|Animal Disease Control and Treatment (IIRR, 1996, 60 p.)|
Diseases are abnormal conditions of the body. You can tell an animal has a disease by looking for symptoms, or observable signs.
A disease may be acute or chronic.
Acute diseases appear suddenly, last only a short time, but are
Chronic diseases last a long time, but are not usually severe.
Animals can get sick if:
· they come in close contact with sick animals;
· they graze in an area where sick animals have grazed or died, or
· they do not receive proper care and food.
A sick animal shows one or more of the following signs:
· Staying away from other animals.
· Loss or lack of appetite.
· Frequent thirst and shivers.
· Constipation or diarrhea.
· Drooping ears, tail or wings.
· Change in color.
· Abnormal discharges like pus, mucus.
FIG. 1. Disease causes and symptoms
Classification of diseases
Diseases may affect different parts of the animal's body.
Digestive-affects stomach and
Respiratoryaffects breathing and lungs.
Urinaryaffects kidneys and bladder.
Reproductiveaffects uterus, vagina, ovaries (in females) or penis, testes (males).
Contagious. These are diseases transmitted directly from one animal to another. Examples: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Hog Cholera.
Infectious. Diseases caused by microscopic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and one-celled parasites (protozoa). Many infectious diseases are contagious (see below). Others such as tetanus, are not contagious.
Parasitic. Diseases due to different kinds of parasites. Examples: Mange, lice infestation, worms.
Deficiency. Diseases due to different kinds of nutritional deficiency. Example: Iron deficiency.
Metabolism. Diseases due to some kind of an upset which affects important body processes. Example: Milk fever.
Poisoning. Disorder due to eating something that destroys tissues or interferes with normal body functions. Example: Lead poisoning.
Injuries. Damage done by cuts or accidents. Example: Fractures.
Miscellaneous. Includes disorders diet do not properly belong under any of the other headings Example: Prolapse of uterus.
Prevention and control of any disease can be assisted in a number of ways:
· Education of
· Good management and feeding.
· Sanitation (keeping animals and housing clean).
· Early treatment.
· Isolation of sick animals.