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close this bookEducational Spaces No. 3 - Building Basic Education (UNESCO, 1992, 16 p.)
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View the documentAfghanistan
View the documentTemporary facilities
View the documentVillage Basic Education Centres Project
View the documentBhutan
View the documentThailand
View the documentFurniture

Afghanistan

UNOCA/UNESCO's project on "Basic Education Services for Afghanistan"


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Temporary facilities

Temporary educational shelter:

The idea of using a tent as temporary educational shelter emerged to satisfy the need for educational space in a country devastated by war. It could be easily established and developed into a more complete and permanent educational facility if peace conditions would so permit or, alternatively be rapidly removed and transferred to another location. The tent is equipped with a room-divider, squatting desks and educational material, both for teachers and students. The room-divider containing blackboard, pin-up board, book shelves and storage for educational material, divides the tent into two different educational spaces. Afghan students traditionally sit on the floor and the squatting desks provided can be used as a little writing table, bench, platform or book shelf. Both the room-divider and the squatting desk are expected to be produced in the workshops of the Village Basic Education Centres in Afghanistan.

Village Basic Education Centre:

A typical VBEC includes three classrooms for children, a multi-purpose reading room where literacy can be taught to adults and young people, two or three workshops for skills training for girls and women and for men, one room for day-care centre, a teacher's house, a well and toilets, areas for poultry raising and vegetable growing and space for leisure activities.

The services required are not limited to the teaching of reading, writing and arithmetic to school-age children, but include educational programmes which reach all members of the community regardless of age and sex.


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Village Basic Education Centres Project

Village Basic Education Centres (VBECs) in Afghanistan:

In 1989 UNESCO signed contracts with three different Afghan NGOs to promote the idea of Basic Education For All and to build Village Basic Education Centres in the south and east of Afghanistan. Two VBECs were built in Wardak province, one in Ghazni province and one in Farah province. T h e design for additional VBECs was prepared by UNESCO architects in the project office in Quetta, Pakistan, to be built in Afghanistan with extensive community participation. The temporary tent school in this regard is seen as the start of an educational process. UNESCO provides the community with an initial temporary educational space while the community contributes local labour for the construction of a well and the boundary wall and provides a teacher. After this commitment by the community, UNESCO will provide as a second step a "construction kit", consisting of doors, windows and roofing material to build a three-c l a s sroom school, workshops for skills training health centre, day care, teacher accommodation and latrine. The final layout of such a VBEC will be designed together with the community according to their needs. The UNESCO Basic Education Adviser, together with the assistance of Afghan NGOs, provides training in literacy techniques, adult learning and community mobilization and develops reading materials. Both the temporary tent school and the VBECs are provided with teacher and student kits.

UNESCO provided assistance to the following provinces: Farah in the west of the country, Kandahar, Ghazni, Logar Wardak and Paktika in the south and east and Kabul.


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VBEC Wardak:

NGO: Engineering Services for Afghanistan,
Shash Qala and Guli Khel Villages,
Both centres have been built with stone walls by local labour. Doors and windows were produced by ESAR and shipped to the construction site.


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VBEC Ghazni:

NGO: Khorasan's Assistance Group,
Anguri Village, Jaghori District,
A pre-war primary school, heavily damaged during the war, was completely refurbished and upgraded to a Village Basic Education Centre. Too many students are already enrolled in the new school. The VBEC shortly before completion.


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VBEC Farah:

NGO: Farah Reconstruction Foundation,
Alakini Village, Jowin District,
The boundary wall receives an additional layer.

At the same time three primary schools in Kabul were refurbished and, as soon as the situation allows access to all parts of Afghanistan, UNESCO will expand its educational assistance and the promotion of Basic Education For All.


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For further information contact:

UNESCO Project Office Quetta
P.O.Box 317
Quetta, PAKISTAN
Tel/Fax 92-81-73266

Bhutan

Sherubtse Degree College

In 1985 the Royal Government of Bhutan, with the assistance of UNDP, started to build the first degree college in Kanglung. The University of Delhi seconded qualified faculty staff, financed by the Colombo Plan. Initially, faculties in Arts, Commerce and Science were opened. Four years later the Royal Government asked UNESCO for assistance to provide services in connection with the development of a campus master plan for a rational physical development of the College, financed by UNDP. A campus planner architect, a civil engineer and an educational planner carried out studies and the implementation of this project.


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Prefabrication process for traditional windows, doors and panels for educational buildings:

Using the prefabrication concept, windows, doors and panels are factory produced and ready for instalment upon arrival on the site. Details have been improved regarding wind and rain protection and, as only profiles and assembly procedures are fixed, the designer still has the flexibility to modify the component sizes to suit his needs.


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ASSEMBLY

Punagongn Primary School:

Financed under an IDA credit and Swiss grant funds the construction of Punagongn Primary School was part of the first phase of the Primary Education Project. Standard designs for temperate and tropical types were developed and included a substantial amount of innovation, both in terms of design and construction techniques. The school capacity was designed for 600 students in 16 classrooms. Hostels for 60 girls and 110 boys allow children from remote areas to attend school as well.


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National Institute of Education in Samchi:

The Teacher Training Institute at Samchi was established in 1968 to meet the growing demand for primary teachers. In 1981 the institute was upgraded and renamed as National Institute of Education to train secondary schoolteachers. Under funds provided by the Government of Norway and AGFUND, UNESCO has assisted the Royal Government of Bhutan since 1983 in the construction of the main building, auditorium, library, service building and hostel and in the improvement of the infrastructure.


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Educational Facilities Maintenance Manual:

Vol. I Management of Maintenance
Vol. II Carrying out Maintenance

This two-volume maintenance manual was prepared by UNESCO's consultant architect Ms F. Duggan in collaboration with the Department of Education of the Royal Government of Bhutan, to assist headmasters and staff, but also students, to maintain the educational facilities in Bhutan. In a country where the demand for new facilities cannot be met quickly enough, existing school facilities have to be looked after even more carefully. The authors of this manual wish to raise the awareness of the need for maintenance both for those who manage educational facilities and for the users. The manuals are therefore illustrated with many drawings for easy understanding, along with a very clear and detailed text.


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Thailand

Secondary school in Uthai Thani province:

Compulsory secondary education is going to be introduced in some of the Asian and Pacific countries. With seed money provided by AGFUND Thailand developed a small pilot secondary school in Uthai Thani province in 1988 as a participant in UNESCO's inter-country project, known as the Development of Educational Facilities for Asia and the Pacific. The Crown Prince of Thailand on the occasion of his 36th birthday donated funds to build another six secondary schools during the fiscal year of 1989 and in 1991 the ministry is going to build another 30 schools in remote provinces.


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Furniture

Technical assistance in designing furniture is often requested by Member States in Asia and the Pacific. Although furniture is one of the most expensive and important components of education, it is a very often neglected and inadequately informed field. With the help of UNESCO, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Maldives have developed school furniture of their own, solving their particular problems such as those caused by flooding, remote mountainous location or salinity near the sea.


Bangladesh, school furniture in flooded area.


Maldives, secondary school furniture


Bhutan, school furniture for new curriculum.

Other developments in the Asian region: Nepal, school furniture for the Sawal Bahal Sweeper Community School, Kathmandu. Design: Niels Axel; architect: Danish Volunteer Service.


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