objectives and agenda. It is important to point out that, since this will be a wholly interactive workshop, it is vital to establish an atmosphere in which people feel free to talk with each other - hence this introductory exercise.

2. Ask the participants to form pairs - regardless of whether their partner is someone they know well or not. Either way, they might be in for some surprises!

3. If the group is an odd number, join in the exercise yourself.

4. Tell the group that the task is for each member to find out as much as possible about his or her partner - not just their work experience but also their interests, pastimes, likes and dislikes - and indicate that they have 10 minutes altogether, or five minutes each, for their interviews.

5. Suggest that the pairs move away from the formal workshop setting and find a space in the room where they feel more comfortable for holding their conversations.

6. After five minutes, inform the participants that it is time to switch roles - the interviewer now becomes the interviewee.

7. After 10 minutes, reconvene the group and invite each member to introduce his or her partner. (If the group is quite large, set a one-minute time-bar - or restrict the presentations to the three most significant things learnt in the interview.)

8. Invite anyone to comment on the activity; whether, for example, they learnt new things about their colleagues, or whether they were taken aback at the way they themselves were introduced.




What’s In Your Pocket?



This is an alternative exercise that you might wish to use with a group in which all or most of the members have worked together for a considerable time. But also note that it should only be used with a group that is fairly small - about 12 participants or fewer.



Sequence

1. Acknowledge the fact that most participants know each other quite well - and explain that is why you have chosen this particular introductory exercise.

2. Invite the members to look in their pockets, wallets, purses or handbags - and find something to show to the rest of the group that will signify something about themselves that their colleagues probably do not know.

3. Leave about five minutes for the preparatory finding and thinking.

4. Join in the exercise yourself.

5. If you think the participants might find the activity at all difficult, begin the presentations with whatever it is that you have found to enable you to reveal something about yourself.

6. Invite each participant to make her or his presentation in turn, imposing a time-bar of, say, two minutes each.

Discussion Points

Whichever of the introductory exercises is used, consider the following questions, and, if there is time, discuss them with the group:

What has been revealed about the general interests and experiences of the group?

To what extent has the activity helped to establish conditions for open and effective discussion?

Session 2: Orientation - An issue-identifying activity

Objectives

To give an opportunity to participants to express their expectations for the workshop. To consider whether the expectations of the participants match those of the trainers. To establish norms for the conduct of the workshop.



Materials

Cards, flipchart and workshop timetable.



Duration

1 hour.



Sequence

1. Explain the key purpose of the activity: to explore the participants’ expectations and to match them against the objectives and agenda set by the trainers.

2. Give out two cards of different colours to each member, and ask them to write on one their main hope for the workshop - and on the other their main fear.

3. After five to ten minutes, ask each participant in turn to read out their ‘hope’.

4. Collect the cards as they are read and pin them up on a display board (or stick them to a wall, using blue-tack, grouping them according to the main themes.

5. Repeat the process with the ‘fears’.

6. When all the cards are on the board, review the main themes that have emerged.

7. Relate the participants’ expectations to the statement of workshop objectives, the topics included in the timetable, and the participative methodology to be employed.

8. Conclude the session by brainstorming, and displaying on a flipchart, the ‘norms’ or ‘rules’ the participants wish to establish for the conduct of the workshop.

Discussion Points

How consistent are the participants’ hopes and fears?
To what extent are the expectations for the workshop different from those of the trainers?

If they are different what can, or should, be done to amend the workshop agenda?

Session 3: Opening - The official presentation by the chief guest

Objectives

To signify the involvement and support of the national government. To highlight some key themes.



Duration

30 minutes.



Sequence

1. During the workshop preparations, there should have been an opportunity to discuss its key themes with the chief guest. If this opportunity hasn’t arisen, it may be useful to provide the speaker with background notes on the workshop objectives and approach - as well as a summary of the participants’ main hopes and fears.

2. Invite the speaker to address the group.

3. When the presentation is over, thank the guest and, if there is time, relate the key points of the presentation to the concerns and process of the workshop.

Session 4: Attitudes towards Gender - Exploring participants’ views

Objectives

To identify the participants’ attitudes towards gender issues.
To define some basic gender concepts.
To differentiate between sex roles and gender roles.
To illustrate how the experiences of being women and men are influenced - and greatly determined - by social contexts.



Materials

Case studies from Section 2 of the Participants’ Manual: ‘The Choice Is Yours’, ‘Two Families’, ‘Proverbs and Sayings’, ‘Cultural Rules for Women and Men’, and ‘The Stake’.



Duration

2 hours.



The Choice Is Yours (Option 1)



Sequence

1. Refer participants to the small scenario that is the first exercise in Section 2 of their manual: ‘Exploring Attitudes towards Gender’.

Imagine that you are living at a time when science can determine the sex of your child. In an effort to reverse the rapid growth of the population, your government has decided that each couple is allowed only one child. Severe financial punishments are meted out to those who disregard the edict - and any additional child is taken away from the parents and brought up In an orphanage.

You and your spouse have both worked for a number of years. You have a nice house, you have saved a substantial amount of money, and so you are ready to have your baby. But which sex will you choose?

2. Ask each member to consider and make a few notes on the Discussion Points that follow the scenario:




What factors will influence your decision?





Would your parents have made the same choice - or have argued in the same way?





How do you imagine your colleagues would react - and why?





What are the implications for the opportunities and life-chances of boys and girls, women and men?




3. Divide the group into teams of 4-5 people (depending on the number of participants in the workshop).



4. Invite the teams to discuss the responses of their members to the scenario.



5. Ensure that someone in each group logs the main points on a flipchart - and notes agreements and differences of opinion.



6. After 20 minutes, reconvene the main group and invite each team to present its key findings.



7. In plenary, discuss the issues that have emerged - and their implications.




Two Families (Option 2)



Sequence

1. Ask the group to read through the two lines of text in their Participants’ Manual:

Imagine that two newly married couples have set themselves a limit of four children each. Six years later, both couples have happy, healthy families - one of four girls, the other of four boys.

2. Guide a discussion based on the Discussion Points in the Participants’ Manual:




What are your positive expectations for each family’s future?





What are your fears for each family?





What are the implications of these expectations and fears for the development opportunities of each family?



3. If there is time, ask the participants to consider the following additional points:




What are the sources of people’s assumptions and attitudes related to boys and girls, men and women?





How does the discussion illuminate the distinction between sex and gender?




Proverbs and Sayings



Sequence

1. Suggest that local proverbs and sayings are a useful indication of expectations placed on girls and boys, women and men - and of how gender roles are culturally rather than biologically determined.

2. Refer the participants to the examples given in ‘Proverbs and Sayings’ and/or ‘Cultural Rules for Women and Men’ in Sections 2.3 and 2.4 of their manual.

3. Divide the group into three teams and allocate each one of the three sections: ‘Power Relations’, ‘Marriage and Divisions of Labour’, and ‘Serving in Silence’. If you are in a smaller group or have less time, you can restrict the discussion to ‘Cultural Rules for Women and Men’.

4. Ask each team to consider the implications of their proverbs for national development, using the Discussion Points in their manuals as a rough guide.

5. Ask one member of each team to summarise their findings to the whole group.



Discussion Points



To what extent do our sayings and proverbs relate to the biological or physical differences between girls and boys, women and men?

What do traditional sayings signify about what is regarded as normal or abnormal behaviour?

How valid are these expectations or prescriptions?

What happens if girls and boys, women and men, behave contrary to traditional expectations and prescriptions?

What is the significance of such local sayings for national development and policy-making?



Key Issues



Gender insensitive proverbs influence and reinforce the practices of inequality, and perpetuate common gender stereotypes.

Individuals are conditioned to live according to the way they are perceived.

Although proverbs and sayings tell us how society wants us to behave, in most cases they are not related to the biological capacities of - or distinctions between - women and men.



The Stake



If you still have time at the end of Session 4, it might be useful to consider the following newspaper report concerning a Ugandan man who staked his wife in an election bet:

“A man who staked his wife in an election bet - and lost - has been forced to surrender her for a week. The incident has thrown Fort Portal’s Kasusu suburb into confusion... The man handed over his wife in a tearful ceremony on July 1st, presided over by local council officials and attended by a number of local elders. This case is the second one in a month. The other wife in an election bet was only saved when council officials asked her to pay the winner.”



From The Monitor, Kampala, July 8, 1996



Sequence

1. Ask one participant to read the report to the group.

2. Invite the participants to give their views on the story, after considering the Discussion Points in their manual:




What kind of marriage relationship is implied in this story?





In placing such bets, what value do these men put on their wives?





What is implied about the attitudes of the local councillors and elders?





Could such an incident - and the attendant publicity - be used to issue a national policy directive to local councils? How would such a statement be greeted?





Would the removal of elders or local council officials from such ceremonies have a positive impact? How could local councillors be prevented from condoning incidents of this kind?





What do you think would happen to the wife if she refused to go?

Session 5: Gender Concepts - All-important terms

Objective

To reach a common understanding of the key concepts related to gender issues and relationships.



Materials

‘Gender Concepts and Terminology’ in Chapter 3 of the Participants’ Manual.



Duration

1 hour.



Sequence

1. Invite the participants to read through the concepts and terminologies listed in Chapter 3 of their manuals.

2. Ask each participant to illustrate a concept with examples from the previous sessions: ‘The Choice Is Yours’, ‘Two Families’, ‘Proverbs and Sayings’, and ‘The Stake’. (In fact, you should make every effort to point out when good examples of these concepts arise during the remainder of the workshop.)

3. Facilitate a discussion based on the Discussion Points in their manual:




Why is it important to clarify and share our understandings of gender-related concepts?





How can certain of these concepts be misunderstood or misused? What problems can arise through such misunderstandings?





Why is it important to distinguish between practical gender needs and strategic gender needs?





What is the difference between gender-sensitivity and feminism? Can a man be a feminist?





How important is it to avoid gender-insensitive phrases and terms in the planning and implementation of development programmes? Is the use of common and apparently innocuous terms like ‘mankind’ acceptable? How can the practice of referring to individual beneficiaries as ‘he’ or ‘him’ make female beneficiaries feel?





In planning and implementing a development programme, how can a balance be struck between gender insensitivity and over-sensitivity? Who should be responsible for drawing such lines - and whose opinions should they canvass?





How do we relate these concepts to our individual working environments?




Key Issues




Establishing agreed meanings of gender-related concepts promotes common understanding and perspectives.

A grasp of gender concepts is important for analysing socio-economic situations from a more realistic perspective.

Applying the appropriate concepts and methodologies for analysing women’s and men’s concerns improves sectoral and national development plans and programmes. It also enhances dialogue with those donors and agencies who require that development projects take the specific concerns of women and men into account.

Session 6: Identifying Gender Issues - A theatrical lesson

Objectives

To illustrate the common characteristics and potency of gender issues. To cement an understanding of terms such as ‘gender discrimination’, ‘gender gaps’, and ‘gender oppression’.



Materials

Either a specially commissioned play or the text of ‘A No-Win Situation’ as presented in Chapter 4 of the Participants’ Manual.



Duration

1 hour 30 minutes.




Commissioned Mini-Drama (Option 1)



Sequence

1. Wherever your workshop is taking place, there are likely to be several drama groups with the potential of developing plays that focus on gender issues. If you are lucky, a local troupe might already have such a play in its repertoire. Otherwise, you should contact them some time before the training programme is scheduled, so they will have time to discuss the concepts and problems to be illustrated. The commissioned play should last for about 20 minutes and should focus on a few main themes - ideally, ones that are of particular relevance to the sectors that the participants represent.

2. At the workshop, invite the group to present the play. Before they begin, give the participants some indication of what gender issues will be dealt with, and ask them to pay particular attention to certain points that will be raised afterwards.

3. After the performance, lead a discussion on the main concerns of the play, be they unjust and unfavourable gender relations, unequal workloads between women and men, unequal opportunities, unequal power, etc.

4. Relate the particular concerns of the play to general problems of gender-based prejudices, discrimination, exploitation and domination.



A No-Win Situation (Option 2)



A brief synopsis:



Alice is a secretary and her husband George is a primary school teacher. They have four children - all of them girls. Alice has had two Caesarean operations - and she wants to stop having children. In fact, she has made up her mind. But how will George react? She decides to find out.

She comes home from work one day and decides to have a word with George. She broaches the subject by saying she is not feeling well - and suggesting that it might be something to do with giving birth to four children.

George expresses some surprise - and insists that they still need a boy: “According to me, and our community, you still have to produce a boy”. Alice counters that, at her age and after two Caesareans, to have another child would be too risky.

George reminds Alice how many children his grandparents had, but Alice says that time has changed things: “My husband, you are telling me of a very different generation. Those people had milk, they had good food, plenty of land... but these days things are difficult...”

George still insists that, without a boy, he has no real standing in the community. Faced with Alice’s continued refusals, he threatens to take a second wife: “Then you know what I shall be forced to do. You know the alternative.”

As they continue to argue, the possibility of a resolution recedes. George becomes more blatant in talking about a second wife: “I’ll find myself a nice young and beautiful Form Four leaver and marry her.”

Hurt and indignant, Alice tells her husband that she will go back to her mother. She walks out.



Sequence

1. Invite two of the members to take the parts of Alice and George - and read through the scene as presented in the Participants’ Manual.

2. Divide the group into women and men, and ask each group to discuss the points presented in the manual. (If you are leading a large group, you could divide the participants into four groups.) Go through the points, asking each group’s opinion:




Is Alice justified in walking out on George?

What alternative has she - other than to agree to her husband’s demands?

What does this story say about the position of women in such marriages?

“I need a boy, we need a boy,” says George. What lies behind his statement? Why does such a man feel so strongly that he must have a son?

“My husband, you are telling me of a very different generation,” says Alice. Have things really changed that much?

Then you know what I shall be forced to do. You know the alternative...” How common is George’s attitude? What is the likely impact on a woman such as Alice?

Is Alice right about it being the man who determines the sex of a child?

Why is George so reluctant to practise family planning?

“... AIDS? I’ll find myself a nice, young and beautiful Form Four leaver and marry her...” What is the significance of this attitude?




3. Relate the particular concerns of the play to general problems of gender-based prejudices, discrimination and exploitation. Encourage the participants to consider local women’s access to legal and financial assistance, marriage guidance counselling, family planning, and health education.

Session 7: Reflection - A review of definitions and issues

Objectives

To summarise the main issues that have been explored in the previous two sessions. To indicate the importance of addressing gender concerns in the national development process.



Materials

Flipcharts of points logged in previous sessions.
‘Common Opinions: Facts or Myths?’ in Section 4.2 of the Participants’ Manual.



Duration

30 minutes.



Sequence

1. Refer the participants to ‘Common Opinions’ in Section 4.2:




People are born female or male; they learn to be boys and girls - and grow into women and men.

The differences between women and men are God-given and natural.

Women and men take up different social roles as a result of their biological differences.

Certain tasks are more suited to men than to women because they demand the special attributes that men possess; other tasks are better suited to women because they demand their special attributes.

Whatever people say or do, men and women can never be equal.



2. Ask them to read through the statements before dividing into smaller groups to discuss their individual conclusions.

3. After 15 minutes, reconvene the plenary group and consider the Discussion Points presented in the manual:




What conclusions can be drawn about the extent to which the social roles played out by women and men are influenced by biological or cultural factors?

Can you think of any roles that are derived from biological differences between men and women?

Are there any roles that have been adopted by women for which they are not necessarily better suited? Why have such roles fallen on women’s shoulders?




Key Issues




Gender issues differ from place to place and from time to time.

Gender roles are socially constructed and can therefore be changed.

Gender concerns do not refer to women alone, but to the socio-cultural perception and differentiation of the roles, attributes and responsibilities of both women and men. The gender perspective has tended to focus on women because they are more structurally subordinated and disadvantaged within existing systems.

Gender gaps may be a result of customary practices, religious biases, social assumptions, or myths and taboos that discriminate against women or men.

Gender issues can cut across all sectors and social settings.

Gender-focused approaches challenge the status quo because they advocate changes in attitudes and cultural practices.

Equality and equity between women and men should be looked at in terms of, but not be limited to:





· treatment in the family, workplace, educational and learning institutions, and before the law;

· access to opportunities in life for education, training, credit services, promotion, political participation and decision making;

· benefits from outcomes of development programmes;

· division of labour;

· terms and conditions of service.




Gender roles and their perceptions are:





· learned behaviours in a given society and therefore not uniform;

· affected by age, class, religion, ethnicity, regional origin, history and development efforts;

· a result of socialisation - at birth, the difference between boys and girls is their sex; as they grow up, society gives them different roles, attributes, opportunities, privileges and rights that in the end create the social differences between men and women.

Session 8: Evaluation - Arrangements for daily feedback sessions

Objective

To establish a structure for involving participants in a critique of the process and progress of the workshop.



Materials

Flipchart for recording names of the ‘daily evaluation committee’.
Your Ministry’s or agency’s regular ‘Evaluation Sheet’, if applicable.



Duration

15 minutes.



Sequence

1. Explain the benefits of soliciting the participants’ own views on the content and conduct of the workshop - especially as their advice will influence the shape of future workshops, and could lead to important adjustments being made to the current one.

2. Explain that the task of evaluating the daily programmes will be shared out among all participants by choosing a new ‘evaluation committee’ for the second and third days.

3. Invite the group to select the first four or five people who will have the responsibility of reflecting on Day One - and giving a brief presentation at the start of the next morning’s programme.

4. Suggest the following questions as a framework for the feedback:




How relevant were the day’s topics?

How appropriate were the workshop methods?

What was the most significant thing learnt?

How could the day’s programme have been improved?



5. Suggest that the committee meets for a brief period immediately after the close of the session, to review the day’s work and prepare their presentation.

Session 9: Recap - The daily review

Objectives

To evaluate the workshop content and methods.
To reinforce some of the key lessons learnt



Materials

Flipchart presentation by ‘daily evaluation committee’ (DEC)



Duration

15 minutes.



Sequence

1 Unless you already have an established evaluation system, invite the DEC to make its presentation

2 Open the discussion to the whole group.

3 Note the key points, represent the trainers’ perspective, and acknowledge where adjustments should and can be made.

4 Elect a DEC to assess the current day’s proceedings.

Session 10: Gender Facts, Figures and Opinions - A situation analysis

Objective

To identify sector-specific issues related to gender differences in Uganda.



Materials

Flipcharts or cards.
Chapter 5 of the Participants’ Manual: ‘Gender Facts, Figures and Opinions’.



Duration

1 hour 15 minutes.



Sequence

1. Explain that this session deals with issues of the kind discussed the previous day in the Ugandan context - and in relation to the sectors represented by the participants.

2. Divide the participants into groups representing different sectors, eg. agriculture, education, health, etc.

3. Ask each group to record, on flipcharts or cards, what they consider the most significant concerns about the situation of women and men in each sector - and where gender inequalities are most prevalent within their specific sector.

4. After 30 minutes, reconvene the participants and invite each group to make its presentation.

5. Facilitate a discussion on the causes and consequences of gender inequalities, encouraging participants to cite their own experiences and noting the key points of the discussion on a flipchart.

6. If there is time, the discussion can be further developed by considering the four newspaper excerpts in Sections 5.2 and 5.3. The first three ‘cuttings’ in Section 5.2 deal with traditional attitudes towards women’s rights and roles in African society and politics - issues that cut right to the heart of the gender debate. The final excerpt in Section 5.3 looks at the problems of educating the girl-child, which many people believe holds the key to a more equal and progressive society. As these are issues on which everyone has an opinion, it may be worth dividing the participants into teams representing different professional or gender groups, and asking each to prepare a synopsis of their views for presentation in plenary. Be warned, however, that these are very emotive issues, and you will need to closely monitor the discussion to avoid any personal disputes. As in other sections, the Discussion Points are not intended as a compulsory exercise, but rather as a general guide for prompting a more thought-provoking analysis.

7. The session should end with a summarising discussion to answer the following questions:





What are the reasons for, and the attitudes underlying, the situations that have been presented?

What can be done to minimise gender inequalities and maximise equal opportunities for women and men?




Key Issues




In the formulation of sectoral and national development policies, the differences and inequalities between and men and women should be taken into account, in recognition of existing gender imbalances and gender gaps.

People with policy making and management responsibilities should take the lead in reducing disparities between men and women.

Session 11: The Policy Environment - Case studies from Uganda

Objective

To build awareness of the importance of national policy and strategy frameworks in fostering gender-responsive development programmes.


Materials

Chapter 6 of the Participants’ Manual.



Duration

45 minutes.



Sequence

1. Divide the participants into three groups and invite each to read a specific part of Chapter 6 - the first, the extracts from the Ugandan Constitution (Section 6.1), the second, those from the National Gender Policy, the section on decentralisation and the extract from President Museveni’s election manifesto (Sections 6.2 - 6.4), and the third, the sections from the Fourth World Conference on Women (Sections 6.5 and 6.6). Then invite them to consider the Discussion Points at the end of the chapter that refer to their specific sections:




What would you say are the benefits of having gender concerns reflected in a Constitution and addressed in a National Gender Policy?

To what extent do these policy documents and extracts reflect the earlier discussions on gender concepts and gender issues?

To what extent does the actual language of the Constitution demonstrate a gender-sensitivity?

In the extract from Uganda’s Country Report to the Beijing Conference, several examples are given of how customs have influenced discrimination against women. What other customs have had similar influences?

How far would you say your country has gone in addressing the critical concerns identified at the Beijing Conference?

Given the current situation in your country, what areas call for reform to achieve the kind of equality between men and women envisaged in the Uganda Constitution?



2. Invite each group to give a short presentation of their main findings.

3. If you have time, it might be interesting to pose the question: How important is the political climate as an influence on attitudes and behaviour towards gender matters?

N.B. The preparation of this session depends on whether the participants are from Uganda or not. If they are not, you will need to read the Ugandan material and prepare similar statements and statistics from the participants’ own country.

Session 12: Gender Analysis - Introducing a vital set of tools

Objectives

To clarify the nature and purpose of gender analysis.
To emphasise its importance in understanding gender differences.
To illustrate a variety of methods for collecting and interpreting data on gender issues.



Materials

Sections 7.1-7.2 of the Participants’ Manual.



Duration

45 minutes.



Sequence

1. Introduce the topic by commenting on how the discussions and activities already undertaken have shown how women and men have different needs because of their gender roles.

2. Suggest that understanding gender differences enhances one’s appreciation of how men and women make choices in economic affairs and in their social life. It also increases an understanding of some basic realities in relations between women and men - and it can highlight the economic and social implications of these realities.

3. Remind the group how earlier discussions have shown that, since gender roles and relations are culturally and socially defined, they can change according to time, place and context.

4. Point out that such changes can be influenced, and actively facilitated, through gender responsive planning - planning that addresses gender differences, especially those based on inequity and inequality. Planners need to examine and understand the different roles of men and women, and their access to and control over resources; only then will they be able to specifically target their different needs. Emphasise that gender analysis is a set of tools for examining and interpreting the roles, relations and resources of men and women - whether at the household, community or sectoral level.

5. Refer the participants to Chapter 7 of their manual, which is both an introduction to the concept of gender analysis and an illustration of its methods.

6. Allow time for the participants to read through the extract from Dr Tadria’s paper in Section 7.1.

7. When they have finished, refer to her argument that “in some cases what is said to be women’s or men’s work is based on false perceptions and cultural stereotyping”. Ask them whether they agree - and whether they can give examples.

8. Do the participants agree with the assertion that “people’s stereotypes over time can become reality”?

9. Clarify that the group understands what “disaggregated data” means.

10. Finally, in relation to Dr Tadria’s piece, reinforce her last two points on the importance of gender analysis:





It clarifies and builds on what is already known. For example, it is known that in most cultures there is a social division of labour. Gender analysis clarifies the gender dimensions of this division of labour.

It provides concrete data for project analysis and design by identifying specific areas of need for different categories of people. It highlights the different roles women and men play, and the social economic positions they hold. Taking account of unequal gender relations enhances accuracy in planning for specific target groups.




11. Discuss the extract from Paradigm Postponed on page 37, which states that, “Policies that do not take explicit account of the differentiation of economic agents by gender are likely to worsen the situation of both women and men, and therefore contribute to greater economic inefficiency and inequity, as well as to diminished economic performance”. Do the participants consider this a valid statement?

Session 13: Daily Activity Profile - A tool for gender analysis

Objectives

To identify differences in the ways that women and men spend their time.
To recognise some of the gender issues at the household level.



Materials

Flipcharts and felt pens
Section 7.3 (part one) of the Participants’ Manual.



Duration

45 minutes.



Sequence

1. Divide the group into teams made up of only women or men - if possible - and introduce them to the Daily Activity Profile on pages 40-41 of their manual.

2. Invite each group to draw up a profile for the activities of one of its members. Suggest that one group focuses on the day of a modern urban man, one on an urban woman, one on a typical rural man, and one on a rural woman. If there are enough groups, allocate one group a married woman and another a single woman.

3. When the groups have finished, invite them one at a time to display their profiles.

4. After their presentations, invite the participants to respond to the Discussion Points listed in their manual:




What is the significance of who does what in your household profile? How do the perceptions of men and women differ towards each other’s activities, roles and responsibilities?

How do the schedules and workloads of men and women differ in a typical urban household? How do they differ in a rural setting?

How do the rural workloads in your country compare to those of the typical pastoralist family in the example given in the Participants’ Manual?

What is the significance of pastoralist men saying that they are ‘making important decisions at household and community levels’, ‘settling disputes’ or ‘welcoming visitors’?

How do gender roles and responsibilities differ between single and married women?

What can we learn from the differences between men’s and women’s social and professional attitudes?

What are the implications for project planning and implementation?

Session 14: Matrices for Analysis - Roles, access and control, and planning

Objectives

To clarify the existing situations of men and women in relation to how they spend their time, and whether they have access to and control over key resources.

To expose the imbalances that occur in male/female relationships in the reproductive, productive and social spheres.

To encourage consideration of how greater equity could be realised.



Materials

Section 7.3 (part two) of the Participants’ Manual.



Duration

1 hour 15 minutes.



Sequence

1. Refer the participants to the second part of Section 7.3 in their manual (pages 42-45).

2. Explain that they will be working on three important charts. The first records the main roles played by women and men - categorised as reproductive, productive, community and decision-making. The second records whether women and men have access to and control over a range of key resources. The third identifies the gender issues that need to be considered in sectoral planning - and by whom.

3. Refer the participants to the purpose of the three frameworks as set out in their manuals. Make sure that they understand all the terms used.

4. Invite them, in the same groups as the previous exercise, to complete the three charts for the social categories represented by the individuals analysed in their Daily Activity Profiles. (The urban group could well be the participants themselves!)

5. Invite the groups to present their findings and conclusions.

6. After the presentations, take up the Discussion Points in their manuals:




Are there any significant differences between the roles of women and men?

What is the contribution of the reproductive role to the productive role?

What do these exercises show about the relative power positions of women and men?

How might/should these issues be addressed in development plans?

What are the implications - for investment, development, and resource mobilisation - of having access to resources you do not control?




Key Issues





Outlining different gender roles, when and where they are performed, and the resources available to support them, is the first major step in gender analysis.

Carrying out a gender analysis, especially outlining the different gender roles of men and women, is quite easy. Identifying what gender issues are implied in their roles and relations is more difficult.

Gender role stereotyping, especially when based on cultural conceptualisation of gender division of labour and gender relations, can distort information and deter gender responsive planning and programme design.

When carried out properly, a gender analysis should provide specific data on the situation and position of women and men, as well as their relationships, which can then be used to plan resource mobilisation, allocation and utilisation. The data should provide answers to the following questions:







· What kind of gender needs exist, ie. do men and women play similar roles?

· Do they have similar needs for resources and services, or gender specific needs?

· Who dominates which sector, what resources are required or available in this sector, and what is the role of the sector in socio-economic development?

· Does the analysis show a distinction between practical needs and strategic needs?






Understanding social, cultural and biological gender differences enhances one’s understanding of how men and women make choices in economic and social production. It also enhances one’s understanding of the practical realities of the relationships between women and men, and the implications of these relationships for economic and social production.

Since gender roles and relationships are culturally and socially defined, they also change according to time, place and context. This change can be facilitated through gender-responsive planning - planning and programme designing that addresses gender differences, particularly those based on gender inequity and inequality.

The multiple roles of women - reproductive, productive, community and decision-making - result in an unequal distribution of workloads between women and men.

Despite their heavy workloads, women have very limited access to and control over resources. Without women’s unpaid work, much of the paid work would never get done,

Since most of women’s work is either in the homestead or in the community, they have limited access to information channels and skill development opportunities.

Session 15: Practical and Strategic Gender Needs - A mini case-study

Objective

To distinguish between practical and strategic gender needs.



Materials

Section 7.4 of the Participants’ Manual.



Duration

30 minutes.



Sequence

1. Invite the participants to read through the section of their manual entitled ‘Practical and Strategic Gender Needs’.

2. Make sure that they understand the definitions and distinction between practical and strategic needs.

3. Invite one of the group to read aloud the short illustration on ‘The Milking Cow Revolving Fund’.

4. Lead a short brainstorm on the Discussion Points that follow:




What practical needs of the women are such revolving funds addressing?

What strategic needs are being addressed?

What else could the projects do to better address the women’s strategic needs?

Session 16: Gender Equality and Empowerment Framework - A matrix

Objectives

To present a tool for identifying - and closing - gender gaps in the development process. To ensure that development plans and programmes are of benefit to both women and men.



Materials

Section 7.5 of the Participants’ Manual.



Duration

30 minutes.



Sequence

1. Invite the participants to read through the explanation of the different levels of the Gender Equality and Empowerment Framework (GEEF).

2. Ask one participant to read aloud the story of the Masese Women’s Sanplat Production Project.

3. Invite the group to consider the Discussion Points after the story:




What gender issues are involved in the sanplat project?

What probable gender gaps exist at the five levels of the GEEF?

What issues are being addressed by the project? What issues have been ignored, which may impact on the project’s success?

Is it true that the men would have managed the activity better than the women? If so, why?

Session 17: Gender Issues in the Workplace - Case studies

Objectives

To highlight common problems experienced by women in the workplace - and in relationships between male and female colleagues.

To suggest measures that individuals and organisations can undertake to improve gender sensitivity in the workplace.

To understand the effects of sexual harassment in the workplace, and to identify means of detecting and overcoming the problem.



Materials

Flipcharts.
‘Namusoke’s Journey Between’ and ‘The Power Game’ - Sections 8.1 and 8.2 of the Participants’ Manual.



Duration

1 hour 30 minutes.



Sequence

1. Divide the participants into two groups - if practical, the women in one, the men in the other.

2. Invite both groups to read through the two case studies, and - with the help of the Discussion Points listed - to consider the main issues and lessons that arise from each one. Ask each group to write the main points - problems identified, lessons learnt, and solutions suggested - on a flipchart.

3. After 30-40 minutes, invite one member of each group to present its points to the whole group.

4. After each presentation, lead a plenary discussion on the main points and arguments that have arisen. Consider the following questions:




Are there any significant differences between the views and priorities of the male and female groups? What can be done to reconcile these differences?

What suggestions have been made that could be turned into practical solutions - or even national policies - for eradicating discrimination in the workplace?




Key Issues




Most career women face difficult choices between their multiple roles. The contradictions and potential conflicts between family and career roles often cause considerable stress.

Career women in Africa are constantly reminded of their family-related roles and responsibilities.

Formal organisations still place great importance on a woman’s traditional socio-cultural roles. Many organisations have formal rules that support and maintain these roles - and related male dominance - even if they have negative implications for the organisations themselves.

Women can only ‘have it all’ if both their employer and their family are supportive.

The enduring prevalence of cultural male power is usually - and easily - used to harass women who are regarded as sexual objects.

The effects of sexual harassment on individuals range from anger, depression, humiliation and embarrassment to shame, self-blame and loss of self-confidence. In organisations, sexual harassment may affect staff morale, reduce performance and productivity, and increase absenteeism.

Sexual harassment is closely tied to work harassment, which can manifest itself as performance criticism, public humiliation, or fear of one’s employer or colleagues - and will eventually affect one’s performance and career progression.

It is often difficult to distinguish between sexual harassment and a boss’s ‘natural’ interest in an employee’s progress.

In most African cultures, sexual harassment does not cause shame to the victimiser, but inevitably causes great suffering to the victim - socially, psychologically and professionally.

Victims can only gain the capacity to control a ‘situation’ through knowledge of the different forms of empowerment and redress available to them.

Session 18: Recap - Review of Day Two

Repeat the process used on the previous day - with a different ‘daily evaluation committee’.

NB. This should have been set up at the end of the previous day’s programme.

Session 19: Gender Issues in Management - Practical gender issues in the workplace

Objectives

To identify the different characteristics and attitudes that exist in a working environment - and the effects they can have on its atmosphere and productivity.

To reflect on ways of making a workplace more gender sensitive - and the attitudes required for such a change.

To reflect on specific challenges facing professional women in the participants’ own country.



Materials

Table and chairs for the role play.
Flipcharts.
Sections 8.3 - 8.5 of the Participants’ Manual.



Duration

1 hour 45 minutes.




The Problem Group (Section 8.3)



Sequence

1. If you have sufficient time and the workshop environment and participants are sufficiently relaxed, ‘The Problem Group’ offers an excellent springboard for an in-depth discussion of common attitudes and behaviours in the workplace.

2. Introduce the role play by explaining its objectives and the practical lessons that should emerge.

3. Set the scene by referring the participants to the scenario presented in their manual:




You have been assigned to a Task Group charged with making recommendations on your office’s layout and facilities, prior to taking over the floor of a new building. But the meeting also presents an opportunity to discuss several more fundamental issues, such as responsibilities and duties in the office, punctuality, benefits (transportation, allowances, etc.) - and women’s access to them.



4. Invite seven participants (four women and three men) to volunteer themselves as members of the task group. Ask them to take their seats at the table set out in front of the main group.

5. Invite each volunteer to read the paragraph about the individual he or she is to ‘play’. (Try to allocate each role to the participant who seems most capable of playing it.)

6. While the role-players are studying their characters, brief the main group on the situation that is to be enacted - and the main gender issues to look out for.

7. Suggest an agenda for the meeting, ie. office allocation, access to computers, support staff, other issues (punctuality, benefits, etc.).

8. Allow about 20 minutes for the role play itself - ensuring that a suitable range of gender-related issues have emerged.

9. Facilitate a discussion on the human and institutional issues that have emerged, using the Discussion Points as a rough guide:





What are the main gender issues in the task group’s office? What effects have they had on the organisation and the individuals involved?

What did the meeting reveal about the attitudes of different characters in a typical office environment?

Which of these personalities exist in your office? Have you ever encountered similar situations or discussions to those that arose during this meeting? How were they resolved - or were they?

How can the raising and addressing of gender concerns help to make an organisation and its employees more productive?

Is the office a good place to begin to address such concerns - as compared to the home or community groups? Can you, as Raphael believes, begin the process at a meeting of this kind?

Do people like Jane help to address gender imbalances? Is the confrontational approach sometimes the only answer?

Why are people like Fred put in charge of such meetings? What are the effects of his type of leadership?

Why have the characters depicted developed in the way they have? To what extent are social and professional conditioning responsible? What are the consequences of such conditioning - and what can be done about it?

Were the views of your character completely at odds with your own? Did you learn anything about this type of character - or about yourself?

Whose approach had the most positive or productive impact on the discussion? What can we learn from this?



The Challenge (Section 8.4)



Sequence

1. The inclusion of this exercise will depend on the time taken for the role play - as the following section on ‘Lessons Learnt’ provides an important summary of lessons about gender issues in management.

2. If the role play has taken less than an hour, invite one of the female participants to read aloud the statement by Hilda Musubira.

3. Consider the Discussion Points that follow the extract:




Was the Head of the Civil Service being unfair to Hilda Musubira by appointing her to such a technical ministry?

Why do so many people believe that a woman is incapable of running a government ministry? Why do some women believe this, too?



Lessons Learnt (Section 8.5)



Sequence

1. Ask the participants to read through the section summarising the lessons learnt in Chapter 8.

2. Facilitate a plenary discussion on the main issues and lessons that have arisen during the case studies and role play on gender issues in the workplace. The Discussion Points listed should provide a comprehensive guide to the main issues at hand:




What kind of behaviour and language are common signs of gender insensitivity in the workplace? What can managers do to prevent their male colleagues and employees from perpetuating this kind of discrimination?

What systems and processes can institutions adopt to monitor and overcome discrimination in the workplace? Are such systems in use by your ministry?

How does male management compare with female management in the home? Can such comparisons provide useful lessons in comparing management styles at work?

What specific qualities and characteristics are women more likely to bring to managerial positions? Do you know of any cases in which such qualities have helped to gain a woman a managerial job?

Why are women more likely than men to possess and exhibit such qualities? What kinds of men are more likely to recognise and reward such characteristics?

Is there a growing appreciation in your country of how the inherent differences between male and female management styles can be used to an institution’s advantage?




Key Issues




When individuals occupying senior positions are not gender sensitive, they are more likely to be influenced by their own personal gender relations, cultural stereotypes and perceptions in the way they interpret and apply bureaucratic regulations and in the way they treat their male and female members of staff.

When a manager is gender sensitive, individual gender biases are minimised and are not used to influence the allocation of duties and benefits to women and men differently. The language used and jokes enjoyed in an office can be important indicators of the gender sensitivity of the individuals working there - as well as the level of institutional tolerance to gender insensitivity.

The gender sensitivity of an institution can usually be gauged by the systems and processes it has established to track and deal with gender based discrimination.

It is a fact that male and female managers do things differently; both management styles have their strengths and weaknesses. Female managers have been shown to bring improved efficiency, morale and creativity to the management of formal institutions.

Uganda has some excellent examples of effective and successful female managers, yet because they are few in number, the female advantage is not yet institutionalised in Uganda’s management systems. Many women still try to copy male management styles under the assumption - and sometimes misconception - that male management is good management.

Gender role stereotyping can lead to gender based discrimination and subordination at work. It can affect an office environment in several ways:





· It affects employee relations by lowering morale.

· It reduces productivity in the short term - and efficiency in the long run - if employees have to spend time discussing issues of discrimination.

· It can affect the quality and focus of programmes.




Sexual harassment may result from an inability to separate women’s identity as workers in a bureaucratic organisation from their identity as wives in a specific cultural setting. Sexual harassment is an indication of unequal relations.

A gender biased institution or individual is unlikely to produce policies free from negative biases. Research in public organisations has shown that many managers deploy their female staff according to whether they are married and have children - without consulting the employees themselves.

Session 20: Gender Responsive Policy Making - Sectoral policies and action plans

Objectives

To consider and compare the gender policy statements of five government ministries, and the gender component of the draft National Health Plan.

To illustrate how such sectoral policy statements and commitments can be translated into practical action plans.



Materials

Chapter 9 of the Participants’ Manual.



Duration

2 hours.



Sequence

1. Divide the participants into six groups, and allocate each a particular ministry statement. Try to ensure that none of the participants is studying the policy statement of his or her own ministry.

2. Ask each group to analyse its policy statement and to consider the ‘General Discussion Points’ - as well as the ‘Sector Specific Discussion Points’ pertaining to their particular document.

3. After 45 minutes, invite one member from each group to give a short presentation of its findings.

4. Invite the participants to read through Section 9.7, which presents a statement of gender issues in Uganda’s water and sanitation programmes and suggests two ‘action plans’ for drawing up and achieving specific objectives.

5. Facilitate an exploration of the Discussion Points that end the chapter:




Can you think of any other action plans that might be effective in addressing the gender concerns listed for the water sector?

What action plans should have priority in addressing gender concerns in your own sector?

Session 21: Gender Responsive Planning - Introducing a set of planning tools

Objective

To introduce two frameworks for incorporating a gender perspective in sectoral planning.



Materials

Flipcharts, felt pens.
Chapter 10 of the Participants’ Manual.



Duration

1 hour 30 minutes.



Sequence

1. Divide the participants into two teams, and inform them that they are now to become trainers - by teaching an important planning tool to the other team.

2. Allocate one of the planning approaches - the GAD framework in Section 10.1, and the Logframe in Section 10.2 - to each team.

3. Give each team 45 minutes in which to study its planning tool and to decide on the best method for instructing others on its methodology and practice.

4. After the 45 minutes is up, invite each team to present its training to the other - using as many ‘trainers’ and different materials as it deems necessary.

5. Conclude the session with a plenary discussion - following the Discussion Points at the end of each section - considering the potential advantages and disadvantages of each planning tool. It is important to ensure that every participant has understood the different stages and purposes of each tool - and can envisage their practical applications.

Session 22: Monitoring and Evaluation - Checking the progress of gender policies

Objectives

To introduce the use of the Logframe for monitoring sectoral gender policies and programmes - and for reporting on their progress.

To acquire tools for gauging the impact of programme activities on their intended beneficiaries.

To establish indicators to measure the achievement of programme objectives - and Means of Verification to support them.



Materials

Flipcharts.
Chapter 11 of the Participants’ Manual.



Duration

1 hour 15 minutes.



Sequence

1. Make a presentation on the different forms of monitoring, its objectives, and the formulation and use of indicators and Means of Verification, as described in Sections 11.1-11.3. (Try not to take more than 15 minutes for this presentation.)

2. Introduce the participants to the different formats of the Logframe used for monitoring, reporting and long-term evaluations, as set out in Section 11.4.

3. Divide the participants into five teams, each representing one of the ministries whose policies are summarised in Chapter 9, and ask them to translate the key policy points of their ministry into specific objectives.

4. Using their objectives, ask each team to complete a Logframe for gender-oriented policy monitoring, following the format laid out in Table 11.1.

5. Invite each team to present its chart to the whole group.

6. In the final 15 minutes of the session, summarise the MGLSD’s monitoring system, as presented in Sections 11.5 - 11.7, and, if there is time, conduct a brief brainstorm on the Discussion Points at the end of the chapter.

Session 23: Workshop Conclusion - A review of lessons learnt

Objectives

To evaluate the process and outcomes of the workshop.

To consider the workshop’s implications for both national and sectoral development programmes.



Materials

Evaluation questionnaire (see Annex). Records of the workshop.



Duration

30 minutes.



Sequence

1. Explain the purpose of the evaluation.

2. Give out the questionnaire - photocopied from the Annex - and ask the participants to complete it.

3. When all the forms are returned, conduct a brief discussion, focusing on the main lessons learnt.

4. Thank the participants and hand over to the officer responsible for inviting the chief guest to conduct the formal closing.

Annex - Evaluation Questionnaire

Addressing Gender Concerns in National Policies, Plans and Programmes

1. What were your expectations for the workshop?

2. To what extent have they been fulfilled?

3. Which topics or tools did you find most valuable, and why?

4. Were there any topics which should not have been included, and why?

5. Do you think the workshop methods were appropriate? Please comment.

6. Have the workshop objectives been achieved? Please comment.

7. What, for you, was the most important learning to come from the workshop?

8. If you were designing the next workshop of this kind, what changes would you make?

Back Cover

Published by
The Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development
P.O. Box 7136, Kampala, Uganda
Tel: 347854/5

Edited and designed by Intermedia, P.O. Box 39483, Nairobi, Kenya, Tel: 254 2 574503