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close this bookAppropriate Building Materials: a Catalogue of Potential Solutions (SKAT, 1988, 430 p.)
close this folderAnnexes
View the documentMachines and equipment
View the documentConversion factors for si-units
View the documentUseful addresses
View the documentBibliography
View the documentAbbreviations

Machines and equipment


Construction efficiency depends not only on the builders' skills, but to a large extent on the machines and equipment used. These are required for a variety of purposes, for instance:

· to improve the quality of raw material,

· to improve the strength and durability of a product, without increasing the quantity of expensive constituents (eg cement),

· to obtain more uniform products and better quality finishes,

· to achieve higher production rates,

· to simplify or eliminate tiring operations.

The machines and equipment presented on the following pages are of necessity only a small selection. Their inclusion does not represent a valuation or recommendation, but mainly depended on the availability of up-to-date information. In each case, the manufacturer and/ or source is given, such that further details can be obtained directly.

The machines and equipment covered in this annex are:

· Soil crushers (required to pulverize dry lumps of clay, in order to get uniform grain sizes and better quality mixes for the production of burnt clay backs and tiles, or air-dried soil blocks);

· Clay brick and tile moulding equipment (with which more uniform products can be made, with less effort and greater speed, than by traditional methods);

· Soil block presses (which produce compacted, stabilized or unstabilized soil blocks, which can be used without firing);

· Block clamps (which require only one hand to lift large, heavy blocks and place them accurately in masonry walls, providing uniform vertical joints between the blocks);

· Concrete hollow block moulds (which are designed for compaction by manual tamping or mechanical vibration);

· Portable compaction devices (for rammed earth construction or production of concrete components);

· Fibre concrete roof tile plants (for small and large scale production of pantiles and ridge tiles, using hand powered or electric screeding machines, and a set of moulds);

· Wire lacing tool (used to make strong bamboo and timber connections with 2 to 5 mm thick galvanized steel wire).


Pendulum Clay Crusher

Intermediate Technology
Overend Road, Cradley Heath,
West Midlands B64 7DD
United Kingdom

The ITW Pendulum clay crusher is designed to meet the needs of small scale product manufacturers such as brickmakers. Dry clay lumps are fed into the hopper. The reciprocating crusher head grinds against a static plate reducing the clay to small particles which pass over an oscillating screen. This yields an output of fine powder which can then be easily fumed into a smooth malleable clay by the addition of water. The resulting clay will be free of lumps and ready for moulding into high quality bricks or other clay products.

Source: ITW information leaflet


Appro-Techno Soil Pulverizer

24 Rue de la Rieze
B-6404 Couvin - Cul-de-Sarts

Two counterrotating cylinders with solid steel rods pulverize the clay by a hammering action; powered by electric motor or diesel engine. Source: CRATerre, France

CERADES H2 Clay Disintegrator

Rue du Touquet, 228
B-7793 Ploegsteert

This is an impact rotor crusher consisting of two counterrotating hollow drums (squirrel box type). Output up to 9 m3/hour. Available with electric motor or diesel engine, with or without soil evacuation belt conveyor
Source: CERATEC information leaflet

CONSOLID AG, CH-9467 Frumsen, Switzerland (machine manufactured in France)

Shreddering and treatment of cuttings of trees and hedges (up to a diametre of 7 cm) all kinds of organic refuses, compost, soil (also stony soil), feuillage, splittery materials as for example bones or wooden cases, paper, cardboard, as well as all other organic refuses.
Source: CONSOLID leaflet


ITW/Parry Type E Brick Press

Intermediate Technology Workshops
Overend Road, Cradley Heath,
West Midlands B64 7DD
United Kingdom

The rated output of the Type "E" press is 800 bricks per day. Some of our customers achieve in excess of 1,000 bricks in an 8 hour shift.
Standard Mould Size

After drying and firing this produces a brick of international standard (S1) in work dimension 225 x 112.5 x 75mm. Non standard sizes are possible for an additional tooling change.
Source: ITW information leaflet


CBRI Clay Brick Table Mould

Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee 247 667, India

On this table the bricks are moulded without mechanical compression other than the compaction achieved by throwing the clot of clay forcibly into the mould cavity. A slightly modified table mould is also available for making roofing tiles, for which a lid is provided and pressure is applied manually. Source: CBRI Building Research Note No. 6

CRDI Lever Press for Roof Tiles

Ceramic Research and Development Institute, Jalan Jenderal Ahmad Yani 392, Bandung, Indonesia

The machine, operated by 3 people, requires a force of 30 kg on the lever arm to apply a force of 800 kg on the fresh tile. Two moulds are provided so that one mould can be demoulded and loaded while the other one is being compressed. Output: 70 - 85 tiles per hour.
Source: CRDI information leaflet

Some soil block presses, presented on the following pages, have been designed with interchangeable moulds, in order to tee able to make smaller bricks, floor and roof tiles for firing. Especially with regard to roof tiles, mention must be made of the CERAMAN and TERSTARAM machines, which can produce 3 or 4 different varieties of roofing tiles.



METALIBEC S.A., Apartado 1 1798, Carrera 68B no. 18-30, Bogota 6, Colombia

First portable manual block press developed in Colombia in 1956. Steel mould box with a piston at the bottom and a lid which is opened for filling. A long metal handle is manually operated, moves the compression piston via a toggle linkage. All connections welded. Block size 29 x 14 x 9 cm. Production of one block per cycle, 40 - 60 blocks per hour.
Source: METALIBEC (correspondence)

CTA Triple-Block Press

Centro de Tecnologia Apropiada
Universidad Catolica "Nuestra Se de la Asunci
Casilla de correos 1718

Modified CINVA-Ram, producing 3 blocks per cycle, about 150 blocks per hour. Block size 24 x 1 1.5 x 1 1.3 cm. Source: CTA (correspondence)


Centro de Experimentacion en TecnologApropiada
Apartado 66-F
Guatemala, C.A.

Modified CINVA-Ram to produce hollow blocks (for placement of reinforcing rods in a seismic wall construction). CETA-Ram II produces both hollow and solid blocks, size 32.3 x 15.7 x 11.5 cm, with 6 cm 0 holes. Output same as CINVA-Ram.
Source: CETA information brochures


CRATerre AMERICA LATINA, Apartado Postal 5603, Correo Central, Lima -1, Peru

Manual press on wheels, designed to make specially shaped blocks (single 28 x 28 x 8 cm or double 28 x 12.8 x 8 cm) for earthquake resistant construction. Precompaction by forceful closing of lid and by vertical stroke piston. Side tables for soil mix and finished blocks facilitate handling. Source: CRATerre, France

UNATA C.V., G.V.D. Heuvelstraat 131, B-3140 Ramsel-Herselt, Belgium

UNATA 1003: slightly modified ClNVA-Ram, with a lever that has to be passed from the pressing mechanism to the ejector and vice versa. Output: 70 blocks per hour. UNATA 1004: further modification by reducing the number of manual operations per cycle, cover attached to lever arm, raised mould for easier handling. Output: 100 blocks per hour. Block sizes 29 x 14 x 9 cm. Source: UNATA (correspondence)

DSM Manual Press

La Mnique Ronale
23, rue de la Gare
F-51140 Muizon

Modified CINVA-Ram with cover sliding sideways; lever action for compression and ejection of block only on one side of the machine. Block size 29 x 14.5 x 10.5 cm, output SO to 90 blocks per hour. Source: CRATerre, France, and Bibl. 02.07


M. Klein - MARO Enterprise, 95 bis Route de Suisse, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland

Modified CINVA-Ram with sliding cover and one-sided lever operation; assembled only with screws and bolts (easy to dismantle for transports); all moving parts with sealed, greased for life ball bearing; available with double compaction; can also be supplied with a tray for easy filling of mould. Block size 30 x 15 x 10.5 cm, output 60 to 80 blocks per hour. Source: MARO Enterprise (correspondence)

GEO 50

Soci Alpine de Technologies Nouvelles
Rue des Cordeliers
F-05200 Embrun

Manual press developed by ARCHECO (Centre de Terre, 31590 Verfeil, France). Lever action only on one side, double compaction. Block size 29 x 14 x 9 cm, output 60 to 80 blocks per hour.
Source: CRATerre, France, and Bibl. 02.07

ELLSON Blockmaster

Kathiawar Metal & Tin Works Private Limited, 9 Lad Plot, Sadgurunagar, Post Box 202, Rajkot 360 003 (Gujarat State), India

Originally produced in South Africa, this is one of the oldest soil block presses still being produced. It has a lever-linkage toggle mechanism and high compaction is achieved by the forceful closing of the lid and "jumping pull" of the lever. Interchangeable moulds allow for different block, brick and tile sizes. Largest block 30.5 x 22.8 x 10 cm, smallest tile 29 x 14 x 5 cm. Source: Kathiawar Metal & Tin Works (correspondence)

ASTRAM Soil Block Machine

Aeroweld Industries
B9, HAL Industrial Estate
Bangalore 560 037

Manual block press, developed at ASTRA, Bangalore, based on the principle of the ELLSON Blockmaster, but lighter construction. Block size 30 x 14.5 x 10 cm or 23 x 19 x 10cm, output 40 - 50 blocks per hour. Source: ASTRA (correspondence)

T.A.R.A. BALRAM Mud Block Press

Development Alternatives
B-32, Institutional Area
TARA Crescent
New Mehrauli Road
New Dehli-110016

Manual press to make compressed earth blocks. The standard mould produces two conventional sized blocks of 23 x 10.8 x 7.5 cm per cycle. A team of 5 persons can make an average of 1,200 blocks per day. Optional mould of 23 x 23 x 7.5 cm is available. Robust construction with machined and arc-welded steel body. Easily dismantled and maintained.

Development Alternatives provides training at Delhi, Bangalore and field sites to supervisory staff and machine operators. Cost of machine and accessories is US $ 600 [exfaciory].
Source: Development Alternatives (correspondence)

TEK Block Press

Mechanical Engineering Dept.
Faculty of Engineering
University of Science and Technology (U.S.T.)

Sturdier version of the CINVA-Ram, with simplified handling (cover connected to lever), wooden lever (easy replacement) and larger block size (29 x 21.6 x 14 cm). Output 50 blocks per hour.
Source: U.S.T. (correspondence)



Sohanpal Metal Works Ltd.,
P.O. Box 904

Modified CINVA-Ram, designed with the assistance of GATE. Design allows for variable compression ratios. Very robust' overloading impossible, easy transportation, unproved safety measures.
Source: GATE (correspondence)

BREPAK Machine

Concrete Machinery Systems Ltd
Satellite Business Park
Blackswarth Road
Bristol BS5 8AX

Designed at the Building Research Establishment, the machine is based on the CINVA-Ram, but has a compaction pressure 5 times that of the CINVA Ram, achieved by means of a hand operated hydraulic pump, acting through a piston beneath the baseplate of the mould. Block size 29 x 14 x 10 cm, output 30 - 40 blocks per hour.
Source: BREPAK Operators Manual


CLU 3000 Mobile Soil Brick Plant

INTREX GmbH, P.O. Box 1328, D-42477 Radevormwald, Federal Republic of Germany

Designed by CONSOLID AG, CH-9467 Frumsen SG, Switzerland, the mobile plant is an automatic, integrated unit, equipped with a mixer, hopper and 4 station rotating table with hydraulic press for one brick each time. Brick size 25 x 12 x 7.5 cm (slight variations possible), output 350 bricks per hour. Powered by electric motor or diesel engine. Source: CONSOLID information brochure

Both machines on this page are manufactured by:
APPRO-TECHNO, 24 Rue de la Rieze, B-6404 Couvin - Cul-des-Sarts, Belgium
Source: APPRO-TECHNO pamphlets and CRATerre. France

TERSTARAM Hand Operated Press

Based on the design of LA SUPER MADELON (developed at the beginning of the 20th century), which was later manufactured under the name STABIBLOC, also well-known as LANDCRETE, but now considerably modified and improved.. The main advantages are interchangeability of moulds (blocks, bricks, various roof tiles), easy operation and mobility. Maximum block size 40 x20 x 10 cm, common brick size (double mould) each 22.5 x 10.5 x 6 cm, outputs 70 blocks and 180 bricks per hour respectively.


Greatly unproved version of the successful Belgian machine LA MAJO, with semi-automatic compression and ejection of blocks. The moulds are interchangeable for different block shapes and sizes, similar to TERSTARAM, but excluding roof tiles. Outputs range between 200 and 400 blocks per hour. Powered by electric motor or diesel engine.

Both machines on this page are manufactured by:
CERATEC, Rue du Touquet 228, B-7793 Ploegsteert, Belgium
Source: CERATEC pamphlets (and correspondence)

CERAMAN Manual Press

Principally the same as TERSTARAM, but with automatic ejection of blocks. The soil is piled onto the open mould, the cover pushed down with force for precompaction. Compression of bricks is effected by turning and pressing down two lever arms by two men (one on either side). When releasing the pressure, the clamp opens, and the bricks are automatically ejected. Maximum block size 40 x 20 x 10 cm, outputs between 100 and 300 blocks per hour.

CERAMATIC Automatic Brick Press

Greatly improved version of the successful Belgian machine LA MAJOMATIQUE, with 3 station rotating table: automatic precompaction (with cone-shaped roller), compression and ejection. Only two men operate the machine (one for filling soil, one for removal of bricks). Single moulds with blocks of 29.5 x 14 x 7 cm, and double moulds with 22 x 10.7 x 7 cm are available, outputs at least 700 and 1400 blocks per hour respectively. Powered by electric motor or diesel engine.

DSH Hydraulic Press

La Mecanique Regionale, 23, rue de la Gare, F-51140 Muizon, France

Semi-automatic machine designed for transportation with a fork lift. Three station rotating mould system set in motion manually. Standard block size 30 x 15 x 12 cm, output 150 - 180 blocks per hour. Powered by electric motor or diesel engine.
Source: CRATerre, France, and Bibl. 02.07

PACT 500 Mechanical Press

Societe Alpine de Technologies Nouvelles, Rue des Cordeliers, F-05200 Embrun, France

Motorized press (electric motor), equipped with wheels for mobility. Four station rotating table manually set in motion, mechanical compression transmitted by a cam. Largest block size 30 x 20 x 10 cm, output 250 blocks per hour. Source: CRATerre, France, and Bibl. 02,07


GEOBETON ONE, 169 Boulevard Denis Papin, F-53000 Laval, France

Mobile production unit on 4 wheels, incorporating a vibrating sieve, a horizontal shaft mixer, a hopper and a press, all powered by a single diesel engine. Feeding the sieve with soil, water and stabilizer is done manually, the remaining operations function automatically (computer controlled). Block size 29 x 14 x 9 cm, output 320 blocks per hour. Source: CRATerre, France, and Bibl. 02.07


Ets RAFFIN, 700 route de Grenoble, B.P. 9 Domene, F-38420 Le Versoud, France

Integrated production unit on two wheels, equipped with a conveyor belt, mixer, water tank, motor pump and spraying device, hopper and press. The outstanding feature is that the soil is vibrated during compression (dynamic compression), producing superior quality blocks and tiles of various shapes and sizes. Output 250 blocks per hour. The unit has an electric motor, a diesel generator can be supplied.
Source: CRATerre, France, and Bibl. 02.07


Southwest Alternatives LTD, P.O. Box 1363, Corrales, New Mexico 87048

Compact mobile production unit on two wheels, fed and operated manually. The blocks of 30 x 14 x 9 cm are compressed hydraulically. Output about 960 blocks per day. Also manufactured is the Impact 501 which is capable of producing 1440 blocks per day.
Source: Impact information leaflet


The problem of handling heavy blocks and placing them accurately in walls is overcome with simple block clamps that enable a person to lift a block with one hand and place it in line with the adjoining block. The thickness of the steel angle and Tubber pad that hold the block, provides a uniform vertical joint between the blocks, so that little skill is required to achieve accuracy. Two examples are shown here:

· The Multibloc Brepak Block Clamp, developed at the Building Research Establishment, Garston, U.K.

· Terrablock Gripping Tongs, developed by Terrablock, Earth Technology Corporation, 175 Drennen Road, Orlando, Florida 32806, U.S.A.



SENA Mina para Hacer Bloques

Divisie Desarrollo Tecnologico, Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje, Apartado Aereo 9801, Bogota, Colombia

Simple block mould, equipped with a tray for preparing the cement-sandmix. The filled mould is tamped manually and the top surface smoothed with a trowel. The lever is used to lower the cavity inserts and the hollow block is tilted out on a wooden pallet, ready for curing. Source: SENA instruction manual



Estructuras Desarmables, S.A.
Apartado Postal 1669
Mexico, D.F.

Automatic "egg-laying" machine: the raw mix is filled in on one side, the hollow blocks are moulded (under vibration) on the ground and left standing as the machine moves to the next moulding position. Source: BLOKORAMA information brochure


The concrete block machines on this page are manufactured by:
Kathiawar Metal & Tin Works Private Limited, 9 Lati Plot, Sadgurunagar, Post Box 202, Rajkot 360 003 (Gujarat State), India Source: SKAT Working Paper 05/84

Combination Plain and Hollow Concrete Block Machine

A large tray facilitates filling of concrete mix into the mould. The surplus concrete is scraped off and the tamper lid-plate brought down with a few sharp blows to compact the block. The lever is used to eject the block, which is removed on the wooden base plate for curing.



The machine has a mechanical vibrator driven by an electric motor or diesel engine and flat faced drive-pulley (both riot supplied with machine). All operations are manual and simple to carry out. The moulds are interchangeable, producing dense blocks of various shapes and sizes.

ITW 80 B Vibro-Compaction Block Mould

Intermediate Technology Workshops
Overend Road, Cradley Heath
West Midlands B64 7DD
United Kingdom

Portable block mould equipped with vibrator, which works off a car battery (not supplied). Use of mechanical vibration in place of manual tamping saves up to 1 kg of cement for every block. Block size 45 x 23 x 23 cm with 40 % hollow.
Source: ITW information leaflet



CMS Ltd. Satellite Business Park, Blackswarth Road, Bristol BS5 8AX, England

The machine comprises three main parts: the frame, mould box and tamping head with vibrator. The machine is operated by one man: filling vibrating and tamping, ejecting blocks, and moving machine to repeat the cycle. Various hollow and solid blocks can be produced. Source: Multibloc information leaflet



Intermediate Technology Workshops, Overend Road, Cradley Heath, West Midlands B64 7DD, United Kingdom

Detachable vibrator, which works from a 12 volt DC supply (car battery or ordinary battery charger). It can be used to make concrete blocks, tiles, window elements, and any other concrete products, as well as fibre concrete roofing tiles and water pipes. Source: ITW information leaflet


Pneumatic Earth Rammers

Atlas Copco Tools, P.O. Box 100 234, D-4300 Essen, Federal Republic of Germany

Hand-held rammers for high standard rammed earth construction. The rammers require a separate compressor, which supplies 3 litres/sec. (for RAM 06) to 14 litres/sec. (for RAM 30). Source: Bibl. 02.28


ITW/Parry Roof Tile Plants

Intermediate Technology Workshops
Overend Road, Cradley Heath
West Midlands B64 7DD
United Kingdom

Hand powered vibration screeding machine

A variety of roof tile plants is available, depending on the required output: mini plants for outputs of 250 to 500 tiles/week, small-scale industrial plants for 1000 to 2000 tiles/week. The smaller plants are either hand or electric powered, while the larger plants can be semi-mechanized (with handling trucks and solar curing bins). The production procedure is shown in EXAMPLES OF ROOF MATERIALS. Source: ITW information leaflets


Delft Wire Lacing Tool

Materials Science Section, Civil Engineering Department, Delft University of Technology, 4 Stevinweg, NL-2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands

Hand operated device used for tying 2 to 5 mm thick galvanized steel wire around any object, but mainly around bamboo pipes and timber connections. The tool stretches the wire, twists the two ends and cuts off the surplus wire, leaving a 3 cm twisted piece which is bent over or covered with a piece of plastic tubing.

Stretching the wire; Twisting the wire ends; Cutting and removing tool; securing sharp twisted end

Conversion factors for si-units


One of the main aims of this book is to provide practical information for builders in all parts of the world. But its practical value is reduced in places where the systems of measurement differ from those in the book - and this is true for any technical book.

The two main systems of measurement are the English (Imperial) and the metric systems, and their use in each country was mainly determined by its historical development The metric system is now the official system in most of the countries that were accustomed to the Imperial system, but the change of systems has always proved to be a difficult and slow process, as the people have to readjust themselves to a new way of thinking. A further problem is that the Imperial system is still officially used in North America.

The basic units of the Imperial system are foot, pound and second, while the basic units of the metric system are metre, kilogram and second (MKS), which later also included ampere (MKSA). The inclusion of kelvin (thermodynamic temperature), mole (amount of substance) and candela (light intensity) led to a new internationally standardised system of measurement, called SI-Units (Systeme International d'Unites).

The units of measurement given in this book are mainly SI-units, as they are the most widespread. In order to make the book equally useful to those readers, who are less acquainted with the metric units, some of the most important conversion factors are given on the following pages.





Units: inch(in)

1 in = 25.4 mm

Units:millimetre (mm)


0.39 in = 1 cm

centrimetre (cm)


1 ft = 30.48 cm

metre (m)


39.37 in = 1 m

kilometre (km)

1 yd = 91.44 cm

12 in = 1 ft

0.6214 mile = 1 km

10 mm = 1 cm

3 ft = 1 yd

1 mile = 1.6093 km

100 cm = 1 m

1760 yd = 1 mile

1000 m = 1 km


Units:square in (sq in; in2)

1 in2 = 6.4516 cm2

Units: square mm (mm2)

square ft (sq ft; ft2)

10.76 ft2 = 1 m2

square cm (cm2)

square yd (sq yd; yd2)

1 ft2 = 0.0929 m2

square m (m2)

square mile (sq mile)

1.196 yd2 = 1 m2

hectare (ha)

1 yd2 = 0.8361 m2

square km (km2)

1 acre = 4046.86 m2

144 in2 = 1 ft2

2.471 acre = 1 ha

100 mm2 = 1 cm2

9 ft2 = 1 yd2

0.3861 mile2 = 1 km2

10000 cm2 = 1 m2

4840 yd2 = 1 acre

1 mile2 = 2.59 km2

10000 m2 = 1 ha

640 acre = 1 sq mile

100 ha = 1 km2


Units: cubic in (cu in; in3)

1 in3 = 16.3871 cm3

Units: cubic cm (cm3)

cubic ft (cu ft; ft3)

1 ft3 = 28.3 dm3

cubic decimetre (dm3)

cubic yd (cu yd; yd3)

35.31 ft3 = 1 m3

1.308 yd3 = 1 m3

cubic m (m3)

1728 in3 = 1 ft3

1 yd3 = 0.7646 m3

27 ft3 = 1 yd3

1000 cm3 = 1 dm3

100 ft3 = 1 register ton

1000 dm3 = 1 m3

Capacity / Volume of Liquids and Gases

Units: fluid ounce (fl oz)

1 floz (UK) = 28.4 ml

Units: millilitre (ml)

gill (UK gill, US gill)

0.035 floz = 1 ml

cubic centimetre

pint(UKpt, US pt)

1 gill (UK) = 142 ml

(cm3, ccm, cc)

quart(UKqt, USqt)

1 gill (US)= 118.3 ml

litre (l)

gallon(UKgal, USgal)

1 pt(UK) = 568 ml

cubic dm (dm3)

1 pt(US) = 454 ml

kilo litre (kl)

5 fl oz = 1 UK gill

1 qt (UK) = 1136 ml

cubic metre (m3)

4 fl oz = 1 US gill

1 qt (US) = 909 ml

4 gills = 1 pt (UK,US)

1 gal (UK) = 4.546 l

1 ml = 1 cm3

2 pt = 1 qt (UK,US)

1 gal(US) =3.7851

1000 ml = 1 l

4 qt = 1 gal (UK,US)

0.22 gal (UK) = 1l

1l = 1 dm3

1 UK gal = 1.2 US gal

0.26 gal (US) = 1l

10001 = 1 kl = 1 m3


Units: ounce(oz)

1 oz = 28.3 g

Units: milligram (mg)

pound (lb)

0.035 oz = 1 g

gram (g)


1 lb = 0.454 kg

kilogram (kg)


2.205 lb = 1 kg


ton (ton)

1 stone = 6.35 kg

1 UK cwt = 50.8 kg

1000 mg = 1 g

16 oz = 1 lb

0.98 long ton = 1 t

1000 g = 1 kg

14 lb = 1 stone

1 long ton = 1.016 t

1000 kg = 1 t

8 stone = 1 UK cwt (long)

1.1 short ton = 1 t

112 lb = 1 UK ton (long)

1 short ton = 0.907 t

100 lb = 1 US ton (short)


Units: lb/cu ft (lb/ft3)

1 lb/ft3 = 16.02 kg/m3

Unit: kg/m3

lb/UK gal

1 lb/Ukgal = 100 kg/m3

lb/US gal

1 lb/US gal = 120 kg/m3


Units: lbf

1 lbf = 4.448N

Units: newton(N)


1 tonf = 99641 Kn

kilonewton (kN)


Units: lbf/in2 (psi)

1 lbf/in2 = 6895 Pa

Units: pascal (Pa)


145 Ibf/in2 = 1 Mpa

megapascal (MPa)

1 UK tonf/ft2 = 0.107 MPa


9.32 UK tonf/ft2 = 1 MPa


bar (bar)

1 Pa = 1 N/m2

1 MPa = 1 N/mm2

1 bar = 0.1 N/mm2

Energy, Work, Heat

Unit: British thermal

1 Btu = 1055 J

Units: joule(J)

unit (Btu)

0.948 Btu = 1 kJ


1 Btu = 0.000293 kWh


3413 Btu = 1 kWh

kilowatt hour (kWh)

watt second (Ws)

newton metre (Nm)

pascal cubic metre

(Pa m3)

1 J = 1 Nm = 1 Ws = 1 Pa m3

1 J = 0.239 cal

1 kWh = 3600 kJ

Power, Energy Flow Rate

Units: Btu/h

1 Btu/h = 0.293 W

Units: watt (W)

ft lbf/s

3.412 Btu/h = 1 W

joules/second (J/s)


1 ft lbf/s = 1.356 W

hp metric

0.74 ft lbf/s = 1 W

1 hp = 550 ft lbf/s

1 hp = 745.7 W

1 W = 1 J/s

1 hp = 2545 Btu/h

1 hp metric = 735.5 W

Thermal Conductivity

Unit: Btu/ft2h degF

1 Btu/ft2h deg F = 0.144 W m deg C

Units: W/m degC

6.94 Btu/ft2h deg F = 1 W/m deg C

kcal/m h deg C

1 Btu/ft2h deg F = 0.124 kcal/m h deg C

8.06 Btu/ft2h deg F = 1 kcal/m h deg C

1 W/m deg C = 0.861 kcal/m h deg C

1 kcal/m h degC = 1.163 W/m deg C


Units: ft/s

1 ft/s = 0.305 m/s

Units: m/s

miles per hour (mph)

3.28 ft/s = 1 m/s


1 mph = 1.609 km/in

0.62 mph = 1 km/in



Difference of temperature

1 degree on the Centigrade or Celsius scale (deg C)
= 1.8 degrees on the Fahrenheit scale (deg F)

Temperature reading on thermometer
0°C = 32° F (water freezing point)
100°C = 212° F (water boiling point)

Calculation of temperature difference
1 deg C= 9/5 deg F
1 deg F= 5/9 deg C

Calculation of temperature level
0 °C = 5/9x(°F-32)
0 °F = 9/5x °C+32


Angles and Slopes

These are mainly required for sloping roofs, which are generally expressed in degrees, but which are difficult for the worker to measure out on the site. Therefore roof slopes are best expressed in simple relations between height and span' preferably using round numbers. Since they are difficult to visualize, the approximate relations between some common slopes (given in ratios and percentages) and angles (in degrees) are shown in the following table:

Ratio of slope

Percentage of slope




= 1°



= 2°



= 3°




















































Useful addresses


Asociacion Vivienda Economica
Centro Experimental de la
Vivienda Economica (CEVE)
Igualdad 3600 Villa Siburu
Estafeta 14
5000 Cordoba
Low-cost housing research centre; manuals and brochures on construction


National Building Technology Centre
P.O. Box 30
Chatswood, N.S.W. 2067
Research and development of construction materials and technologies (mainly cementitious materials)


United Nations Industrial
Development Organization
Vienna International Centre
P.O. Box 300
1400 Wien
Financing and coordination of research studies, expertise, publications, international conferences


Housing & Building Research Institute Darus-Salam, Mirpur Dhaka- 18
Research and development of local construction materials and technologies


Study and Documentation Centre on Appropriate Technology in Developing Countries Blijde Inkomststraat 9 3000 Leuven
AT centre with bookshop; coordination of research studies and publications; joint publishers of AT journal "AT Source" (formally VRAAGBAAK)

Collectif d'Echanges pour la Technologie Appropriee 18, rue de la Sablonniere 1000 Bruxelles
Documentation, information and research centre; cooperation with NGOs mainly in French- and Portuguese-speaking countries

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
Post Graduate Centre Human Settlements
Kasteel Arenberg
3030 Leuven (Heverlee)
Educational and study group; co-organizer of international colloquium on "Earth construction technologies appropriate to developing countries" (Dec. 1984)

UNATA (Union for Adapted Technological Assistance) G.V.D. Heuvelstraat 131 3140 Ramsel-Herselt
Technical assistance group, producing simple machines (eg soil block presses); publish a quarterly newsletter "UNATA-PRESS"

Universite Catholique de Louvain
Centre de Recherches en Architecture CRA
Place du Levant 1
1348 Louvain-la-Neuve
Educational and study group; co-organizer of international colloquium on "Earth construction technologies appropriate to developing countries" (Dec. 1984)


Servicios Multiples de Tecnologias Apropiadas
Casilla 20410
La Paz
Appropriate technology information centre, providing consulting services; technical cooperation project implementation


Botswana Technology Centre Private Bag 0082 Gaborone
Provides information services (SATIS network), conducts technical cooperation projects
Rural Industries Promotions (RIP) Private Bag 11 Kanye
Rural industries innovation centre, providing assistance in various appropriate technologies


Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento
Km 0 da BA-536
Caixa Postal 09
42.800 Camacari (BA)
Governmental research institution; development of low-cost construction technologies (project THABA), mainly soil cement, ferrocement and fibre concrete

Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo S.A. (IPT) P.O. Box 7141 05508 Sao Paulo
Governmental research and documentation centre; technical cooperation projects; produced UNIDO Manual on Timber House Construction (Bibl. 14.22)


Development Workshop (DW)
238 Davenport Road
P.O. Box 133
Toronto M5R 1J6
Technical assistance group for Human Settlements in the Third World; wide experience in low-cost building technologies

International Development Research Centre
P.O. Box 8500
Ottawa K1G 3H9
Research centre for adaptation of science and technology to the needs of developing countries

McGill University
School of Architecture
Minimum Cost Housing Group
3480 University Street
Montreal 101, Quebec H3A 2A7
Research and development of various low-cost housing technologies; experience in sulphur concrete construction, interesting publications


Centro de Estudios en Tecnologia
Apropiada para Latinoamerica
Subida Mackenna 1246 - Vinn
Apartado Postal 197 - V
Research and documentation centre, dealing with technical cooperation; several technical publications

Servicio Latincamericano y Asiatico de Vivienda Popular
German Yungue 3825 Apartado Postal 871 Santiago
International low-cost housing finance and consultancy institution, publish SELAVIP News


Beijing Institute of Architectural Design 62 South Lishi Road Beijing
One of the main building design institutions, primarily concerned with new housing projects, which are generally high-rise in Beijing
Building Research Institute No. 1 Construction Bureau China State Construction Engineering Corporation (CSCEC) Nan Yuan Beijing
Leading institution with specialized departments on all aspects of building materials and construction research, also with international cooperation, eg experimental passive solar houses in Daxing, with West German assistance

China Building Technology
Development Centre (CBTDC)
19 Che Gong Zhuang Street
Implementing agency of MURCEP, providing technology consultancy services, also conducting international cooperation projects

Dalian Institute of Technology
Department of Civil Engineering
Dalian 116 024
Materials research and development, especially use of industrial wastes

MURCEP Ministry of Urban-Rural Construction and Environmental Protection Bureau of Science and Technology Bai Wan Zhuang, Westsuburb Beijing
Governmental organization; administration in urban-rural development; coordination of international cooperation on research and development. (Under same address: Architectural Society of China; China National Waterproof Building Materials Corporation,
Shanghai Research Institute of Building Sciences 75 Wan Ping Road South Shanghai
Materials research and development, especially use of industrial wastes


ARIT arquitectura investigacion en sierra era. 3A no. 30 - 33 Bogota
Technical assistance group, dedicated to promoting soil construction technologies
Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo
del Tercer Mundo
c/o Naciones Unidas
Apartado Aereo 091369
Dissemination of appropriate technologies and support of self-help housing projects

Federacion Nacional de
Organizaciones de Vivienda Popular
Diagonal 60 No. 23 - 63
Organization supporting housing construction by community self-help, also investigating socially appropriate technologies

Fundacion pare la promocion de la
comunidad y el mejoramiento del habitat
Diagonal 60 No. 23 - 63
Technical assistance group supporting self-help housing projects

Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje
Division de Desarrollo Tecnologico
Apartado Aereo 9801
Development of low-cost technologies, eg machine for making concrete hollow blocks

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Facultad de Artes
Apartado Aereo 54118
University faculty with a Centro de Investigacion de Bambu y Madera (CIBAM), internationally recognized institution with considerable experience in bamboo and timber construction


Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBI)
Dr. Neergaards Vej 15
Postboks 119
2970 Horsholm
Government research institute; low-cost construction

Technological Institute - Wood Technology
Postboks 141
2630 Taastrup
Research and documentation centre; technical cooperation

Dominican Republic

CETAVIP Centro de Tecnologia Apropiada pare la Vivienda Popular Apartado Postal 20-328 Avenida 27 de Febrero Plaza Criolla, Local 10 Santo Domingo
Low-cost housing research, development, training and information centre; executive branch of CII-Viviendas (Consejo Inter-Institucional pare la Coordinacion de Programas de Viviendas, Inc.)


CATER Centro Andino de Tecnologia Rural Universidad Nacional de Loja Casilla 399 Loja
University research and documentation centre; technical cooperation projects
CITA-EC Centro de Ingenieria pare Tecnologias Adecuadas Casilla 1024 Cuenca
AT centre, providing information and development assistance; technical cooperation projects

Fundacion Ecuatoriana del Habitat
Pedro de Texeira 273
Casilla 17-15-0086-C Sucursal 16

El Salvador

Fundacion Salvadorena de
Desarrollo y Vivienda Minima
Apartado Aereo 421
San Salvador
Research and documentation centre on low-cost housing; technical cooperation projects


Addis Ababa University Faculty of Technology P.O. Box 40874 Addis Ababa
Building materials research and development, eg fibre concrete roofing materials
UN Economic Commission of Africa
Africa Mall
P.O. Box 3001
Addis Ababa
United Nations body, providing development assistance in low-cost housing


Centre de Terre
31590 Verfeil
Research and development centre for earth construction, developed soil block presses, eg GEO 50
Earth Building Adviory Service
c/o CRATerre-EAG
Partner of the Building Advisory Service and Information Network (BASIN), specialized in earth construction.

International Center for Earth Construction
Centre Simone Signoret
B.P. 53
38090 Villefontaine
Leading earth construction research development and information centre; provides consultancy services and technical assistance. Many publications provide professional training and post graduate courses on the subject.

Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment
24, rue Joseph Fourier
38400 St. Martin d'Heres
Government research institute on building materials and construction
Development Workshop
B.P. 13
82110 Lauzerte
Technical assistance group for Human Settlements in the Third World; wide experience in low-cost building technologies

ENTPE National School of State Public Work Laboratory Geo Materiaux rue Maurice Audin 69120 Vaulx-en-Velin
Research laboratory for building materials; experience in earth construction technologies

Groupe de Recherche et
d'Echanges Technologiques
213, rue Lafayette
75010 Paris
Research and development organization, provides information and technical assistance; many interesting publications

International Union of Testing and Research
Laboratories for Materials and Structures
12, rue Brancion
75700 Paris Cedex 15
Organizes international workshops and conferences on low-cost building materials

Germany, Federal Republic of

Wall Building Advisory Service

c/o GATE
Partner of the Building Advisory Service and Information Network (BASIN), specialized in wall construction

Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften
und Rohstoffe
Stilleweg 2
30655 Hannover 51
Research and information centre on mineral resources; wide experience on laterites

Bremer Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur
Uberseeforschung und Entwicklung
Bahnhofplatz 13,
28195 Bremen 1
Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association; rural and urban development projects (eg Pune, India)

DESWOS Deutsche Entwicklungshilfe fur soziales Wohnungs- und Siedlungswesen e.V. Bismarckstrasse 7 50672 Koln 1
Small non-profit organization which provides research, development and financial assistance in cooperative housing projects, mainly Latin America and Southern Asia

German Appropriate Technology Exchange
Dag-Hammarskjold-Weg 1
Postfach 51 80
65726 Eschborn
Division of the German Agency for Technical Cooperation; provides extensive information service and conducts research and development projects worldwide; numerous useful publications

Gesamthochschule Kassel
Forschungslabor fur Experimentelles Bauen
Menzelstrasse 13
34121 Kassel
Research laboratory for experimental building; leading German centre for soil building research and development of various other innovative constructions

Institute for Lightweight Structures (IL) University of Stuttgart Pfaffenwaldring 14 70569 Stuttgart 80
Research and development institute, dealing with natural and synthetic materials for light, tensile roof structures; research project in India on innovative bamboo constructions

Informationszentrum Raum und Bau
Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Munchen
Nobelstrasse 12
70569 Stuttgart 80
Documentation and information centre for all aspects of building and planning

Kreditantstalt fur Wiederaufbau
Palmengartenstrasse 5 - 9
60325 Frankfurt 11
Finance institution, providing development assistance in many fields

Technische Universitat Berlin
Planen und Bauen in Entwicklungslandern Fachbereich 8, Institut II, Sekr. A 53 Strasse des 17. Juni 135 10623 Berlin 12
Educational and research institution on all aspects of planning and building in developing countries

Technische Hochschule Darmstadt Fachgebiet Planen und Bauen in Entwicklungslandern Petersenstrasse 15 64287 Darmstadt
Educational and research institution on all aspects of planning and building in developing countries

TRIALOG Vereinigung zur wiss. Erforschung des Planens und Bauens in Entwicklungslandern e.V. Ploenniesstrasse 18 64289 Darmstadt
Association of experts of all fields related to planning and building in developing countries; quarterly journal TRIALOG (mainly in German)


Building & Road Research Institute
P.O. Box 40 University

Well-known research institute; wide experience in laterite and soil construction; many publications

University of Science and Technology Faculty of Architecture Department of Housing and Planning University Post Office Kumasi
Educational and research institution, (developed the TEK-Block soil block press); technical assistance and advisory services provided through the Technology Consultancy Centre (TCC)


CEMAT Centro de Estudios Mesoamericanos sobre Tecnologia Apropiada 4a avenida 2-28, zona 1 Apartado Postal 1160 Guatemala Ciudad
AT organization providing information services and development assistance; experience and publications on low-cost housing technologies; quarterly publication RED Newsletter

Centro de Tecnologia Apropiada
"Manuel Guaran"
Apartado 1779
Guatemala Ciudad
Research and development of local construction materials and appropriate technologies
CETA Centro de Experimentacion en Tecnologia Apropiada Apartado 66-F Guatemala Ciudad
Research centre for appropriate technologies; developed the CETA-Ram soil block press

Instituto Centroamericano de
Investigaciones y Tecnologia Industrial
Apartado Postal 1552
Guatemala Ciudad
Central industrial research institute of Central America, providing information and technical assistance; several publications


Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology P.O. Box 115 Bangalore 560 052
Technology information centre of UN ESCAP; publishes bimonthly newsletter "Asia-Pacific Tech Monitor"

Indian Institute of Science
Bangalore 560 012
Centre for the Application of Science & Technology to Rural Areas; research and development of low-cost building techniques; design of ASTRAM block press


Appropriate Technology Development Association
P.O.Box 311
Ghandi Bhawan
Lucknow 226 001
AT organization, providing information, training, development assistance; special experience in small-scale cement production; newsletter "ap-tech"

Auroville Building Center (AV-BC) Earth Architecture Department Ind-605101 Auroshilpam Tamil Nadu
Resource center for Appropriate Building Technologic course and production of equipment for many constructions.


Central Building Research Institute
Roorkee 247 667
Leading Asian research institute for building materials and technologies, numerous useful publications

Consortium on Rural Technology
D-320, Laxmi Nagar
New Delhi 110 092
Institution which promotes and disseminates information on rural technologies; no research of its own, but coordination of research between other institutions

Council of Scientific & Industrial Research
Regional Research Laboratory, Trivandrum
Trivandrum 695 019
Research institution; improvements in low-cost building materials, especially thatch roofing


Centre of Science for Villages
Magan Sangrahalaya
Wardha 442 001
AT organization, providing information and technical assistance; newsletter "Science for Villages"

Development Alternatives B-32, Institutional Area TARA Crescent New Mehrauli Road New Delhi-110 016
Non-profit organization providing multi-disciplinary expertise in low-cost building technologies (especially soil constructions); designed the BALRAM soil block press

Forest Research Institute
New Forest
Dehra Dun 248 006
Research and training on applications of forestry products for building

Habitat Technology Network
Building Centre, Sarai Kale Khan
East Nizamuddin
New Dehli 110013

Indian Institute of Technology (IO)
Department of Civil Engineering
Building Technology Division
Madras 600 036
Educational and research institute on building technologies; designed the IIT Cam block press

National Buildings Organization "G" Wing, Nirman Bhavan Maulana Azad Road New Delhi 110 011
Central coordinating organization for housing and building research and implementation; numerous useful publications; UN regional centre of ESCAP

National Council for Cement and Building Materials M-10 South Extension Part-it New Delhi 110 049
Leading coordination and information centre of the Indian cement and building materials industries

Regional Research Laboratory (C.S.I.R.) Applied Civil Engineering Division Jorhat 785 006, Assam
Building materials and technology research institute; experience in bamboocrete, ferrocement, agro-wastes

Structural Engineering Research Centre
CSIR Campus
Madras 600 113
Research institution with specialization in precast concrete and ferrocement construction

University of Roorkee
Department of Civil Engineering
Roorkee 247 667
Educational and research institution on various fields of building technology


Ceramic Research and Development Institute Jalan Jenderal Ahmad Yani 392 Bandung
Government research institute, providing information and assistance in improving clay brick and roof tile production

Yayasan Dian Desa
P.O. Box 19
AT organization, with some experience in bamboocrete and fibre concrete; monthly bulletin "TARIK" and other publications

Institute of Human Settlements (IHS)
Agency for Research and Development
Ministry of Public Works &
UN Regional Centre for Human Settlements
84, Jalan Tamansari
Leading building material and technology research institute, providing information and development assistance; UN regional centre of ESCAP


Facolti Architettura
Politecnico di Torino
Viale Mattioli 39
Torino 10125
Department of Turin Polytechnic involved in building technology research (eg gypsum-sisal conoids)

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Via delle Terme di Caracalla
00142 Roma
UN organization providing information on building materials from agricultural and forestry products and wastes


Yarmouk University
Department of Civil Engineering
Research on cementitious building materials


United Nations Centre for Human Settlements
P.O. Box 30030
Central coordinating body on housing, building and planning; project implementation, international conferences; numerous publications; "HABITAT News" published three times a year

HRDU Housing Research and Development Unit University of Nairobi P.O. Box 30197 Nairobi
Leading research institution on all aspects of low-cost housing and building materials

Intermediate Technology Kenya 22 Chiromo Access Road Off Riverside Drive P.O. Box 39493 Nairobi
Project work on small-scale production of concrete products and building stone, low cost housing, marketing of building products and appropriate building standards. Dissemination of information and local networking in the areas of housing and building materials through the Shelter Forum


Ministry of Housing and Local Government
Jalan Cendersari
50646 Kuala Lumpur
Research and Technology Planning Division concerned with building materiels and construction technologies for low-cost housing

University Technology Malaysia
Faculty of Built Environment
Karung Berkunci 791
80900 Johor Bahru
Educational and research institution dealing with low-cost housing technologies


Centro nacional de investigaciones de construccion con tierra y energies alternatives
M. Imaz Ferriz Alberto, Directeur General
Saltillo N° 31, Col. Condesa
Mex-Mexico D.F.

Centro Operacional de Vivienda y Poblamiento
Tlaloc 40-2
Col. Tlaxpana
Mexico DF 11370
Housing research and development institution, providing information and assistance in project implementation

Sociedad Mexicana de Ingineria Sismica A.C.
Camino Santa Teresa 187
Apartado Postal 70-227
Mexico DF 04510
Information and advisory centre for earthquake resistant construction


His Majesty's Government of Nepal
Department of Housing,
Building & Physical Planning
Babar Mahal
Building research institution; experience in soil-cement, stone, concrete products


International Council for Building
Research Studies and Documentation
Weena 704
P.O. Box 20704
3001 JA Rotterdam
Association of building research experts and organization which coordinates research activities and information dissemination through technical working commissions, conferences and publications

Delft University of Technology
CICAT (Centre for International Cooperation and Appropriate Technology)
P.O. Box 5048
Stevinweg 1
2600 GA Delft
AT organization which undertakes numerous research and development projects in developing countries; several useful publications, "AT News" published 3 times a year, joint publishers of "AT Source"

Socially Appropriate Technology
International Information Services
Postbus 803
3500 AV Utrecht
Information and documentation centre for appropriate technologies in all fields; publishes a comprehensive catalogue of useful AT publications

Technical University
Den Dolech 2
P.O.Box 513
5600 MB Eindhoven
Educational and research institution; special field of research of the Faculty of Architecture and Building: bamboo constructions

Technische Ontwikkeling Ontwikkelingslanden
(Technical Development with Developing Countries)
Sarphatistraat 650
1018 AV Amsterdam
AT centre with bookshop; coordination of research studies and publications; joint publishers of AT journal "AT Source" (formally VRAAGBAAK)


National Commission for Museums and monuments
M. Ogunsusi Valentine Adebowale
WAN-Jos PMB 2031
Resource and training centre on earth architecture. National Museum Jobs


Appropriate Technology
Development Organization
Ministry of Science & Technology
1 - A & B 47th Street, F - 7/1
AT organization with regional offices in Karachi and Lahore; ATDO Karachi (St. No. 10-A, Block No. 4, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Scheme No. 24, Karachi) specializes in building materials (eg soil cement blocks, concrete hollow blocks)

National Building Research Institute
F-40, S.I.T.E.
Hub River Road
Government research institute, mainly dealing with cementitious materials and products; built first RHA-lime house (Bibl. 24.16)


Grupo de Tecnologia Apropiada
Apartado 8046
AT organization, providing information and technical assistance

Papua New Guinea

South Pacific Appropriate
Technology Foundation
P.O. Box 6937
AT organization with experience in soil block construction and fibre concrete roofing; publish "Liklik Buk" and quarterly newsletters "Yumi Kirapim" and "SPATF NIUS"


Centro de TecnologApropiada
Universidad Cata
"Ntra. Sra. de la Asuncion"
Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia
Casilla de Correos 1718
AT organization with main emphasis on building technologies: developed CTA Triple soil block press, timber flood resistant housing, comprehensive research project on rural housing improvements to prevent the Chagas disease


Apartado Postal 5603
Correo Central
Lima 1
Technical assistance group, dedicated to promoting soil construction technologies; developed a soil block press for earthquake resistant soil block construction

Intermediate Technology Peru
Casilla 18-0620
Lima 18
Project work on community-based planning, housing, especially disaster resistant housing, and work on building materials production in collaboration with local ego's


Construction Industry Authority of the Philippines
6th Floor, Trade & Industry Centre
Tordesillas St., Salcedo Village
Makati Metro Manila
Principal agency concerned with building materials and construction technologies, conducting a Construction Technology Research and Development (CTRD) program for better R & D coordination and implementation

Forest Products Research and Development Institute
Los Ba
Leading research institute on timber and vegetable building materials, and use of agro- and forestry wastes; several publications

National Housing Authority
Elliptical Road
Querzon City
Government institution responsible for housing development and implementation

Philippine Center for Appropriate
Technology and Training
224 Diego Silang Street
Batangas City 4201
AT information centre; various publications, but only few on building materials, eg bamboo, coconut palm

UNDP/UNIDO Regional Network in Asia for Low-Cost Building Materials Technology and Construction Systems (RENAS-BMTCS)
Office of the Regional Secretariat
10th Floor, Allied Bank Building
Ayala Avenue, Makati
Metro Manila
Regional information centre designed as a facility to merge common interests and promote mutual assistance among building research institutions in Asia and the Pacific; publish quarterly newsletter NETWORK MONITOR, and several monographs on low-cost building materials


Nanyang Technological Institute
School of Civil & Structural Engineering
Nanyang Avenue
Singapore 2263
Research on alternative building materials, eg sewage sludge for brick production

National University of Singapore
Department of Civil Engineering
Kent Ridge
Singapore 0511
Educational and research institute with wide experience in ferrocement and fibre concrete constructions, also in waste utilization, soil consolidation, etc.

South Africa

National Building Research Institute
P.O. Box 395
Pretoria 0001
Development of various innovative low-cost building techniques, especially adobe and concrete constructions

Sri Lanka

National Building Research Organization
99/1 Jawatta Road
Government research institute, experience in soil-cement, clay brick and concrete constructions


Building and Road Research Institute
University of Khartoum
P.O. Box 321
Government research institution with experience in fibre concrete construction and other low-cost housing technologies


Birkagatan 27
113 39 Stockholm
Product development enterprise for appropriate technologies; developed a low-cost space frame construction

NFC- Natural Fibre Concrete AG
P.O. Box 1512
S-172 29 Sundbyberg

Swedish Association for
Development of Low-Cost Housing
Arkitektur 1
P.O. Box 118
Solvegatan 24
221 00 Lund
Technical research and development assistance group, attached to Lund University; special low-cost housing experience in Tunisia

Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute
100 44 Stockholm
Amongst other research, specialization in the durability of natural fibres in fibre concrete


Roofing Advisory Service
c/o SKAT
Partner of the Building Advisory Service and Information Network (BASIN), specialized in roof construction

ETH Honggerberg
Institut fur Hochbautechnik
8093 Zurich
Research institute, with specialization in soil technologies and ferrocement

International Labour Organization
4, route des Morillons
1211 Geneva 22
UN body, providing development assistance in low-cost building technologies; many publications

Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management
Vadianstrasse 42
9000 St. Gallen
AT organization with bookshop; coordination of research studies and publications; technical advisory services; especially on roofing


Ardhi Institute
Centre for Housing Studies
P.O. Box 35124
Dar es Salaam
Professional training and research institute with information and documentation unit

Building Research Unit
Mpakani Road
P.O. Box 1964
Dar es Salaam
Government vocational training and research institute, with information and documentation unit

Small Industries Development Association
P.O. Box 2476
Dar es Salaam
Local promotion of small industries including those of building materials production, for example in the areas of clay bricks, concrete roofing tiles and lime


Asian Institute of Technology
P.O. Box 2754
Bangkok 10501
Leading research institution, with Human Settlements Division (LOK BILD system and ocher technologies) and International Ferrocement Information Center

Chulalongkom University
Faculty of Architecture
Phya Thai Road
Bangkok 10500
Educational and research institute with experience in low-cost constructions

Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
The United Nations Building
Rajadamnem Avenue
Bangkok 10200
UN body, with a special ESCAP/UNIDO Division of Industry, Human Settlements and Technology, which conducts international conferences (eg on building materials, 1987), research studies and training seminars; numerous publications

National Housing Authority
905 Sukapibal 1
Bangkok 10240
Government institution responsible for housing development and implementation

Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research (TISTR)
196 Phahonyothin Rd.
Bangkok 10900
Leading research institution covering all fields of low-cost building materials and construction technologies


Centre de la Construction et du Logement (CCL)
B.P. 1762
LomR>Building research and information centre, specialized in low-cost building materials

United Kingdom

Associated Housing Advisory Services
P.O. Box 397
London E8 1BA
Research organization with information and consultancy services on all aspects of low-income housing and self-help construction

Cements and Binders Advisory Service
c/o ITDG
Partner of the Building Advisory Service and Information Network (BASIN), specialized in cements and binders

Cambridge Architectural Research Limited
The Oast House
Malting Lane
Cambridge CB3 9HF
Consultancy specialized in various disciplines related to architecture, including appropriate climatic design and construction technology in developing countries

Intermediate Technology Development Group
Myson House
Railway Terrace
Rugby CV21 3HT
Leading AT organization, whose establishment gave birth to the worldwide AT movement; provides information and consultancy services, and conducts technical cooperation projects

Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd.
103 - 105 Southhampton Row
London WC1B 4HH
Publishing arm of ITDG; largest selection of AT literature in the IT Bookshop; publish quarterly journals "Appropriate Technology" and "Waterlines' among numerous important publications

Intermediate Technology Workshops
Overend Road
Cradley Heath
Warley, West Midlands B64 7DD
Private organization involved in the development of improved techniques for building materials production; developed noumerous machines and equipment

Overseas Development Administration Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Eland House
Stag Place
London SW1E 5DH
Government agency for development assistance

109, High Street
Portstnouth P01 2HJ
Consultancy specialized in the development of non-metallic rock and mineral resources and building materials industries

United States of America

Agency for International Development (AID)
Department of State
Washington, D.C. 20523
United States development aid organization, providing financial and technical assistance, and information service

AT International
1331 H Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20005
Development assistance corporation, promoting small enterprise development by evaluation nod transfer of AT

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Office of International Affairs
Washington, D.C. 20410
Development assistance institution with extensive documentation on all aspects of housing, building and planning

International Council of Earth Builders (ICEB)
419 North Larchmont Blvd., Ste. 72
Los Angeles, California 90004

International Disaster Specialists
P.O. Box 10502
Dallas, TEX 75207
Organization that deals with disaster mitigation and post-disaster shelter and housing; "International Newsletter: Earthen buildings in seismic areas"

Transnational Network for Appropriate Technology
P.O. Box 567
Rangeley, ME 04970
Non-profit organization with subscription-paying members; facilitates exchange of information and ideas among members from numerous countries and professional fields

Volunteers in Technical Assistance
1815 North Lynn Street, Suite 200
P.O. Box 12438
Arlington, VA 22209
Organization providing technical assistance to groups involved in the development of small-scale low-capital investment tools and techniques

Volunteers in Asia
Appropriate Technology Project
P.O. Box 4543
Stanford, CA 94305
Information and documentation unit, which publishes the most comprehensive bibliographical reference book: "Appropriate Technology Sourcebook" (Bibl. 00.07)


The Institute of Building Materials
Ministry of Construction
Thuong Dinh
Dong Da
R. & D. on production and use of appriopriate building materials such as cement, lime, fired clay bricks, board and sheet materials and fibre reinforced concrete


Intermediate Technology Zimbabwe
Gorlon House, 2nd Floor
7 Jason Moyo Avenue
Project work on building serials production and housing concentrating on clay brick production and stabilized soil blocks and networking with local organizations.


Language of publication: (E) =English, (F) =French, (S) =Spanish, (G) =German

* = available at SKAT Bookshop


00.01 Andersson, L.A.; Arnsby, L.; Johansson, B.; Pering, C.; Astrand, J.: A Solution to Rural Housing Problems, Experiences from a pilot project in Tunisia based on organized do-it-yourself building, SADEL, S-22100 Lund, Sweden, 1986 (E)

00.02 * Bery, Sunil (Ed.): Compendium of New Construction Techniques and Materials, National Building Organization, New Delhi, 1987 (E)

00.03 Building Research Establishment: Building in Hot Climates, A selection of Overseas Building Notes, BRE, Garston, 1980 (E)

00.04 * CIB/RILEM: Appropriate Building Materials for Low Cost Housing, African Region (Vol. I + II), Proceedings of an international symposium in Nairobi (November 1983), E. & F.N. Spon, London, 1983 (E, F)

00.05 Dakhil, F.H.; Ural, O.; Tewfik, M.F. (Eds.): Housing Problems In Developing Countries, Vols. I and II, Proceedings of IAHS International Conference at the University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dharan, Saudi Arabia, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1978 (E)

00.06 * Dancy, H.K.: A Manual of Building Construction, IT Publications, London, 1975 (E)

00.07 * Darrow, Ken; Saxenian, Mike: Appropriate Technology Sourcebook, A guide to practical books for village and small community technology, A Volunteers in Asia Publication, Stanford, CA 94305, USA, 1986 (E)

00.08 Denyer, Susan: African Traditional Architecture, Heinemann, London, 1978 (E)

00.09 Doswald, Fritz: Planen und Bauen in heissen Zonen (Planning and building in hot zones), Baufackverlag, Zurich, 1977 (G)

00.10 Duly, Colin: Houses of Mankind, Thames and Hudson Ltd., London,1979 (E)

00.11 Ebert, Wolfgang: Home Sweet Dome - Traume vom Wohnen, Dieter Fricke GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, 1978 (G)

00.12 ESCAP: Building Technology Series, Building Materials and Construction Technologies for Low-cost Housing in Developing ESCAP Countries (Prepared by K. Mukerji), ESCAP (IHT Div.), Bangkok, 1987 (E)

00.13 ESCAP, RILEM, CIB: Building Materials for Low-income Housing, Asian and Pacific Region, Proceedings of an international symposium in Bangkok (January 1987), E. & F.N. Spon, London, 1987 (E)

00.14 Everett, Alan: Materials, Mitchell's Building Series, Batsford Academic and Educational Ltd., London, 1984 (E)

00.15 Fathy, Hassan: Natural Energy and Vernacular Architecture: Principles and Examples with Reference to Hot Arid Climates, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1986 (E)

00.16 Fullerton, R.L.: Building Construction In Warm Climates, Vols.1,2 & 3, Oxford Tropical Handbooks, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1979 (E)

00.17 GATE: Building and Construction, Issue No. 1/85 of "gate - questions, answers, information", Eschborn, 1985, (E)

00.18 Grasser, Klaus; Mukerji, Kiran: Minimum Cost Housing in El Salvador, Project Report of the Institut fur Tropenbau, Dr.Ing. G. Lippsmeier, Starnberg, in cooperation with FSDVM and CIG, San Salvador, Aus der Arbeit van GATE, Eschborn, 1981 (E, G. S)

00.19 Hale, P.R.; Williams, B.D.: Liklik Buk, A Rural Development Handbook Catalogue for Papua New Guinea, Liklik Buk Information Centre, P.O. Box 1920, Lae, PNG, 1977 (E)

00.20 Hedley, G.; Garrett, C.: Practical Site Management, An illustrated guide, 2nd Ed., George Godwin, Longman Group Ltd., London, 1983 (E)

00.21 * Institution of Civil Engineers: Appropriate Technology in Civil Engineering, Proceedings of conference, April 1980, Thomas Telford Ltd., London, 1981 (E)

00.22 Kahn, Lloyd (Editor): Shelter, Shelter Publications, Bolinas, Calif., 1973 (E)

00.23 Kahn, Lloyd (Editor): Shelter II, Shelter Publications, Bolinas, Calif., 1978 (E)

00.24 Konig, Holger: Wege zum Gesunden Bauen, (Construction of healthy buildings), Okobuch, Freiburg, 1985 (G)

00.25 Koenigsberger O.H.; Ingersoll T.G.; Mayhew A.; Szokolay S.V.: Manual of Tropical Housing and Building, Part 1: Climatic Design, Longman Group Ltd., London, 1973 (E)

00.26 Kolb, Bernhard: Beispiel Biohaus (Biological and Solar Houses in German-Speaking Regions), Blok Verlag, Munchen, 1984 (G)

00.27 Krusche, P. u. M.; Althaus, D.; Gabriel, I.: Okologisches Bauen (Ecological Building), Bauverlag, Wiesbaden and Berlin, 1982 (G)

00.28 * Kur, Friedrich: Bauen und Wohnen mit Naturbaustoffen (Building and Living with Natural Building Materials), Compact Verlag, Munchen, 1987 (G)

00.29 Lippsmeier, Georg: Tropenbau - Building in the Tropics, Callwey Verlag, Munchen, 1980 (G. E)

00.30 Mathey, Kosta; Mrotzek-Sampat, Rita; Mukerji, Kiran (Eds.): TRIALOG 12: Angepasste Technologien, (special issue on appropriate technologies in the German journal on planning and building in the Third World), TRIALOG, Darmstadt, 1987 (G. E)

00.31 Mathey, Kosta: Angepasste Baumaterialien im Wohnungsbau fur untere Einkommensgruppen in Entwicklungslandern (Appropriate Building Materials for Low-Income Housing in Developing Countries), Article in TRIALOG 12, Darmstadt, 1987 (E)

00.32 Mathur, G.C. (Ed.): Rural Housing and Village Planning, Proceedings of a seminar organized by NBO, New Delhi, 1960 (E)

00.33 Minke, Gernot: Alternatives Bauen, Report on the work of the Research Laboratory for Experimental Building, University of Kassel, Okobuch Verlag, Grebenstein, 1980 (G)

00.34 Mukerji, K.; Sulejman-Pasic, N.; Murison, H.S.; Hockings, J.E.: Prefabrication for Low-Cost Housing in Tropical Areas, I.F.T. Report 4, Institut fur Tropenbau Dr.Ing. G. Lippsmeier, Starnberg, 1975 (E, C)

00.35 Oliver, Paul (Editor): Shelter and Society, Barrie and Jenkins Ltd., London, 1969 (E)

00.36 Oliver, Paul (Editor): Shelter in Africa, Barrie and Jenkins Ltd., London, 1971 (E)

00.37* Oliver, Paul: Dwellings - The House across the World, Phaidon Press Ltd., Oxford, 1987 (E)

00.38 Pama, R.P.; Nimityongskul, P.; Cook, D.J. (Eds.): Materials of Construction for Developing Countries, Vols. I and II, Proceedings of the International Conference at ATT, Bangkok 1978 (E)

00.39 * Parry, John; Gordon, Andrew: Shanty Upgrading, Technical handbook for upgrading squatter and shanty settlements, Intermediate Technology Workshops, Cradley Heath, 1987 (E)

00.40 Piltz, H.; Harig, S.; Schulz, W.: Technologie der Baustoffe (Technology of Building Materials), 8th Edition, Dr. Ludecke-Verlagsgesellschaft mbh, Haslach i.K., 1985 (G)

00.41 * Rai, Mohan; Jaisingh, M.P.: Advances in Building Materials and Construction, Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee, 1986 (E)

00.42 Rapoport, Amos: House Form and Culture, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1969 (E)

00.43 Riedijk, W. (Editor): Appropriate Technology for Developing Countries, Delft University Press, Delft, 1984 (E)

00.44 Rudofsky, Bernard: Architecture without Architects, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1965 (E)

00.45 Rudofsky, Bernard: The Prodigious Builders, Secker + Warburg, London, 1977 (E)

00.46 Rybczynski, Witold: Paper Heroes, A Review of Appropriate Technology, Prism Press, Dorchester, 1980 (E)

00.47 Saini, B.S.: Building Environment, An Illustrated Analysis of Problems in Hot Dry Lands, Angus and Robertson Pty. Ltd., Sydney, 1973 (E)

00.48 Saini, B.S.: Building in Hot Dry Climates, John Wiley & Co., Brisbane, 1982 (E)

00.49 Schreckenbach, Hannah; Abankwa, Jackson G.K.: Construction Technology for a Tropical Developing Country, GTZ, Eschborn, 1983 (E)

00.50 Spence, R.J.S.; Cook, D.J.: Building Materials in Developing Countries, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, 1983 (E)

00.51 * Stulz, Roland: Elements of Solar Architecture, SKAT Publication, St. Gallen, 1980 (E)

00.52 Tutt, P.; Adler, D.: New Metric Handbook, The Architectural Press, London, 1979 (E)

00.53 UNIDO: Appropriate Industrial Technology for Construction and Building Materials, Monographs on Appropriate Industrial Technology, No. 12, United Nations, New York, 1980 (E)

00.54 * van Lengen, Johan: Manual del Arquitecto Descalzo, (Handbook of the barefoot architect), J.v. Lengen, Av. Eugenio Sue 45, Mexico 5, D.F. Mexico, 1981 (S)

00.55 van Winden, John; et al: Rural Building, Technical Training Course in 4 books (Reference, Basic Knowledge, Construction, Drawing Book), TOOL, Amsterdam, 1986 (E)

00.56 Vorhauer, Klaus: Low Cost/Self Help Housing, GATE-Modul 6/6, Eschborn, 1979 (E)

00.57 Wendehorst, R.: Baustoffkunde (Building Materials Science), Curt R. Vincentz Verlag, Hannover, 1986 (G)

00.58 Willkomm, Wolfgang: Selbstbau in Entwicklungslandern (Self-help building in developing countries), Ph.D. Thesis (IB 3), University of Hanover, 1981 (G)

Addendum 1993

Andrews, V. & R.: The Owner Builder magazine, Bendigo, Australia (E)

Alsayyad, Nezar, ed.: The Design and Planning of Housing, College of Enviromnental Design, University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, 1984 (E)

Baker, N.V.: Passive and Low Energy Building Design for Tropical Island Climates, Commonwealth Secretariat Publications, London, 1987 (E)

Brown, G.Z.: Sun, Wind and Light, John Wiley & Sons, New York 1985 (E)

Golany, Gideon S., ea.: Design for Arid Regions, van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1983 (E)

Golany, Gideon S., ea.: Urban Planning for Arid Zones, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978 (E)

Gut, Paul; Ackerknecht, Dieter: Climate Responsive Building, SKAT, St. Gallen, 1993 (E)

Hillmann, G.; Nagel, J.; Schreck, H.: Klimagerechte und Energiesparende Architektur, Verlag C.F. Muller, Karlsruhe, 1983 (G)

Konya, Allan: Design Primer for Hot Climates, The Architectural Press, London, 1980 (E)

Lechner, Norbert: Heating, Cooling, Lighting, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991 (E)

Mazria, Edward: The Passive Solar Energy Book, Rodale Press, Emmaus Penn., 1978 (E)

Niles, Philip; Haggard, Kenneth: Passive Solar Handbook, California Energy Commission, Sacramento, 1980 (E)

Olgyay, Victor: Design with Climate, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1963 (E)


01.01 Carayon, B.; Gardet, J.; Berthoumieux, G.-L.: La Pierre (Stone), GRET, Paris, 1984 (F)

01.02 CBRI: Precast Stone Masonry Block Walling Scheme, Building Research Note No. 7, CBRI, Roorkee, 1986 (E)

01.03 Everett, Alan: Stones, Chapter 4 in "Materials", Bibl. 00.14 (E)

01.04 Holmes, Stafford: Stone - A Local Building Resource, Appropriate Technology Vol. 11, No. 3, IT Publications, London, 1984 (E)

01.05 Ortega, Alvaro: Basic Technology: Stone, Mimar 21, Concept Media, Singapore, 1986

01.06 Rural Water Supply Nepal: Stone Masonry Course, Technical Training Manual No. 2, Remote Area and Local Development Department, HMG; SATA; UNICEF, Kathmandu, 1977 (E)

01.07 Spence, R.J.S.; Cook, D.J.: Stone and Stone Masonry, Chapter 4.5 in "Building Materials in Developing Countries': Bibl. 00.50 (E)

01.08 United Nations: Stone in Nepal, compiled by Asher Shadmon, UNDP and Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, 1977 (E)

Addendum 1993

Shadmon, Asher: Stone - An Introduction, IT Publications, London, 1989 (E)


02.01 Agarwal, Anil: Mud, Mud, The potential of earth-based materials for Third World housing, Earthscan/International Institute for Environment and Development, London, 1981 (E)

02.02 Andersson, Lars-Anders; Johansson, Bo; Astrand, Johnny: Blockmaking machines for soll blocks, SADEL, Lund, 1983 (E)

02.03 Architectural Society of China: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Earth Architecture, ASC, Beijing, 1985 (E)

02.04 Arrigone, Jorge Luis: Appropriate Technology Adobe Construction, A research and demonstration project on the use of Adobe for low-cost housing construction, National Building Research Institute, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, 1986 (E)

02.05 Bardou, P.; Arzoumanian, V.: Archi de Terre, Parantheses, Marseille, 1978 (F)

02.06 * CRATerre - Doat, P.; Hays, A.; Houben, H.; Matuk, S.; Vitoux, F.: Construire en terre, editions alternatives, Paris, 1983 (F)

02.07 * CRATerre (H. Houben, P.E. Verney); ENTPE (M. Olivier, A. Mesbah, PA Michel): Raw Earth Construction: The French Equipment, CRATerre, Grenoble, 1987 (E)

02.08 CRATerre; GAITerre: Marrakech 83 Habitat en Terre, (Marrakesh 83 Earth Housing), Rexcoop - Plan Construction, Paris, 1983 (F)

02.09 CRATerre (slain Hays, et al): Tecnicas mixtas de construccion con sierra (Various soil construction techniques), Rexcoop - Plan Construction, Paris, 1986 (S)

02.10 Department of Housing and Urban Development Handbook for Building Homes of Earth, HUD, Washington, D.C., year of publication unknown (E)

02.11 Dethier, Jean: Down to Earth: Mud Architecture - an old idea, a new future, Thames and Hudson, London, 1982 (E)

02.12 Dye, John R.: Assembly Manual for the Tek-Block Press, Department of Housing & Planning Research, Faculty of Architecture, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, 1975 (E)

02.13 Enteiche, G.; Augusta, A.: Soil Cement: Its Use in Building, United Nations, New York, 1964 (E)

02.14 Fathy, Hassan: Architecture for the Poor, An Experiment in Rural Egypt, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1973 (E)

02.15 GATE (Ed.): Lehmarchitektur, Ruckblick - Ausblick, Proceedings of a Symposium, held in Frankfurt in March 1982, Aus der Arbeit von GATE, Eschborn, 1982 (G)

02.16 Gieth, Thomas: Construction of Low-Cost Dwelling with Compacted Soil Blocks (Prototype "A"), C.T.A., Catholic University, Asuncion, 1984 (E)

02.17 Guerin, Laurent: Principes directeurs pour l'emploi de la terre crue (Principles of soil construction), ILO, Geneva, 1985 (F)

02.18 Hammond, A.A.: Prolonging the Life of Earth Buildings in the Tropics, Building Research and Practice (May/June 1973), Building and Road Research Institute, UST Kumasi, 1973 (E)

02.19 Houben, Hugo; Guillaud, Hubert: Earth Construction Primer, Project Document of AGDC/UNCHS/PCC-HS-KUL/CRA-UCL/CRATerre, Brussels, 1984 (E)

02.20 Jagadish, K.S.; Venkatarama Reddy, B.V.: A Manual of Soil Block Construction, Alternative Building Series - 1, Centre for Application of Science and Technology for Rural Areas (ASTRA), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 1981 (E)

02.21 Lander, Helmut; Niermann, Manfred: Lehm-Architektur in Spanien und Afrika, Karl Robert Langewiesche Nachfolger Hans Koster, Konigstein im Taunus, 1980 (G)

02.22 Lola, Carlos R.: Research Efforts on Soil Cement Stabilization for Low-Cost Housing in Nicaragua, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1981 (E)

02.23 Lola, Carlos R.: ADAUA Earthen Construction Techniques, AT International, Washington D.C., 1983 (E)

02.24 Lou Ma, Roberto E.: La Ceta-Ram, Una maquina para producir bloques huecos de suelocemento, inspirada en el diseno de la Cinva-Ram, CETA, Guatemala, 1977 (S. E)

02.25 * Lou Ma, Roberto E.: Two Manually Operated Block Presses CETA-Ram and CETA-Ram II, CETA, Guatemala, 1984 (E)

02.26 McHenry jr., P.G.: Adobe and Rammed Earth Buildings, Design and Construction, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984 (E)

02.27 Minke, Gernot: Lehmbauforschung, Development and Testing of partially mechanized rammed earth and wet soil techniques, Schriftenreihe Heft 8, Fachbereich Architektur, Gesamthochschule Kassel, 1984 (G)

02.28 * Minke, Gernot (Ed.): Bauen met Lehm, Journal on Building with Soil, Reports on new developments, research studies and building projects, Okobuch-Verlag, Grebenstein/Freiburg, 1984/1987 (G)

02.29 Mukerji, K.; Bahlmann, H.: Laterite for Building, I.F.T. Report 5, Institut fur Tropenbau Dr.Ing. Georg Lippsmeier, Starnberg, 1978 (E, G)

02.30 Mukerji, Kiran: Soil Block Presses, Report on a Global Survey, GATE, Eschborn, 1986

02.31 Niemeyer, Richard: Der Lehmbau und seine praktische Anwendung, Nachdruck des Originalwerks aus dem Jahre 1946, Okobuch Verlag, Grebenstein, 1982 (G)

02.32 * Norton, John: Building with Earth, A Handbook, IT Publications Ltd., London, 1986 (E)

02.33 Odul, Pascal: Case Studies on Earth Construction: Synthesis, PGC-HS, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1984 (E)

02.34 Odul, Pascal; et al: Exhibition on Earth Construction Technologies Appropriate to Developing Countries - The Technical Issue, AGDC/UNCHSPGC-HD-KUL/CRA-UCL/ CRATerre, available from ATOL, Leuven, 1984 (E)

02.35 Popposwamy (alias Reinhold Pingel): Village Houses in Rammed Earth - an Indian Experiment, Reihe du scriptum, Dienste in Ubersee, Stuttgart, 1980 (G. E, F)

02.36 Schneider, Jurgen: Anfang die Erde - Sanfter Baustoff Lehm, Das Buch zur ZDF-Sendung im Februar 1985, Edition Fricke, Verlagsgesellschaft Rudolf Muller, Koln, 1985 (C)

02.37 * SKAT: Soil Block Making Equipment, Compilation of material on some well-known systems, machines and equipment, Working Paper 05/84, SKAT, St. Gallen, 1984 (E, F. S)

02.38 Stulz Roland: Earth for Construction Appropriate Technology Vol. 11, No. 3, IT Publications, London, 1984 (E)

02.39 Venkatarama Reddy, B.V.; Jagadish, K.S.; Nageswara Rao, M.: The Design of a Soil Compaction Ram for Rural Housing, Alternative Building Series - 4, ASTRA, Indian Institute of Sciences, Bangalore, 1981 (E)

02.40 * VITA: Making Building Blocks with the CINVA-Ram Block Press, Volunteers in Technical Assistance, Mt. Rainier, 1977 (E)

02.41 Volhard, Franz: Leichtlehmbau, alter Baustoff - neue Technik, Verlag C.F. Muller, Karlsruhe, 1983 (G)

02.42 Wolfskill, L.A.; Dunlap, W.A.; Gallaway, B.M.: Earthen Home Construction, A field and library compilation with an annotated bibliography, Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, 1962 (E)

Addendum 1993

AGCD, ABOS, UNCH-Habitat, Earth construction technologies appropriate to developing countries, Conference Proceedings, Brussels, 1984 (E)

Bourgeois, J.L.; Pelos, C.: Spectacular vernacular. The adobe tradition., Aperture Foundation, New York, USA, 1989 (E)

CRATerre-EAG (Houben, H.; Guillaud, H.): Traite de construction en terre, Editions Parentheses, Marseille, France, 1989 (F)

CRATerre (Guillaud, H.): Modernite de l'architecture de terre en Afrique. Realisations des annees 80, Grenoble, France, 1989 (F)

CRATerre-EAG, ICCROM: 5th international meeting of experts on the conservation Of earthen architecture, Grenoble, France, 1988 (E)

CARTerre-EAG: Marrakech 87, Habitat en terre, Grenoble, France, 1987 (F)

CRATerre-EAG, Doat, P.; Hays, A.; Houben, H.; Matuk, S.; Vitoux, F.: Building with earth, Rakmo Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1991, (for sale only in South Asia) (E)

CRATerre-EAG: Compressed Earth Block Production, Video (25min), Eschborn, Germany, 1991 (E)

CRATerre-EAG: Basics of Compressed Earth Blocks, GATE, Eschborn, Germany, 1991 (E, F)

Development Workshop - pour UICN/WWF: "Conservation et Gestion des Ressources Naturelles dans l'Air et le Tenere", Les toitures sans bois, Lauzerte, France, 1990 (F)

Houben, H.; Guillaud, H.: Earth Construction Technology, - 4 volumes, UNCHS (Habitat), Nairobi, 1986 (E)

Middleton, G.F.; Schneider, L.M.: Earth-wall construction. In Bulletin n°5 . Fourth edition., National Building Technology Centre, Chatswood, Australia, 1987 (E)

Mukerji, K.; CRATerre-EAG: Soil block presses. Product Information. GATE, Eschborn, Germany, 1988 (E)

Mukerji, K.; Worner, H., GATE, CRATerre-EAG: Soil Preparation Equipment - Product Information, Eschborn, Germany, 1991 (E)

Tibbets, J.M.: The earthbuilder's encyclopedia, Southwest Solaradobe School, New Mexico, USA, 1988 (E)


03.01 CRATerre (P. Doat, et al): Stabilization, Chapter VII of "Construire en Terre", Bibl. 02.06 (F)

03.02 Ferm, Richard: Stabilized Earth Construction, An Instructional Manual, The International Foundation for Earth Construction, Washington, D.C., 1985 (E)

03.03 Houben; Guillaud: Soil Stabilization, Chapter 4 in "Earth Construction Primer": Bibl.02.19 (E)

03.04 Kafescioglu, R.; Gurdal, E; Guner, A; Akman, M.S.: Adobe Blocks Stabilized with Gypsum, Proceedings of the CIB/RILEM Symposium on Appropriate Building Materials for Low Cost Housing in Nairobi, E. & F.N. Spon, London, 1983 (E)

03.05 Lunt,M.G.: Stabilized Soil Blocks for Building, Overseas Building Note No. 184, Building Research Establishment, Garston, 1980 (E)

03.06 Norton, J.: Stabilization, Chapter 8 in "Building with Earth", Bibl. 02.32 (E)

03.07 Spence, Robin: Making Soil-Cement Blocks, TheTechnical Services Branch, Commission for Technical Education and Vocational Training, University of Zambia, Private Bag RW 16, Lusaka, (no date) (E)

03.08 Spencer Cook: Soil and stabilized soil, Chapter 3 of "Building Materials in Developing Countries", Bibl. 00.50 (E)

03.09 Webb, David J.T.: Stabilized Soil Construction in Kenya, Proceedings of the International Conference "Economical housing in developing countries: materials, construction techniques, components", RILEM, Paris, 1983 (E)

Addendum 1993

Iterbeke, M.; Jacobus, P.: Soil-cement technology for low-cost housing In rural Thailand. An evaluation study, Heverlee, Belgium, 1988 (E)

Ingles, O.G.: Soil Stabilization - Principles and Practice, Butterworths, Sydney, Australia, 1972 (E)

Smith, R.G.; Webb, D.J.T.: Small-scale manufacture of stabilized soil blocks, Technical Memorandum No. 12, International Labour Office, Geneva, Switzerland, 1987 (E)

Venaut, Michel: Le traitement des sols a la chaux et au ciment, CERILH, Paris, France, 1980 (F)


04.01 Bogahawatte, V.T.L.: Non Mechanized Brickmaking in Sri Lanka, National Building Research Organisation, Colombo, 1986

04.02 Gallegos, et al: Construyendo con Ladrillo, INIAVI, Lima, Peru, 1977 (S)

04.03 Hill, Neville R.: A Clamp can be Appropriate for the Burning of Bricks, Appropriate Technology Vol. 7, No. 1, IT Publications, London, 1980 (E)

04.04 * ILO/UNIDO: Small-scale Brickmaking Technology Series, Memorandum No. 6, International Labour Office (ILO), Geneva, 1984 (E)

04.05 Keddie, James; Cleghorn, William: Least Cost Brickmaking, Appropriate Technology Vol. 5, No. 3, IT Publications, London, 1978 (E)

04.06 Keddie, James; Cleghorn, William: Brick Manufacture In Developing Countries, Scottish Academic Press Ltd., Edinburgh, 1980 (E)

04.07 Marciano, Michel: Dossier Presses a Briques, GRET, Paris, 1985 (F)

04.08 * Mestiviers, Bernard: Le point sur Briques et Tuiles, Dossier No. 6, GRET, Paris, 1985 (E:)

04.09 Parry, John: The Brick Industry, Energy Conservation and Scale of Operations, Appropriate Technology Vol. 2, No. 1, IT Publications, London, 1975 (E)

04.10 Parry, John: Better Brickmaking for Developing Countries, Appropriate Technology Vol. 5, No. 1, IT Publications, London, 1978 (E)

04.11 Parry, John: Brickmaking in Developing Countries, Review prepared for the Overseas Division, Building Research Establishment, Garston, 1979 (E)

04.12 Smith, Ray: Improved Moulding Devices for Hand-made Bricks, Appropriate Technology Vol. 7, No. 4, IT Publications, London, 1981 (E)

04.13 Spence, Robin: Brick Manufacture using the Bull's Trench Kiln, Appropriate Technology Vol. 2, No. 1, IT Publications, London, 1975 (E)

(see also Lime, Cement and Pozzolanas)

05.01 Apers, Jef: Binders: Alternatives to Portland Cement, Technisch Dossier, ATOL, Leuven, 1983 (E)

05.02 Bardin, F.: Le Platre: production et utilisation dans l'habitat (Gypsum: production and use in housing), GRET, Paris, 1982 (F)

05.03 CBRI: Gypsum as a Building Material, Building Research Note No. 14, CBRI, Roorkee, 1983 (E)

05.04 CBRI: Mechanical Pan Calcination System for Gypsum Plaster and Plaster Boards, Project Proposal No. 61, CBRI, Roorkee, 1986 (E)

05.06 Everett, Alan: Bituminous Products, Chapter 11 of "Materials" Bibl. 00.14 (E)

05.07 Kinniburgh, William: Bitumen Coverings for Flat Roofs, Overseas Building Notes No.180, BRE, Garston, 1978 (E)

05.08 Ortega, Alvaro: Basic Technology: Gypsum, its production and uses, Mimar 18, Concept Media, Singapore, 1985 (E)

05.09 Smith, Ray: Small-Scale Production of Gypsum Plaster for Building in the Cape Verde Islands, Appropriate Technology Vol. 8, No. 4, IT Publications, London, 1982 (E)

05.10 Spence, Robin: Small-scale Production of Cementitious Materials, IT Publications Ltd., London, 1980 (E)

05.11 Spence, R.J.S.; Cook, D.J.: Gypsum, lime and pozzolanas, Chapter 6 of "Building Materiais in Developing Countries", Bibl. 00.50 (E)

Addendum 1993

Coburn, A.; Dudley, E.; Spence, R.: Gypsum Plaster - Its manufacture and use, IT Publications, London, 1989 (E)

Hill, N.; Holmes, S.; Mather, D.: Lime and Other Alternative Cements, IT Publications Ltd., London, 1992 (E)

06. LIME
(see also Pozzolanas)

06.01 CBRI: Building Material from Lime Kiln Rejects, Building Materials Note 21, CBRI, Roorkee, 1978 (E)

06.02 CBRI: Manufacture of Lime and Lime Products, Project Proposal No. 56, CBRI, Roorkee, 1985 (E)

06.03 * Chantry, G.: La Chaux: production et utilisation dans l'habitat (Lime: production and use in housing), GRET, Paris, 1981 (F)

06.04 Everett, Alan: Limes and Cements, Chapter 7 of "Materials'; Bibl. 00.14 (E)

06.05 Ortega, Alvaro: Basic Technology: Lime and Its Production, Mimar 17, Concept Media, Singapore, 1985 (E)

06.06 Spence, Robin: Lime in Industrial Development, A UNIDO guide to its uses and manufacture in developing countries, Sectoral Studies Series No. 18 (and Vol. II: Directory); UNIDO, Vienna, 1985 (E)

06.07 Spiropoulos, John: Small Scale Production of Lime for Building, Aus der Arbeit von GATE, Eschborn, Vieweg Verlag, Braunschweig, 1985 (E)

06.08 * Wingate, Michael: Small-scale Lime-Burning, A Practical Introduction, IT Publications Ltd., London, 1985 (E)

Addendum 1993

Spiropoulos, J.: Chenkumbi Lime, IT Publications Ltd., London, 1992 (E)


07.01 CBRI: Magnesium oxychloride cement based materials, Project Proposal No.57, CBRL Roorkee, 1982 (E)

07.02 CBRI: Cement Paints, Building Research Note No. 21, CBRI, Roorkee, 1986 (E)

07.03 Everett, Alan: Limes and Cements, Chapter 7 of "Materials", Bibl. 00.14 (E)

07.04 Sigurdson, Jon: Small Scale Cement Plants, IT Publications Ltd., London, 1977 (revised 1979) (E)

07.05 Spencer Cook: Portland and other cements, Chapter 7 of "Building Materials in Developing Countries", Bibl. 00.50, (E)

Addendum 1993

Sinha, S.: Mini-cement- a review of Indian experience, IT Publications Ltd., London, 1990 (E)


08.01 Apers, J.; Pletinck, M.: A Lime-Pozzolana Cement Industry in Rwanda, Appropriate Technology Vol. 11, No. 4, IT Publications, London, 1985 (E)

08.02 CBRI: Proportioning of Fly Ash Concrete Mix, Building Digest No. 79, CBRI, Roorkee, 1970 (E)

08.03 Metha, P.K.: Rice hull ash cement - high quality, acid resistings, Journal of the American Concrete Institute, Vol. 72, No. 5, Detroit, 1975 (E)

08.04 * Regional Centre for Technology Transfer - RCTT: Rice Husk Ash Cement, proceedings of a joint workshop organized be UNIDO, ESCAP, RCTT, PCSIR, Bangalore, 1979 (E)

08.05 Smith, Ray: Rice Husk Ash Cement, progress in development and application, IT Publications Ltd., London, 1984 (E)

08.06 Spence, Robin: Lime and Surkhi Manufacture In India, Appropriate Technology Vol. 1, No. 4, IT Publications, London, 1974 (E)

08.07 * Swamy, R.N. (Ed.): Cement Replacement Materials, Concrete Technology and Design, Vol. 3, Surrey University Press, Blackie & Son Ltd., London, 1986 (E)

08.08 UNIDO: Rice-Husk Ash Cements - their development and applications, Vienna, 1984 (E)


09.01 Arrigone, Jorge Luis: Low cost roof building technology - Three case studies using locally manufactured building components, National Building Research Institute, Pretoria 1983 (E)

09.02 CBRI: Deterioration of Concrete in Sulphate and Soft Waters, Building Digest No. 36, CBRI, Roorkee, 1965 (E)

09.03 CBRI: Precast R.C. Plank Flooring/Roofing Scheme, Building Research Note No. 4, CBRI, Roorkee, 1982 (E)

09.04 CBRI: Thin R.C. Ribbed Slab for Floors and Roofs, BRN No. 5, CBRI, Roorkee, 1987 (E)

09.05 CBRI: Concrete Floor Hardness, BRN No. 27, CBRI, Roorkee, 1984 (E)

09.06 CBRI: Autoclaved Cellular Concrete, BRN No. 48, CBRI, Roorkee, 1986 (E)

09.07 CTRD (Construction Technology Research and Development Program): Lightweight Concrete and High Strength Concrete in the Philippines, Construction Industry Authority of the Philippines, Makati, Metro Manila, (no date) (E)

09.08 Everett, Alan: Concretes, Chapter 8 of "Materials", Bibl. 00.14 (E)

09.09 Lu Xihong; Yan Ziliang*: Cold-drawn low-carbon steel wire prestressed concrete technology (*Engineers of Jiangsu Research Institute of Building Construction, China), Network Monitor, Vol. 3, No. 1, UNDP/UNIDO (RENAS-BMTCS), Manila, 1986 (E)

09.10 Maher, A.; Makhdoomi, S.A.: Appropriate Concrete Mix Proportions for Lower Cost and Higher Quality, S.M. Report No. 2, National Building Research Institute, Karachi, 1984 (E)

09.11 Spence, R.J.S. Cook, D.J.: Concrete, Chapter 8 of "Building Materials in Developing Countries", Bibl. 00.50 (E)

09.12 * Swamy, R.N. (Ed.): New Concrete Materials, Concrete Technology and Design, Vol. 1, Surrey University Press, Blackie & Son Ltd., London, 1983 (E)

09.13 * Swamy,R.N. (Ed.): New Reinforced Concretes, Concrete Technology and Design, Vol.2, Surrey University Press, Blackie & Son Ltd., London, 1984 (E)

Addendum 1993

Simonnet J., LBTP. Recommendations pour la conception et l'execution de batiments en geobeton, LBTP. Abidjan, Cote-d'Ivoire, 1979 (F)


10.01 BOSTID (Board on Science and Technology for International Development): Ferrocement: Applications in Developing Countries, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.,1973 (E)

10.02 International Ferrocement Information Center - IFIC (Ed.): Housing Applications of Ferrocement, Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 11, No. 1, IFIC, Bangkok, 1981 (E)

10.03 International Ferrocement Information Center - IFIC (Ed.): Prefabricated Ferrocement Housing, Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 13, No. 1, IFIC, Bangkok, 1983 (E)

10.04 International Ferrocement Information Center - IFIC (Ed.): Ferrocement Prefabrication & Industrial Applications, Journal of Ferrocement, Vol. 16, No.3, IFIC, Bangkok, 1986 (E)

10.05 Shah, S.P.; Balaguru, P.N.: Ferrocement, in "New Reinforced Concretes", Bibl. 09.13 (E)

10.06 Spence, R.J.S.; Cook, D.J.: Ferrocement, Chapter 9 of "Building Materials in Developing Countries", Bibl. 00.50 (E)

10.07 * Watt, S.B.: Ferrocement Water Tanks and their construction, Intermediate Technology Publications, London, 1978 (E)

10.08 * Watt, S.B.: Septic Tanks and Aqua-privies from Ferrocement, Intermediate Technology Publications, London, 1984 (E)


11.01 Aziz, M.A.; Paramasivam, P.; Lee, S.L.: Concrete reinforced with natural fibres, in "New Reinforced Concretes", Bibl. 09.13 (E)

11.02 Baradyana, J.S.: Sisal fibre concrete roofing sheets, in "Building Materials for Low-income Housing", Bibl. 00.13 (E)

11.03 * Beck, V.; Gram, H.E.; Wehrle, K.: Fibre Concrete Roofing: Towards a mature technology, FCR-News, SKAT, St. Gall, 1987 (E)

11.04 Berhane,Z.: Durability of mortar roofing sheets reinforced with natural fibres: A review of the present state-of-the-art, in "Building Materials for Low-income Housing", Bibl. 00.13 (E)

11.05 Evans, Barrie: Understanding Natural Fibre Concrete, Its Application as a Building Material, IT Publications Ltd., London, 1986 (E)

11.06 Fageiri, O.M.E.: Use of kenaf fibres for reinforcement of rich cement-sand corrugated sheets, in "Appropriate Building Materials for Low-Cost Housing", Bibl. 00.04 (E)

11.07 Gram, H.E.; Persson, H.; Skarendahl, A.: Natural Fibre Concrete, SAREC Report R2: 1984, Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries, S-10525 Stockholm, 1984 (E)

11.08 * Gram, H.E.; Parry, J.P.M.; Rhyner, K.; Schaffner, B.; Stulz, R.; Wehrle, K.; Wehrli, H.: FCR - Fibre Concrete Roofing, SKAT, St. Gall, 1986 (E)

11.09 Gram, H.E.; Nirnityongskul, P.: Durability of natural fibres in cement-based roofing sheets, in "Building Materials for Low-income Housing", Bibl. 00.13 (E)

11.10 Guimaraes, S. da S.: Some experiments in vegetable fibre-cement composites, in "Building Materials for Low-income Housing", Bibl. 00.13 (E)

11.11 Kerr, J.G.: Fibre reinforced concrete, in "New Reinforced Concretes", Bibl. 09.13 (E)

11.12 Lola, Carlos R.: Fibre Reinforced Concrete Roofing Sheets, Technology Appraisal Report, AT International, Washington, D.C., 1985 (E)

11.13 Mawenya, A.S.: Developments in sisal fibre reinforced concrete, in "Appropriate Building Materials for Low-Cost Housing", Bibl. 00.04 (E)

11.14 Mwamilla, B.L.M.: Characteristics of natural fibrous reinforcement in cement based matrices, in "Building Materials for Low-income Housing", Bibl. 00.13 (E)

11.15 Parry, John: Fibre Concrete Roofing, Intermediate Technology Workshops, Cradley Heath, 1985 (E)

11.16 Spence, R.J.S.; Cook, D.J.: Composites, Chapter 10 of "Building Materials in Developing Countries", Bibl. 00.50 (E)

11.17 Swift, D.G.; Smith, R.B.L.: Sisal-cement Composites as Low-cost Construction Materials, Appropriate Technology Vol. 6, No. 3, IT Publications, London, 1979 (E)

Addendum 1993

Gut, Paul; Gram, Hans-Erik et al: FCR/MCR Toolkit, elements on the various topics regarding this technology, SKAT, St. Gallen, 1991 (E)

Macwhinnie, Ian: An Introduction to FCR/MCR Production, A BASIN Video, ITDG/ GTZ-GATE, Eschborn, 1990 (E)

SKAT: The Basics of Concrete Roofing Elements, Fundamental Information on the Micro Concrete Roofig (MCR) and Fibre Concrete Roofing (FCR) Technology for Newcomers, Decisionmakers, Technicians, Field Workers and all those who want to know more about MCR and FCR, SKAT, St. Gallen, 1989 (E)


12.01 Bombard, Miriam L.: Palms - Their Use in Building, Department of Housing and Urban Development, Division of International Affairs, Washington, D.C. 20410, 1969 (E)

12.02 Hall, Nick: Has Thatch a Future?, Appropriate Technology Vol.8, No.3, IT Publications, London, 1981 (E)

12.03 Hall, Nick: Durable Thatching with Grasses, Appropriate Technology, Vol. 9, No. 1, IT Publications, London, 1982 (E)

12.04 Inter Pares (Richard Kerr): Jute - a substitute for fibreglass in Bangladesh, Appropriate Technology Vol. 7, No. 4, IT Publications, London, 1981 (E)

12.05 Pillai, C.K.S., et se: A Simple Process for Extending the Life of Coconut Leaf Thatch, Appropriate Technology Vol. 12, No. 1, IT Publications, London, 1985 (E)


13.01 Cornelius, Lorraine: Bamboo and Rattan, The IDRC Reports, Vol.13, No.4, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, 1985 (E)

13.02 Dunkelberg, Klaus: Bambus als Baustoff, (Bamboo as building material), Koldewey-Gesellschaft, Rudolf Habelt Verlag, Bonn, 1978 (D)

13.03 Farralley, David: The Book of Bamboo, Sierra Club Books, P.O. Box 3886, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA, 1984 (E)

13.04 Hidalgo Lopez, Oscar: Nuevas tecnicas de construccion con bambu, Centro de Investigacion del Bambu (CIBAM), Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, 1978 (S)

13.05 * Institute for Lightweight Structures: IL 31 Bamboo, Karl Kramer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1985 (G. E)

13.06 Janssen, Jules J.A.: Bamboo: its use in the construction of Roofs and Bridges, Appropriate Technology, Vol. 10, No. 2, IT Publications, London, 1983 (E)

13.07 * Janssen, Jules J.A. (Compiler): Bamboo, CICA Publication 82.03, University of Technology, Eindhoven, 1982/85 (E)

13.08 Liese, Walter: Bamboo - Methods of Treatment and Preservation, GATE 1/81, German Appropriate Technology Exchange, Eschborn, 1981 (E)

13.09 McClure, F.A.: Bamboo as a Building Material, Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of International Affairs, Washington D.C., 1953 (reprinted 1972) (E)

13.10 * Siopongco, Joaquin O.; Munandar, Murdiati: Technology manual on bamboo as building material, RENAS-BMTCS, UNDP/UNIDO, Manila, 1987 (E)

13.11 Subrahmanyam, B.V.: Bamboo reinforcement if or cement matrices, in "New Reinforced Concretes", Bibl. 09.13 (E)

13.12 Taylor, Brian Brace: Bamboo City - A Refugee Camp, Mimar 20, Concept Media, Singapore, 1985 (E)

13.13 United Nations: The Use of Bamboo and Reeds in Building Construction, United Nations, New York, 1972 (E)


14.01 Alcachupas, Pablito L.: Sawmilling of Coconut Trunks into Lumber In the Philippines, Network Monitor, Vol. 2, No. 1, UNDP/UNIDO (RENAS-BMTCS), Manila, 1985 (E)

14.02 Campbell, P.A.: Some Developments in Tropical Timber Technology, Appropriate Technology, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1975 (E)

14.03 CBRI: Woodwool Board, Building Research Note No. 38, CBRI, Roorkee, 1985 (E)

14.04 CBRI: Particle Board and its Use in Buildings, BRN No. 55, CBRI, Roorkee, 1986 (E)

14.05 CBRI: Making Woodwool Boards at Small Scale Level, Project Proposal No. 33, CBRI, Roorkee, 1985 (E)

14.06 CTRD (Construction Technology Research and Development Program): Leaflets on Coco Timber, Glue Laminated Wood, Manufacturing Considerations in Wood Gluing, Mechanical and Related Properties of Locally-Made Fibreboards (Lawanit), Particle Board, Wood Treatment/Preservation, Woodwool Cement Boards, Construction Industry Authority of the Philippines, Makati, Metro Manila, (no date) (E)

14.07* Doernach, Rudolf: Naturlich bauen (Building naturally - with pole timber), Wolfgang Kruger Verlag, Frankfurt/Main, 1986 (G)

14.08 Everett, Alan: Timber, Chapter 2 of "Materials", Bibl. 00.14 (E)

14.09 Forest Products Laboratory: Wood Handbook: Wood as an Engineering Material, Agriculture Handbook No.72, US Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., 1974 (E)

14.10 Herbert, M.R.M.: Structural connections for indigenous pole timbers, Proceedings of the International Conference "Economical Housing in developing countries: materials, construction techniques, components", Paris, 1983 (E)

14.11 Informationsdienst Holz: Baulicher Holzschutz (Constructive timber protection), Entwicklungsgemeinschaft Holzbau i.d. Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Holzforschung, Munchen, 1986 (G)

14.12 Keenan, F.J.; Tejada, Marcelo: Tropical Timber for Building Materials in the Andean Group Countries of South America, IDRC-TS 49e, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, 1984 (E)

14.13 Killmann, Wulf: Coconut wood - the potential of an agricultural by-product, GATE 4/83, German Appropriate Technology Exchange, Eschborn, 1983 (E)

14.14 NBO: Special Issue on Timber, Journal of the National Buildings Organization, Vol. XXX, No. 1, New Delhi, 1985 (E)

14.15 Paskaran, N.: Timber as an Engineering Material in Developing Countries, Appropriate Technology, Vol. 8, No. 4, IT Publications, London, 1982 (E)

14.16 Piltz; Harig; Schulz: Holzbaustoffe (Timber building materials), Chapter 8 in "Technologie der Baustoffe", Bibl. 00.40 (G)

14.17 Ratra, R.S.: Secondary Timbers, National Buildings Organization, New Delhi, 1986 (E)

14.18 Shasmoukine, Annie et Pierre: Construire en Bois (Building with timber), edition Alternative et Paralleles, collection AnArchitecture, Paris, 1980 (F)

14.19 Siriban, Felino R.: Preservation of Coconut Trunk and Lumber, Network Monitor, Vol. 2, No. 3, UNDP/UNIDO (RENAS-BMTCS), Manila, 1985 (E)

14.20 Spence, R.J.S.; Cook, D.J.: Timber and timber products, Chapter 5 of "Building Materials in Developing Countries", Bibl. 00.50 (E)

14.21 Tack, C.H.: Preservation of Timber for Tropical Building, Overseas Building Notes, No. 183, Building Research Establishment, Garston, 1979 (E)

14.22 * UNIDO: Popular Manual for Wooden House Construction, United Nations, Vienna/ New York, 1985 (E)

14.23 * Weissenfeld, Peter: Holzschutz ohne Gift?, Holzschutz & Holzflachenbehandlung in der Praxis (Timber protection without poison? Practical timber protection and surface treatment), Okobuch-Verlag, Grebenstein/Freiburg, 1983 (G)

14.24 Wendehorst: Holz und Holzwerkstoffe (Timber and timber products), Chapter 2 of "Baustoffkunde", Bibl. 00.57 (G)

14.25 Willemin, Veronique: Le Cocotier, production et mise en oeuvre dans l'habitat (The coconut palm, production and use in housing), GRET, Groupe de Recherche et d'Echanges Technologiques, Paris, 1986 (F)

Addendum 1993

Schneider, Jorg: Holzbau, Eidgernossische Technische Hochschule, Zurich, 1988 (G)

Sell, Jurgen: Eigenschaften und Kenngrossen von Holzarten, LIGNUM, Zurich, 1989 (G)


15.01 Everett, Alan: Metals, Chapter 9 of "Materials", Bibl. 00.49 (E)

15.02 NBO: Economy of Iron and Steel in Building Construction, Report of the Committee Constituted by the National Buildings Organization, New Delhi, 1961 (E)

15.03 Overseas Building Notes: No. 124 Corrosion of Metals, and No. 148 The Durability of Metals in Building, Building Research Establishment, Garston, 1968/1973 (E)

15.04 Piltz; Harig; Schulz: Baumetalle (Building Metals), Chapter 7 in "Technologie der Baustoffe", Bibl. 00.40 (G)

15.05 Qiu Zhichang; Shao Bozhou: Research and Application of Prestressed Concrete Reinforced with Cold-Drawn Low-Carbon Steel Wire in Zhejiang Province, Paper presented at the "Workshop on Low-Cost Building Materials Technology and Construction Systems" (21.10. - 4.11.1982, Beijing-Hangzhou), China Building Information Centre, Beijing, 1983 (E)

15.06 Wendehorst: Eisen-und Stahlwerkstoffe (Iron and steel materials), Chapter 10, and Nichteisenmetalle (Non-ferrous metals), Chapter 11 of "Baustoffkunde", Bibl. 00.57 (G)


16.01 Everett, Alan: Glass, Chapter 12 of "Materials", Bibl. 00.14 (E)

16.02 Piltz; Harig; Schulz: Bauglas (Building glass), Chapter 6 of "Technologie der Baustoffe", Bibl. 00.40 (G)

16.03 Wendehorst: Glas (Glass), Chapter 14 of "Baustoffkunde", Bibl. 00.57 (G)


17.01 CBRI: Plastics and Their Applications in Building, Building Digest No. 134 (Revised), CBRI, Roorkee, 1979 (E)

17.02 Everett, Alan: Plastics and Rubbers, Chapter 13 of "Materials", Bibl. 00.14 (E)

17.03 Overseas Building Note: No. 134 Plastics for Building in Developing Countries, Building Research Establishment, Garston, 1970 (E)

17.04 Piltz; Harig; Schulz: Kunststoffe (Plastics), Chapter 10 of "Technologie der Baustoffe", Bibl. 00.40 (C)

17.05 Rai, Jaisingh: Polymers and Plastics, Chapter 4 of "Advances in Building Materials and Construction", Bibl. 00.41 (E)

17.06 Wendehorst: Kunststoffe (Plastics), Chapter 13 of "Baustoffkunde", Bibl. 00.57 (G)


18.01 Alexander, Christopher; et al: Houses Generated by Patterns, Center for Environmental Structure, Berkeley, California, 1969 (E)

18.02 Dale, J.M.; Ludwig, A.C.: Fire-retarding elemental sulphur, SWRI Report, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio/Texas, 1967 (E)

18.03 Fike, H.L.: Some Potential Applications of Sulphur, The Sulphur Institute, Washington, D.C., 1972 (E)

18.04 Ludwig, A.C.: Utilization of Sulphur and Sulphur Ores as Construction Materials in Guatemala, United Nations, New York, 1969 (E)

18.05 Malhotra, V.M.: Sulphur concrete and sulphur-infiltrated concrete, in "New Concrete Materials", Bibl. 09.12 (E)

18.06 Ortega, A.; Rybczynski, W.; Ayad, S.; Ali, W.; Acheson, A.: The Ecol Operation, Ecology + Building + Common Sense, Minimum Cost Housing Group, School of Architecture, McGill University, Montreal, 1972 (E)

18.07 Ortega, Alvaro; Lefebvre, Bernard: The Use of Sulphur as a Building Material in Deserts, United Nations Mission on Housing, Building and Planning to the United Arab Emirates, Dubai, 1977 (E)

Addendum 1993

ACI Committee 548: Guide for Mixing and Placing Sulphur Concrete in Construction, American Concrete Institue, Report No. ACI 548.2R-88, 1988 (E)

(see also Pozzolanas)

19.01 CBRI: Use of Coal Ash in Building Industry, Building Materials Note No. 1 (Revised), CBRI, Roorkee, 1979 (E)

19.02 CBRI: Utilization of By-Product Phosphorgypsum for Building Materials, BRN No. 9, CBRI, Roorkee, 1983 (E)

19.03 CTRD (Construction Technology Research and Development Program): Composite Roofing and Panelling Materials from Wood Waste and Agricultural Fibrous Residues for Low-Cost Housing, Construction Industry Authority for Low-Cost Housing, Construction Industry Authority of the Philippines, Makati, Metro Manila, (no date) (E)

19.04 * Lauricio, Feliciano M.: Technology manual on rice husk ash cements, RENAS-BMTCS, UNDP/UNIDO, Manila, 1987 (E)

19.05 Maher, A.: Utilization of waste brick bats as coarse aggregate for structural concrete, in "Building Materials for Low-Income Housing", Bibl. 00.13 (E)

19.06 NBO: Directory of Industrial and Agricultural Wastes, Utilization in Construction Industry, National Buildings Organization, New Delhi, 1985 (E)

19.07 Network Monitor: Building Materials from Agro-Residues, Vol. l, No.3, Newsletter of the Regional Network in Asia for Low-Cost Building Materials Technologies and Construction Systems (RENAS-BMTCS), UNDP/UNIDO, Manila, 1984 (E)

19.08 Network Monitor: Industrial Residues, Vol. 2, No. 2, Newsletter of RENAS-BMTCS, UNDP/UNIDO, Manila, 1985 (E)

19.09 Pawley, Martin: Garbage Housing, Architectural Design 12/73, London, 1973 (E)

19.10 Ramaswamy, S.D.; Murthy, C.K.; Nagaraj, T.S.: Use of waste materials and industrial byproducts in concrete construction, in "New Concrete Materials", Bibl. 09.12 (E)

19.11 RENAS-BMTCS : Building Materials from Agro-Residues, Low-Cost Building Materials Technologies and Construction Systems, Monograph Series No. 1/1984, UNDP/UNIDO, Manila, 1984 (E)

19.12 Schmidt-Brummer, Horst: Alternative Architektur, DuMont Buchverlag, Koln, 1983 (G)

19.13 Tay Joo Hwa: Utilization of sludges as building material, in "Building Materials for Low-Income Housing", Bibl. 00.13 (E)

19.14 United Nations: Use of Agricultural and Industrial Wastes in Low-Cost Construction, United Nations, New York, 1976 (E)

19.15 * Vogler, Jon: Work from Waste, Recycling Wastes to Create Employment, IT Publications, London, and Oxfam, Oxford, 1981 (E)


20.01 Aziz, M.A.; Ramaswamy, S.D.: Bamboo technology for low cost constructions, in "Appropriate Technology in Civil Engineering", Bibl. 00.21 (E)

20.02 De, P.L.: Foundations in poor soils including expansive clays, Overseas Building Notes, No. 179, Building Research Establishment, Garston, 1978 (E)

20.03 Longworth, T.L; Driscoll, R.; Katkhuda, I.E.D.: Guidelines for Foundation Design of Low-Rise Buildings on Expansive Clay in Northern Jordan, Overseas Building Notes, No.191, BRE, Garston, 1984 (E)

20.04 Schreckenbach, H.; Abankwa, J.G.K.: Foundations and Retaining Structures, Section 5.3 in "Construction Technology for a Tropical Developing Country", Bibl. 00.49 (E)

20.05 Vorhauer, Klaus: Foundation, in "Low Cost/Self Help Housing", Bibl. 00.56 (E)


21.01 CBRI: Precast R.C. plank flooring/roofing scheme, Building Research Note No.4, CBRI, Roorkee, 1986 (E)

21.02 CBRI: Thin R.C. ribbed slab for floors and roofs, BRN No. 5, CBRI, Roorkee, 1987 (E)

21.03 CBRI: Reinforced brick and reinforced brick concrete slabs for floors and roofs, BRN No. 42, CBRI, Roorkee, 1985 (E)

21.04 CBRI: Channel unit for floor/roof, BRN No. 52, CBRI, Roorkee, 1986 (E)

21.05 CBRI: Clay flooring and terracing tiles from alluvial soils, Building Materials Note No. 22, CBRI, Roorkee, 1978 (E)

21.06 CBRI: Waffle unit floor/roof, Building Digest No. 105, CBRI, Roorkee, 1973 (E)

21.07 CBRI: Prefabricated floor/roof using structural clay units, (Joist and filler scheme), Building Digest No. 105, CBRI, Roorkee, 1973 (E)

21.08 Hausmann, Ulrich: The small-scale production of reinforced concrete floor slabs, Appropriate Technology, Vol. 11, No.1, IT Publications, 1984(E)

21.09 Lukkunaprasit, P.: Reinforced concrete-brick composite beams for low-cost construction, in "Materials of Construction for Developing Countries", Bibl. 00.38 (E)

21.10 Minke, Gernot: Zeitgemasse Lehmfussboden fur den Selbstbau (Contemporary earth floors for self-construction), in "Bauen mir Lehm, No. 2 (1985)", Bibl. 02.28 (G)

21.11 Schreckenbach, H.; Abankwa, J.G.K.: Floors and Floor Finishes, Section 5.4.2 in "Construction Technology for a Tropical Developing Country", Bibl. 00.49 (E)


22.01 CBRI: Precast stone masonry block walling scheme, Building Research Note No.7, CBRI, Roorkee, 1986 (E)

22.02 CBRI: Non-erodable mud plaster for mud walls, BRN No. 12, CBRI, Roorkee, 1986 (E)

22.03 CBRI: Improved method of brick laying, BRN No. 36, CBRI, Roorkee, 1985 (E)

22.04 Chatsiri, Thanmarom; Etherington, A. Bruce: Verbreitung von Verbundsteinen fur das Landliche Wohaungs- und Siedlungswesen in Thailand (Dissemination of Interlocking Soil Cement Brick for Rural Housing and Settlement in Thailand), Article in DESWOS-Brief (Newsletter), Vol. 13, No. 3, DESWOS, Koln, 1986 (G)

22.05 Minke, Gernot; Lau, Adolfo; Asturias, Jose: A Low-Cost Housing System for Guatemala - Sistema de Vivienda de Bajo Costo pare Guatemala, Laboratory for Experimental Construction, Kassel University (Germany), Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Francisco Marroquin (Guatemala) and CEMAT (Guatemala), 1978 (E, S)

22.06 * Norton, John: Introduction of earthquake resistant building techniques in the Koumbia area, N.W. Guinea, Development Workshop, Fumel, 1985 (E)

22.07 Schreckenbach, H.; Abankwa, J.G.K.: Walls and Wall Finishes, Section 5.4.3 in "Construction Technology for a Tropical Developing Country", Bibl. 00.49 (E)

22.08 SERC: Zipbloc System, Paper prepared by the Structural Engineering Research Centre, Madras, (no date) (E)

22.09 Vorhauer, Klaus: Wall construction, in "Low Cost/Self Help Housing", Bibl. 00.56 (E)


23.01 Ambacher, P.: Framed Ferrocement, in "Prefabricated Ferrocement Housing", Bibl. 10.03 (E)

23.02 Arrigone, Jorge Luis: Low Cost Roof Building Technology - Three Case Studies Using Locally Manufactured Building Components, National Building Research Institute, Pretoria, 1983 (E)

23.03 Baris, Daniele (Ed.): Toitures en zones tropicales arides (Roofs in arid tropical zones), Dossier Technologies et Developpment, GRET, Paris, 1984 (F)

23.04 BOSTID (Board on Science and Technology for International Development): Roofing in Developing Countries, Research for New Technologies, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1974 (E)

23.05 CBRI: Doubly curved tile roof, Building Digest, No. 43, Roorkee, 1966 (E)

23.06 CBRI: Improved method of making thatch roof, Building Research Note No. 37, CBRI, Roorkee, 1985 (E)

23.07 CBRI: Water-proofing of flat in situ RCC roofs, BRN No. 54, CBRI, Roorkee, 1986 (E)

23.08 CBRI: Corrugated roofing sheets from coir waste or wood wool and portland cement, Project Proposal, No. 53, CBRI, Roorkee, 1985 (E)

23.09 Eygelaar, J.: Roof structures for low-cost housing - cost comparison for various roofing materials, Housing Research and Development Unit, Nairobi, 1975 (E)

23.10 Habitropic: Low cost space frame roof structures, Birkagatan 27, S-113 39 Stockholm, Sweden, 1983 (E)

23.11 * Hail, Nicolas: Thatch - A Handbook, IT Publications, London, 1988 (E)

23.12 Jagadish, K.S.; Yogananda, M.R.; Venkatarama Reddy, B.V.: Reinforced-tile-work for low-cost roofs, Alternative Building Series -1 1, ASTRA, Bangalore, 1985 (E)

23.13 Kalita, U.C.; Nambiar, M.K.C.; Borthakur, B.C.; Baruah, P.: Ferrocement roof for low-cost housing, Indian Concrete Journal, Bombay, 1986 (E)

23.14 Mathur, G.C.: Appropriate Roofing Materials for Low Cost Housing, NBO, New Delhi, 1985 (E)

23.15 Mattone, Roberto: Operational Possibilities of Sisal Fibre Reinforced Gypsum In the Production of Low-Cost Housing Building Components, in "Building Materials for Low-Income Housing", Bibl. 00.13 (E)

23.16 Minke, Gernot Grass Hogan, EX-Bau INFO 15, Forschungslabor fur Experimentelles Bauen, Gesamthochschule Kassel, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981 (G)

23.17 Mukerji, K.; Whipple, J.H.; Castillo Escobar, R.: Roof Constructions for Housing in Developing Countries, Research Report of the Institut fur Tropenbau Dr.Ing. G. Lippsmeier, Starnberg, in cooperation with ICAITI, Guatemala, Aus der Arbeit von GATE, Eschborn, 1982 (E, G)

23.18 NBO: Report on study of methods used for water-proofing of roofs in India, National Buildings Organization, New Delhi, 1962 (E)

23.19 Ortega, Alvaro: Economic roofing for Central American dwellings, Research and development of Canaletas, Internationale Asbestzement Revue, ac 22, Dr. H. Girsberger, Zurich, 1961 (E)

23.20 Pillai, C.K.S.; Venkataswamy, M.A.; Satyanarayana, K.G.; Rohatgi, P.K.: A Simple Process for Extending the Life of Coconut Leaf Thatch, Appropriate Technology, Vol. 12, No. 1, 11 Publications, London, 1985 (E)

23.21 Rao, A.V.R.: Roofing with Low-Cost Corrugated Asphalt Sheets, Appropriate Technology, Vol. 1, No. 4, IT Publications, London, 1975 (E)

23.22 Sashi Kumar, K.; Sharma, P.C.; Nimityongskul, P.: Ferrocement Roofing Element, Do-it-yourself series booklet No. 5, International Ferrocement Information Center, Bangkok, 1985 (E)

23.23 Sperling, R.: Roofs for Warm Climates, BRE, Garston, 1970 (E)

23.24 Vorhauer, Klaus: Roof Construction, in "Low Cost/Self Help Housing", Bibl. 00.56 (E)

Addendum 1993

Schunk, Eberhard; Fink, Thomas; Jenisch, Richard; Oster, Hans Jochen: Dach Atlas, Institut fur internationale Architektur-Dokumentation, Munchen, 1991 (G)

Gut, Paul: FCR/MCR Toolkit Element 24, Roof Structure Guide, SKAT, St. Gallen, 1993 (E)


24.01 ARCO Grasser and Partner: Building Instruction for an Adobe Brick House, A project by GATE, Eschborn, 1982 (E) (F) (G) (S)

24.02 ARCO Grasser and Partner: Building Instruction for a Panel House, A project by GATE, Eschborn, 1982 (E) (E) (G) (S)

24.03 Cain, A.; Afshar, F.; Norton, J.: Indigenous Building and the Third World, Architectural Design 4/75, London, 1975 (E)

24.04 CBRI: Prefabricated Timber Hut, Building Digest No. 17 (revised), CBRI, Roorkee, 1981 (E)

24.05 Etherington, A.B.: The LOK-BILD Construction System - An Introduction, in "Building Materials for Low-Income Housing", Bibl. 00.13 (E)

24.06 Gieth, Thomas: Construction of lacustrine housing with Caranday palms for zones that can be inundated (Prototype "B"), Technical Bulletin No. 5, Centro de Tecnologia Apropiada, Asuncion, Paraguay, 1985 (E)

24.07 Hidalgo Lopez, Oscar: Manual de Construccion con Bambu, Construccion rural 1, Estudios Tecnicos Colombianos Ltda, Apartado Aereo 50085, Bogota, 1981 (S)

24.08 Hillrichs, Behrend: Bauen in Uberschwemmungszonen - Entwurf eines einfachen Haus-typs fur die La Plata und Parana-Region Sudamerikas (Building in Flood Zones - Design of a simple house type for the La Plata and Parana Region of South America), unpublished design of an architectural student at Hanover University, 1984 (G)

24.09 Holloway, Richard: Ferrocement Housing Units in Dominica, Appropriate Technology Vol. 5, No. 3, IT Publications, London, 1978 (E)

24.10 Janssen, Jules: Using Bamboo as a Reinforcement, Appropriate Technology Vol. 14, No. 2, IT Publications, London, 1987 (E)

24.11 Kalita, U.C.; Khazanchi, A.C.; Thyagarajan, G.: Bamboocrete Wall Panels and Roofing Elements for Low Cost Housing, in "Materials of Construction for Developing Countries", Bibl. 00.38 (E)

24.12 Mukerji, Kiran: Regenwasser-Sammeltanks in Indien (Rainwater Collection Tanks in India), in "TRIALOG 12: Angepasste Technologien", Bibl. 00.30 (G)

24.13 Norton, John: Introduction of Earthquake Resistant Building Techniques In the Koumbia Area, N.W. Guinea, Development Workshop, Fumel, France, 1985 (E)

24.14 Norton, John: Limitations on Improving Earthquake Resistance: the Exploitation of Local Materials, A Case Study in Guinea - Conakry, in "TRIALOG 12: Angepasste Technologien", Bibl. 00.30 (E)

24.15 de Rivero D'Angelo, M.I.: Fibracreto - A Peruvian Non-Conventional Construction System, in "Prefabricated Ferrocement Housing", Bibl. 10.03 (E)

24.16 Sulaiman, M. Mansoor, N.; Khan, K.: Experimental and Demonstration Low-Cost House Built with Rice Husk Ash and Lime as Cement, National Building Research Institute, Karachi, (no date) (E)

24.17 Willkomm, Wolfgang; Wemhoner, Antje: Angepasste Technologien und Zusammenarbeit - einige Beispiele (Appropriate technologies and cooperation - some examples) in "TRIALOG 12; Angepasste Technologien", Bibl. 00.30 (G)


25.01 CBRI: A cheap and effective fire retardant treatment for paddy/coconut leaves/reeds/palmyrah thatch, Building Research Note No. 13, CBRI, Roorkee, 1986 (E)

25.02 CBRI: Termite control In buildings, BRN No. 50, CBRI, Roorkee, 1986 (E)

25.03 CBRI: Termite and rodent resistance of plastic pipes, Building Digest No. 140, CBRI, Roorkee, 1980 (E)

25.04 CTRD: Building to resist effect of wind, Construction Industry Authority of the Philippines, Makati, Metro Manila, (no date) (E)

25.05 Davis, Ian: Shelter after disaster, Oxford Polytechnic Press, Oxford, 1978 (E)

25.06 Eaton, Keith J.: Making Buildings to Withstand Strong Winds, Appropriate Technology Vol. 7, No. 3, IT Publications, London, 1980 (E)

25.07 Janssen, Jules: How to Protect Bamboo Buildings from Rat Infestation, Appropriate Technology Vol. 8, No. 3, IT Publications, London, 1981 (E)

25.08 Moody, Tony: Drying Maize for Storage in the Humid Tropics, Appropriate Technology Vol. 7, No. 1, IT Publications, London, 1980 (E)

25.09 NBRI: The Prevention of Fires in Thatched Roofs, NBRI Information Sheet, National Building Research Institute, Pretoria, 1971 (E)

25.10 Norton, John: Manuel de construction parasismique en Guinee (Manual of earthquake resistant construction in Guinea), Development Workshop, Fumel, 1986 (F)

25.11 * Rauch, Egon: Rodent and Termite Proofing of Buildings, Working Paper WP 01/84, SKAT, St. Gall, 1984 (E)

25.12 Soe, Thorkil: STOP Termite Attacks on Buildings, ERLA Publishers, Svenstrup, 1982 (E)

25.13 Teodoru, G.; Beuter-Famili, K.: Wood Durability and Termites, in "Building Materials for Low-Income Housing", Bibl. 00.13 (E)

25.14 UNDRO: Guidelines for disaster prevention, A series of three volumes, Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-ordinator, Geneva, 1976 (E)

25.15 UNDRO: Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, A series of 12 volumes, UNDRO, Geneva, 1976- 1987 (E)

25.16 * UNDRO: Shelter after Disaster, Guidelines for Assistance, UNDRO, Geneva, 1982 (E)

25.17 * Wijkman, A.; Timberlake, L.: Natural Disasters - Acts of God or acts of Man?, Earthscan, London, 1984 (E)



ac asbestos cement
AIT Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)
Al aluminium
ASTRA Centre for Application of Science and Technology for Rural
Areas, Bangalore (India)
AT appropriate technology
ATDO Appropriate Technology Development Organization, Islamabad (Pakistan)


BASIN Building Advisory Service Information Network
BRE Building Research Establishment, Garston (U.K.)


C concrete grade (compressive strength in N/mm2)
CaCO3 calcium carbonate (limestone, chalk, etc.)
CaMg(CO3)2 dolomitic limestone
CaO calcium oxide (quicklime)
Ca(OH)2 calcium hydroxide (hydrated or slaked lime)
CAS Cements and Binders Advisory Service
CaSO4 calcium sulphate (anhydrite gypsum)
CaSO4·2H2O calcium sulphate di-hydrate (gypsum)
CaSO4·1/2H2O calcium sulphate hemi-hydrate (Plaster of Paris)
CBRI Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee (India)
Cd cadmium
CEB Compressed Earth Block
CEMAT Centro de Estudios Mesoamericanos sobre Tecnologia Apropiada, Guatemala
CETA Centro de Experimentacion en Tecnologia Apropiada, Guatemala
CFI Commonwealth Forestry Institute, Oxford (U.K.)
CH4 methane
C3H8 propane
C4H10 butane
CIBAM Centro de Investigacion de Bamboo y Madera, Bogota (Colombia)
CINVA Centro Interamericano de Vivienda, Bogota (Colombia)
CNSL cashew nut shell liquid
CO2 carbon dioxide
Cr chromium
CRATerre International Center for Earth Construction, Ecole d'Architecture de Grenoble EAG (France)
CRDI Ceramic Research and Development Institute, Bandung (Indonesia)
CRI Cement Research Institute of India
CTA Centro de Tecnologia Apropiada, Asuncion (Paraguay)
Cu copper
CWPC cold-drawn low-carbon steel wire prestressed concrete


DDT dichlor-diphenyl-trichlorethane
DESWOS Deutsche Entwicklungshilfe fur soziales Wohnungs- und Siedlungswesen e. V., Koln
(Federal Republic of Germany)
DW Development Workshop, Toronto (Canada) and Fumel (France)


EAS Earth Building Advisory Service


FAS Fibre Concrete Roofing Advisory Service (SKAT, St. Gall, Switzerland) (new:RAS)
FC fibre concrete
FCR fibre concrete roofing
FEB Forschungslabor fur Experitnentelles Bauen, Gesamthochschule Kassel (Federal Republic of Germany)
FPRDI Forest Products Research and Development Institute, Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines)


GATE German Appropriate Technology Exchange, Eschborn (Federal Republic of Germany)
gci galvanized corrugated iron
ggbfs ground granulated blast furnace slag


HBRI Housing & Building Research Institute, Dhaka (Bangladesh)
H2O water


IFIC International Ferrocement Formation Centre, AIT, Bangkok (Thailand)
IFT Institut fur Tropenbau, Starnberg (Federal Republic of Germany)
IL Institut fur leichte Flachentragwerke, Universitat Stuttgart (Federal Republic of Germany)
IPT Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
ITDG Intermediate Technology Development Group, Rugby / London (U.K.)
ITW Intermediate Technology Workshops, Cradley Heath (U.K.)


KVIC Khadi Village Industries Commission, Bombay (India)


MgO magnesium oxide
MC Micro concrete
MCR Micro concrete roofing


NBO National Buildings Organization, New Dehli (India)
NBRI National Building Research Institute, Karachi (Pakistan)
NBRI National Building Research Institute, Pretoria (South Africa)
Ni nickel


OPC ordinary portland


Pb lead
PBFC portland blast furnace cement
PCP pentachlorphenol
PCSTR Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
pfa pulverized fuel ash (fly ash)
PI plasticity index
PREVI Proyecto Experimental de Vivienda, Peru
PVC polyvinyl chloride


RAS Roofing Advisory Service (former FAS)
RCC reinforced cement concrete
RHA rice husk ash
RRL Regional Research Laboratory, Jorhat (India)


SADEL Swedish Association for Development of Low-cost Housing, Lund (Sweden)
SENA Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje, Bogota (Colombia)
SERC Structural Engineering Research Centre, Madras / Roorkee (India)
SHAM Housing Society for the Amazon State, Brazil
SKAT Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management, St. Gall (Switzerland)
Sn tin


UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna (Austria)
UNATA Union for Adapted Technological Assistance, Ramsel-Herselt (Belgium)


WAS Wall Building Advisory Service


Zn zinc