|Better Farming Series 10 - The Farm Business Survey (FAO - INADES, 1976, 38 p.)|
Published by arrangement with the
Institut africain pour le dloppement nomique et social
B.P. 8008, Abidjan, Cd'Ivoire
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 3/10
First published 1976
Reprinted 1984 P- 69
© French edition, Institut africain pour le dloppement
nomique et social (INADES) 1971
© English edition, FAO 1976
The first twenty- six volumes in FAO's Better Farming Series were based on the Cours d'apprentissage agricole prepared in the Ivory Coast by the Institut africain de developpement economique et social for use by extension workers. Later volumes, beginning with No. 27, have been prepared by FAO for use in agricultural development at the farm and family level. The approach has deliberately been a general one, the intention being to constitute basic prototype outlines to be modified or expanded in each area according to local conditions of agriculture.
Many of the booklets deal with specific crops and techniques, while others are intended to give the farmer more general information which can help him to understand why he does what he does, so that he will be able to do it better.
Adaptations of the series, or of individual volumes in it, have been published in Amharic, Arabic, Bengali, Creole, Hindi, Igala, Indonesian, Kiswahili, Malagasy, SiSwati and Turkish, an indication of the success and usefulness of this series.
Requests for permission to issue this manual in other languages and to adapt it according to local climatic and ecological conditions are welcomed. They should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.
Review of the first- year course
Introduction to the second- year course
Agriculture is the trade of men and women who farm the land and raise livestock.
The farmer's trade is a difficult one; it is a trade that demands a great deal of work.
It is a trade which has to be learned, becaused nowadays there are many new techniques
Agricultural extension workers and agricultural assistants explain these new techniques to farmers.
With the help of the Better Farming courses you can also gain a better knowledge of farming.
The farmer's trade is the most important trade for many African countries.
It is the farmers who feed all a country's people.
Agriculture is the chief wealth of most African countries.
Cotton is the chief resource of Chad;
Groundnuts are the chief resource of Senegal;
Cocoa is the chief resource of Cameroon;
Coffee is the chief resource of Ivory Coast.
In almost all African countries the products sold to foreign countries are agricultural products.
You have just finished the first- year course.
You learned first about plants and their different parts:
· the root has a very important
part to play (see Booklet No. 1 ):
· it holds the plant to the soil;
· above all, it takes from the soil the plant's food - mineral salts. If roots did not exist, plants could not feed themselves. They wouId die.
· the stem (see Booklet No. 2):
· it carries the branches, leaves, flowers and fruits;
· it moves the raw sap from the root to the leaves.
· the leaves (see Booklet No. 2):
The action of the leaves is chiefly to change the raw sap into elaborated sap. The raw sap is the mineral salts and water which the roots have taken from the soil. The raw sap cannot be used directly to feed the plant. The raw sap has to be changed. It is the leaves which change the raw sap into elaborated sap.
This is known as vegetable synthesis.
The elaborated sap can feed the plant directly.
· the flowers (see Booklet No. 31:
The job of the flowers is to produce fruits.
· the fruits (see Booklet No. 31:
Usually we grow plants to harvest their fruits, such as: the grains of millet, sorghum, maize, the berries of coffee, the pods of cocoa, the fruits of oil palms and coconut palms, bananas, pineapples, mangoes, papaws.
After that you learned about the soil.
· How is the soil made up? (see Booklet No. 4)
The soil is a mixture of sand, clay and silt.
Good soil contains humus. Humus makes many soils much better, it helps air and water to circulate better, and makes the soil richer.
· The soil must be conserved (see Booklet No. 5) by protecting the soil against flowing water (erosion by water) against wind (erosion by wind), and against sun that is too hot.
To do this on sloping fields, the ploughing should be along contour lines, and the soil should be covered.
· Soil fertility must be improved (see Booklet No. 6) by applying manure and compost, by growing green manuring crops, by the use of fertilizers.
Besides that, water can be brought in (irrigation) if the ground is too dry; and water can be taken away (drainage) if the ground is too wet.
· The soil must be well worked so as to produce more (see Booklet No. 7).
All the jobs on the land must be well done, and they must be done at the right time.
Then you learned about animals.
If you want to have many fine animals, you must:
· feed them well (see Booklet No: 8):
If the animals do not get enough to eat, they do not grow, they do not gain weight. They produce little milk. They will yield little meat when they are slaughtered.
· house them well (see Booklet No 8):
Animals need a shelter in which to sleep and rest protected from rain and sun.
· protect them against diseases (see Booklet No. 9): wounds must be treated, parasites must be removed from animals, animals must be vaccinated
· make good animals breed (see Booklet No. 9):
If you choose males of good quality and females of good quality, you will have young ones of good quality.
Selective breeding will quickly improve your herd.
What are the Better Farming courses for?
With the Better Farming courses you will learn more about agriculture. They teach farmers what they must do to get better crops and to raise better animals.
For extension workers, agricultural assistants and community leaders the Better Farming courses provide a refresher course on what they learned in their training.
Many students write to ask: "What are Better Farming courses for? Could I get a job as an extension worker or agricultural assistant? Could I get a government job with your certificate?"
We always reply: the aim of the Better Farming courses is not to give you a government job.
In every country there are examinations for government jobs.
But our purpose is not to get people into government service.
Our aim is to give a better knowledge of their trade to farmers, agricultural extension workers and agricultural assistants.
I know that the Better Farming courses are not recognized by the government and administration of my country as an official certificate.
Doing a Better Farming course will not help me to get a government job. That is not its purpose.
I do the course simply in order to learn my job better.
If I'm a farmer, or working with my father or uncle, I shall learn how to farm well. I shall use modern methods, I shall get good yields and I shall earn more money.
So I shall have extra money to feed my family well, make a better house, and improve the village along with the other farmers
If I am an extension worker or an agricultural assistant I shall learn how to give simple advice to farmers. I shall become a good community leader and be useful to the farmers and to my country.
During the first year we studied: plants, the soil and the tools for working the soil, animals.
A farmer uses plants, the earth, tools and animals to produce.
The farmer and those who work with him, the plants, the earth, the tools, and the animals, are all part of a whole which is called the farm business.
Each farmer in savanna country, each planter in forest country, uses different means to produce and to earn money.
These means are:
· his labour and the labour of
those with him,
· Iand - his fields or his plantations,
All that (the labour, animals, land, plants, tools) are the means of production of the farm business.
The farmer uses all these means of production to produce:
· vegetable products, such as millet, maize, yams, cassava, coffee, cocoa, oil palm fruits, cotton, groundnuts, okra, pimentoes, tomatoes, beans.
· animal products, such as beef, mutton, milk, butter, eggs.
In the second- year course there are nine booklets to study, and nine question papers to answer.
· Two booklets are obligatory, and should be studied by everyone. These are the first, on the farm business, and the last, on modern farming.
· The other seven booklets are optional.
Each student should choose out of the booklets prepared seven booklets on crops and animal husbandry.
He must choose at least two booklets on animal husbandry.
There are now four booklets on animal husbandry:
· Cattle breeding
· Sheep and goat breeding
· Keeping chickens
· Farming with animal power.
There are now 11 booklets on crops:
· Wet paddy or swamp rice
· Upland rice
· Cereals (millet, maize sorghum)
· Roots and tubers (cassava, yams, sweet potatoes, tania, taro)
· Market gardening
· The oil palm
· The rubber tree
If a student chooses two booklets on animal husbandry, he has to choose five booklets on crops. If a student chooses three booklets on animal husbandry, he has to choose four booklets on crops. If a student chooses four booklets on animal husbandry, he has to choose three booklets on crops.
Mamadou is a farmer in savanna country; he has cattle and sheep; he uses animal power for tilling. Mamadou chooses: three booklets on animal husbandry: cattle, sheep and goats, farming with animal power; four booklets on crops: cereals, roots and tubers, groundnuts, market gardening.
The study programme for the second- year course is called: the farm business and its animal and vegetable production. We shall deal more particularly with the farm business in this first booklet of the second- year course and in the last booklet of the course. In the other booklets we shall deal with the animal and vegetable production of a farm. In this first booklet, we ask you to make a farm business survey.
What does this mean - "make a survey"?
Making a survey of a farm business means taking stock of a farm
and stating what are its means of production.
· How many workers are
· How many fields are farmed?
What is the area of these fields?
What crops are grown on them?
· What animals belong to the farmer?
How many are there?
Do some animals work in the fields?
· What tools are used?
· What buildings are there?
Many students of the Better Farming courses are farmers who work on a farm. Sometimes this business belongs to them, and sometimes it belongs to their father, or brother or uncle.
Each Better Farming student should have a good knowledge of the farm on which he works.
If he knows it well, he will be able to improve it, for he will have a good knowledge of the means of production used by this farm business.
Many students of the Better Farming courses are agricultural extension workers, or agricultural assistants or community leaders. Their aim is to teach farmers to farm the land better, to breed better animals.
For them too it is necessary to have a good knowledge of some
They will learn how to look carefully at a farm business.
They will see better all the farmers' difficulties.
They will be able to advise them better, and help them better in their everyday work.
How to make a farm business survey
1. If you own a farm, or if you work with your father, or brother or uncle, choose the farm business in which you work.
Read the survey questionnaire. At each question, note how things are on the farm where you work.
In answering the question, do not invent an answer which will please the enumerator or supervisor. Say exactly what happens on the farm.
You are asked if you put manure on the fields. If on your farm the animals are not shut in, you cannot make manure. So you should not say that you put manure on the fields.
You are asked if you apply fertilizer to your plantation. If you do not apply fertilizer, you must not say that you do.
The farm must be described exactly as it is. Answers must not be invented.
2. If you do not own a farm, or if you do not work on a farm, choose a farm that you know well.
If you are an agricultural extension worker or agricultural assistant, choose a farm which you regularly visit to advise the farmer. Ask the farmer to give you the necessary information. Make a note on paper of all this information and then fill in the questionnaire of the survey.
If you have some other job, such as that of schoolteacher look for a farmer or planter in your neighbourhood who will give you the information you need. You can also choose a farm in your native village, or your old father's farm, or that of your uncle or one of your cousins. Ask them questions, make a note of the answers to these questions.
Go and look at the fields yourself. Measure the area of each field. Weigh the traditional measures, such as a cask and a calabash (gourd) to find out how many kilogrammes of millet a cask or a calabash contains.
A modern farmer should have regular- shaped fields, with square corners. That is, corners that make right angles.
These two corners are not square. They do not make right angles.
A square corner. It makes a right angle.
A corner of your booklet is a square corner because it forms a
Farmers should nowadays make all their fields with square corners.
Fields with square corners
Most modern fields have the shape of a rectangle. A rectangle is a field with 4 sides and 4 square corners. Your booklet is a rectangle, because it has 4 sides and 4 square corners.
The 2 bigger sides are called the length.
The 2 smaller sides are called the width.
When the length and the width are the same, the rectangle is called a square.
A good farmer should know the length and width of his fields. To know the length and width of a field the field must be measured.
Measuring the length or width of a field means knowing how many metres there are in this length or width.
You measure the length or width of a field in metres.
A metre is a unit of length.
At shops you can buy a wooden folding rule, or a tape which measures exactly one metre. But you can make a metre measure for yourself. Take a stick that is quite straight, or a piece of string or rope. Take five times the length of your booklet (the bigger side of the booklet) and you will have a length of about one metre (1.05 metres exactly), because your booklet is 21 centimetres long, that is 0.21 metre (0.21 X 5 = 1.05 m). To get just one metre, take off the stick, or string or rope, the length of your thumb.
With this stick, string or rope, you can measure the length and width of your field.
As these distances are often very long, the length or width of fields is often measured with a rope or chain of 10 metres. (This rope or chain is called a decametre). If you have a rope long enough, you can yourself make a decametre. Take the metre that you made first and put it along the rope ten times. That will give you a decametre. It will enable you to measure much more easily the length and width of your field.
The extension workers or agricultural assistants sometimes have decametres. You can ask them to measure your fields.
The area of a field is measured in square metres (m²).
To reckon the area of a field that has the shape of a rectangle, multiply the length in metres by the width in metres.
Area of a field = length x width
Example: I have a field which is 54 metres long and 22 metres wide; the area of the field is
54 m x 22 m = 1 188 m². I have another field which is 187 m long and 84 m wide; the area of the feed is
187 m x 84 m = 15 708 m². I have a garden which is 21 m long and 8 m wide; the area of my garden is 21m x 8m= 168 m².
Usually, to measure the area of a field, we use another unit of measurement which is more useful than m². This is the hectare (ha). A hectare equals 10 000 m². It is the area of a square field, the four sides of which are each 100 metres long.
How to change into hectares the area off a field given in m².
You simply put in a decimal point four places back, thus:
15 708 m² = 1.5708 ha
1 188 m² = 0.1188 ha
168 m² = 0.0168 ha
Often when you ask a farmer how much he has harvested, the farmer says: " I harvested 22 casks of rice," or " I harvested 18 baskets of cotton," or " I harvested 5 sacks of coffee."
Usually farmers do not use the same units of measurement to measure the amount they have harvested. So it is difficult to compare the harvest of one farmer with the harvest of another farmer.
To do that, it is better to measure the amount harvested in kilogrammes (kg).
You can measure the weight of a harvest in kilogrammes on scales or on a weighing machine. The dealers or trading companies who buy agricultural produce have scales to weigh the harvest of each farmer.
But sometimes the dealers cheat the farmers in weighing their produce. So it is often worth while for all the farmers of a village to have their own scales.
Then each farmer can know exactly how much he has harvested from each field of cotton or millet or cocoa. When he sells he cannot be cheated by the dealer, because he knows the weight of the cotton, millet or cocoa that he is selling.
If you have not got a pair of scales, you can get someone to weigh the rice contained in one cask, let us say 8 kg. Then, if you have harvested 22 casks, that makes about 8 kg x 22 = 176 kg.
To find out if the harvest has been good, you often need to reckon how many kilogrammes you would have harvested if you had a field of one hectare.
When you have worked out this Figure, you have reckoned the yield per hectare. Example:
I have a field of groundnuts that is 54 metres long and 22 metres wide. The area is: 54 m x 22 m = 1188 m². I harvested 94 kg of groundnuts from this field.
What is the yield per hectare?
To work this out, I use what is called the rule of three, thus:
From an area of 1 188 m² I harvested
For 1 m² I would have harvested
For 1 ha (or 10000) m² I would have harvested
94 x 10000/1188= 791 kg
I have a field of maize which is 165 metres long and 74 metres
Its area is 165m x 74m= 12210 m².
I harvested 924 kg of maize on this field.
What is the yield per hectare?
I use the rule of three:
On an area of 12 210 m² I harvested
On 1 m² / would have harvested
On 10 000 m² for 1 ha) I would have harvested
924 x 10000/12210 = 756.7 kg
The receipts are the money a farmer gets for selling his produce.
Mamadou is a farmer who grows:
0.8 ha of cotton
0.5 ha of groundnuts
0.6 ha of millet
0.4 ha of rice
He weighs all his harvests.
He has harvested;
640 kg cotton
450 kg of groundnuts
420 kg of millet
360 kg of rice
He keeps, to feed his family:
100 kg of groundnuts
360 kg of millet
150 kg of rice
640 kg of cotton at 28 F: 28 x 640
= 17 920 l
350 kg of groundnuts at 17 F: 17 x 350
= 5 950 l
60 kg of millet at 15 F: 15 x 60
= 900 l
210 kg of rice at 20 F: 20 x 210
= 4 200 l
So the farmer's receipts are:
28 970 francs
But the farmer has perhaps sold other things besides his harvests. Perhaps he has sold an ox or a calf, some sheep, chickens, or eggs. Perhaps he sold some okra, pimentoes or tomatoes.
All the other products sold must be added in order to get the farmer's total receipts.
The questionnaire for this survey is long. There are five parts. Each of these parts deals with one of the means of production of the farm business:
· Farm labour (page 2 of
· Farm animals (page 3 of questionnaire)
· Farm land and products: garden, plantations, fields, pasture (pages 4 and 5 of questionnaire)
· Farm buildings (page 6 of questionnaire)
· Farm installations and tools (page 7 of questionnaire)
In the following pages we give some explanations so that you can answer the questions better. Read these pages several times, so that you will understand better what you are asked.
Think well before answering. Take good note of what is done on the farm. Do not invent answers. Say exactly what there is on the farm.
Page 2 of questionnaire
1. FARM LABOUR
First of all it is important to say to whom the farm belongs, who is head of the business.
You must also say if you work on the farm.
Then it is important to know how many people work all the year round on the farm. Include only those who remain in the village all the year, and who work on the farm all the year.
In the following question you can say if some people come from time to time to work, for example, students during their holidays, brothers, or cousins, or friends.
Page 3 of questionnaire
2. FARM ANIMALS
There are animals on almost all farms.
First of all you are asked to say what animals live on the farm.
If there are cattle (cows, oxen) you answer "yes" after "Cattle," and then you say how many males, females and calves there are. If there are no cattle you write "no" after "Cattle."
You do the same thing with the other animals: sheep, goats, pigs, chickens. If there are other animals which are not listed in the questionnaire, such as donkeys, horses, camels, rabbits, guinea fowl, write the name of the animal under the other names of animals, then say how many are males, females, young ones.
Next you must say what these animals are used for.
Are they raised for meat, or milk or eggs?
Are they raised for sale to earn money?
Are they raised for farm work such as ploughing, and for transport?
Pages 4 and 5 of questionnaire
3. FARM LAND AND PRODUCTS
The two pages on land are divided into four parts:
2. Tree plantations
On the farm there is perhaps a place where, for example, pimentoes, or tomatoes, or okra or onions are grown. Name all the plants grown in this garden. Say also if the farmer sells vegetables grown in the garden. If there is no garden, answer "no" and go on to the next question.
2. Tree plantations
Plantations are land where trees are grown. In the questionnaire each rectangle represents one plantation. Fill in as many rectangles as there are plantations. In the forest regions, the plantations are chiefly of coffee trees, cocoa trees, oil palms, coconut palms, bananas. In savanna country the plantations are chiefly of fruit trees such as mango, orange, lemon or papaw trees.
If the plantation is very small, for example, it has three or four mango trees, give only the number of trees, do not give the area. If the plantation is very big, for example, coffee trees, give only the area of the plantation and not the number of trees.
In the questionnaire each rectangle represents one field. Fill in as many rectangles as there are fields.
For example: Yeo has a field of cotton, a field of millet, a
field of groundnuts.
Yeo has only three fields, so he fills in only three rectangles.
Field of cotton
Field of millet
Fields of groundnuts
16 800 f
When a farmer has not sold a product, or example, millet, fill in only the first three lines of each rectangle; do not fill in the last two lines.
Are there places where fodder crops for animals are grown, for
example, a seeded fallows
Page 6 of questionnaire
4. FARM BUILDINGS
A modern farm should have special buildings.
There may be three kinds of buildings:
1. Buildings to house the animals:
· a cow shed for cattle (cows,
· a shed for sheep or goats;
· a pigsty for pigs;
· a henhouse for poultry (chickens, guinea fowl);
· a stable for donkeys or horses.
2. Buildings for tools:
· a shed for implements, such
as: hoe, machete, sickle plough, mechanical cultivator, seed drill, rice
thresher, coffee pulping machine;
· a store for fertilizers and pecticides.
3. Buildings for the harvests:
· a granary for storing millet,
· a hut for storing cassava or yams;
· a shelter for drying coffee or cocoa.
Take note whether there are such buildings on the farm. Do not invent your answers. If there are no buildings of these kinds, answer "no" to the questions.
Page 7 of questionnaire
5. FARM INSTALLATIONS AND TOOLS
First of all, say whether the farmer has made any installations on his farm, such as digging a pit for making compost, or arranging a place for making manure, or digging a well to get water, or digging channels to make an irrigated rice field.
Do not invent answers if there are no such installations.
Answer "no" to the questions.
Next, list the different tools that belong to the farmer.
List first the hand tools, such as: hoe, machete, knife, sickle, spade, dibber, rake.
Then list the tools drawn by animals (if the farmer works with animal power), such as: plough, cart, harrow, marker, cultivator, groundnut lifting plough.
Finally, list the other machines, such as: rice threshing machine, coffee pulping machine, pesticide applicators, millet grinder, scales for weighing produce.
FARM BUSINESS SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
This questionnaire is different from the question papers of the first- year courses. You are not asked to answer questions about what you have learned in the course. You are asked to get a good knowledge of a farm.
If you are a farmer yourself, you work in the fields; you have animals and perhaps buildings for them; you have tools. The farm workers, the animals, the fields, the buildings, the tools make up what is called a farm business. The course has explained this. Read carefully. You are now going to make us familiar with your farm.
If you do not have a farm yourself, take your father's farm, or your brother's, or the farm of someone else. In answering the questionnaire, take only one farm.
HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTIONNAIRE
· Be sure you understand each question. This booklet explains how to answer the questions. Reread pages 24 to 30.
· Next, take good note of what there really is on the farm. As asked, you must count and measure. Then write your answer.
· If the question speaks of something which does not exist on the farm, answer "no".
1. FARM LABOUR
The farm consists in the first place of those who work on it.
There is whoever has the land and the animals: he gives work and food to the family and he keeps the harvest.
There are also those who work for him on the farm.
Answer the following questions:
· In what village does the farm
· Who does the farm belong to?
Is it yourself?
Is it someone in your family?
Is it some other person?
· Do you work on the farm
· Count how many people work all the time on the farm.
How many men?
How many women?
How many unmarried youngsters?
How many paid workers?
Total number of workers.........
· Are there other workers who come at certain times?
All these workers make the success of the business.
They bring labour to the business.
2. FARM ANIMALS
The farm business also includes the animals. Take a good look
and count them.
There are livestock (cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, donkeys, horses, camels, etc,).
There are farmyard animals (chickens, ducks, guinea fowl, rabbits).
On the farm of Mr................... there are:
Which animals? How many males? How many females? How many young?
· Are there animals raised for
food for people (meat, milk, eggs)? If so, which?
· Are these animals raised for sale, to earn money?
This year, was any money earned from the animals? How much? Reckon as follows:
Sale of animals + sale of milk + sale of eggs = total
· Are some animals used for farm
· Is food bought for the animals?
· Are medicines bought for the animals?
Animals are wealth: they are the animal capital of the business.
3. FARM LAND AND PRODUCTS
The farm business also includes the cultivated land. Let us see:
Mr.................and his wife may have a garden. They may have tree plantations. They grow crops for the family food, and other crops to sell. They may also have pasture for feeding animals.
1. The garden
· Has Mr . ................. a garden?
(If not, do not answer this question. Go on to the following question about tree plantations.)
· What is grown in the
· Are any vegetables sold? Which?
· If yes, how much was earned in a year?
2. Tree plantations
Are there any plantations or fruit trees?
Each rectangle below represents one plantation or a group of trees. Write in the rectangle the answers to the following questions:
· What sort of plantation?
(Coffee ...... oil palms, mangoes, etc.)
· What is the area of the plantation?
· How many trees are there?
· How many kilogrammes were harvested in a year?
· If anything was sold, how much was earned? ("Receipts")
· How many fields are there in
................. ................. ..................................
· Look at each field Each
rectangle below represents one field. Write in the rectangles and say:
· What crop is grown in the field: "Field of .................
· What is the area of this field: "measuring................."
· How many kilogrammes were harvested in this field: "Harvest ................."
· If the harvest was sold, or part of the harvest, how much was earned?
Which of the products harvested in the fields and plantations were used for human food?
Which were used for animal food? .................
Which were sold to earn money? .................
4. Fodder crops for animals: pasture
Are fodder crops for animals grown?
Are there places kept for pasture?
The garden. plantations and fields contribute to production: they are the land capital of the business.
4. FARM BUILDINGS
The farm business also includes buildings. They are used for housing animals, for storing tools. Perhaps there are barns or paddocks. Look carefully and do not forget anything.
· At night where do the animals
sleep? Include the livestock and the farmyard animals.
In the farm house? Which animals?
In a shelter? Which?
In the bush? Which?
In housing made for them?
· How many buildings are there
for the animals? Which?
· What are the walls of these buildings made of? And the root?
· What it to be teen inside theta buildings?
It there a paddock for the animals in the daytime? For which animals?
How it the paddock made? What is to be seen in it?
If there a special place for storing working materials such as tools, fertilizers, pesticides?
What place is there?
· How many granaries are there for storing the harvest?
Buildings contribute to production.
They are also part of the farm capital.
5. FARM INSTALLATIONS AND TOOLS
To produce more, Mr.................has maybe made some
improvement to his land by digging ditches or making little channels, or by
doing other things.
In working, he uses tools. Maybe he has built some installations.
These installations and tools are part of the business.
Take a good look.
Installations: is there:
a pit for compost? .................a place for manure? .................a pit for silage?
.................a store of hay or oil cake?.................a well near the house and garden?
.................What is there for storing water?
What arrangements have been made to bring water to the fields or garden?
What installations, such as a dryer or oven, etc., are there for drying or treating harvest products? .................
What tools are used in production?
Animal- drawn tools
Pesticides and fertilizer: does the farmer buy
................. ................. ................. ................. ................. .................
For what crops? ................. .................
Installations and tools contribute to production: they are the technical capital of the business.