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close this bookSchool Enterprises: Combining Vocational Learning with Production (UNEVOC, 1998, 64 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
close this folder1. Key Issues and Hypotheses
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1.1 Economic, educational and social objectives of school enterprises
View the document1.2 Need for case studies
View the document1.3 The conceptual framework
View the document1.4 Methodology
close this folder2. Case Studies
View the document(introduction...)
View the document2.1 China
View the document2.2 India
View the document2.3 Indonesia
View the document2.4 Papua New Guinea
View the document2.5 Germany
View the document2.6 Botswana
View the document2.7 Kenya and Ghana
View the document2.8 Algeria
View the document2.9 Cuba and Costa Rica
close this folder3. Conclusions and Guidelines
View the document(introduction...)
View the document3.1 Rough typology of school enterprises
View the document3.2 Structures of school enterprises
View the document3.3 Organisation of learning
View the document3.4 Competency profile, learning outcomes and learning goals
View the document3.5 Curricular processes
View the document3.6 Teaching staff
View the document3.7 Regulatory framework of school enterprises
View the document3.8 External relations
View the document3.9 Impact of school enterprises
View the document3.10 Financial options for school enterprises
View the document3.11 Mixes of private and public roles
View the document3.12 Factors that may enhance school enterprises
View the documentBibliography


Close linkages between technical and vocational education and the world of work are of primary importance to the relevance of education for the world of work.

There are many ways to establish such linkages. UNESCO has, within its UNEVOC Project, sponsored a series of studies on existing approaches to cooperation between technical and vocational education institutions and the world of work. These studies have been carried out and published on various countries in Africa, the Arab States, and Europe.

Furthermore, seminars on cooperation between educational institutions and the world of work in technical and vocational education were held for Asian and African participants (Berlin, Germany, 1995; Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, 1997).

The present study “School Enterprises: Combining Vocational Learning with Production” is another effort to disseminate information on modalities and experiences on interaction of educational institutions with the world of work.

Two issues have inspired the present study in particular:

· linking the process of technical and vocational education to real work and market situations, and

· self-financing mechanisms for technical and vocational education institutions.

The first aspect relates directly to the mission of technical and vocational education, including the need to incorporate entrepreneurial skills and know-how into vocational programmes. The second aspect is becoming increasingly important as many governments find it difficult to supply their institutions of vocational learning with the funds required for their operation.

The case studies documented in this publication have been identified by the author or through direct communication with selected institutions. Others have been communicated to UNESCO in response to a call for case studies published in issue 10 of the newsletter UNEVOC INFO 10: We wish to thank all those who have contributed by readily supplying documentation.

The study provides insight into features and characteristics of school enterprises of various types and in a variety of environments. Thus others can benefit from their experiences. However, education systems, economic and legal environments as well as political and administrative parameters vary from country to country and even within countries. There may be reservations, e.g., relating to the problem of child labour, or to unfair competition between public or semi-public educational institutions and private enterprise in a market economy. Therefore, tailor-made adaptation is required rather than mere transfer of experience.

Readers are invited to draw their own conclusions from the materials presented.

Hans Krr
Implementation Unit Berlin