Close linkages between technical and vocational education and
the world of work are of primary importance to the relevance of education for
the world of work.
There are many ways to establish such linkages. UNESCO has,
within its UNEVOC Project, sponsored a series of studies on existing approaches
to cooperation between technical and vocational education institutions and the
world of work. These studies have been carried out and published on various
countries in Africa, the Arab States, and Europe.
Furthermore, seminars on cooperation between educational
institutions and the world of work in technical and vocational education were
held for Asian and African participants (Berlin, Germany, 1995; Ouagadougou,
Burkina Faso, 1997).
The present study School Enterprises: Combining Vocational
Learning with Production is another effort to disseminate information on
modalities and experiences on interaction of educational institutions with the
world of work.
Two issues have inspired the present study in particular:
· linking the
process of technical and vocational education to real work and market
· self-financing mechanisms for
technical and vocational education institutions.
The first aspect relates directly to the mission of technical
and vocational education, including the need to incorporate entrepreneurial
skills and know-how into vocational programmes. The second aspect is becoming
increasingly important as many governments find it difficult to supply their
institutions of vocational learning with the funds required for their operation.
The case studies documented in this publication have been
identified by the author or through direct communication with selected
institutions. Others have been communicated to UNESCO in response to a call for
case studies published in issue 10 of the newsletter UNEVOC INFO 10: We wish to
thank all those who have contributed by readily supplying documentation.
The study provides insight into features and characteristics of
school enterprises of various types and in a variety of environments. Thus
others can benefit from their experiences. However, education systems, economic
and legal environments as well as political and administrative parameters vary
from country to country and even within countries. There may be reservations,
e.g., relating to the problem of child labour, or to unfair competition between
public or semi-public educational institutions and private enterprise in a
market economy. Therefore, tailor-made adaptation is required rather than mere
transfer of experience.
Readers are invited to draw their own conclusions from the