|Sanitation Promotion (SIDA - SDC - WSSCC - WHO, 1998, 292 p.)|
|The challenge - A sanitation revolution|
|The problem of sanitation - WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation|
|Commonly held wrong assumptions about sanitation - WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation|
|Sanitation research needs - WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation|
|Gaining political will and partnership|
|Principles and guidelines|
|Advocacy for sanitation - Sara Wood1 and Mayling Simpson-Hébert2|
|Mobilizing the media for sanitation promotion - WHO, Geneva, Switzerland|
|Mobilizing partners for sanitation promotion - Sara Wood1 and Mayling Simpson-Hébert2|
|Private-sector involvement in promoting sanitation - Sara Wood1|
|Social marketing for sanitation programmes - Sunil Mehra1|
|Securing political will in Uganda - John Odolon1|
|Sanitation in Surat - Ashoke Chatterjee1|
|Promotion through better programmes|
|Principles and guidelines|
|Important elements for a successful national sanitation programme - WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation|
|Principles of better sanitation programmes - WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation|
|Principle cards - WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation|
|Features of better sanitation programmes - WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation|
|Principles of sanitation in emergency situations (1) - John Adams1|
|Guidelines on achieving water supply and sanitation in peri-urban areas - WSSCC Urbanization Working Group|
|Principles of the strategic sanitation approach - Albert M. Wright1|
|A gender perspective in sanitation projects - Angela Hayden1|
|Hygiene behaviour-change: lessons from other sectors - Carol Jenkins1|
|Participatory approaches to community empowerment - John Odolon1|
|Participatory monitoring and evaluation of sanitation projects - Jennifer Rietbergen-McCracken1, Sara Wood2 and Mayling Simpson-Hébert3|
|Financing low-income household sanitation facilities through household credit - Robert Varley1|
|Checklist for planning better sanitation projects - WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation|
|Checklist for planning sanitation in emergency situations - Mayling Simpson-Hebert1|
|Checklist for planning hygiene behaviour-change in sanitation projects - Mayling Simpson-Hebert1 and Sara Wood2|
|Gender checklist for planning sanitation projects - Angela Hayden1|
|Promotion through innovation|
|Promoting sanitation through children - Angela Hayden1|
|The Bal Sevak programme in India - Nandita Kapadia-Kundu and Ashok Dyalchand1|
|The HESAWA school health and sanitation package - Eben S. Mwasha1|
|Children as health and hygiene promoters in South Africa - Edward D. Breslin1, Carlos Madrid2 and Anderson Mkhize3|
|Promoting sanitation through community participation in Bolivia - Betty Soto T.1|
|Strengthening a rural sanitation programme using participatory methods in Uganda - John Odolon1|
|Towards an ecological approach to sanitation - Uno Winblad1|
|Promoting composting toilets for Pacific Islands - Leonie Crennan1|
|Peri-urban sanitation promotion in Mozambique - Darren Saywell1|
|Urine as fertilizer in Mexico City - Yoloquetzatl Ceballos1|
|Experimenting with dry toilets in El Salvador - Ron Sawyer1 and George Anna Clark2|
|Meeting demand for dry sanitation in Mexico - Ron Sawyer1|
|Low-cost sewerage - Duncan Mara1|
|Worm composting and vermitechnologies applicable to sanitation - S. Zorba Frankel1|
This list of commonly held wrong assumptions about sanitation is offered to provoke thought and challenge all those involved in sanitation, irrespective of the different stages of development that exist worldwide. The list can be a useful tool for promoting sanitation; for example, in meetings where it can be used to stimulate discussion and challenge people to agree or disagree.
Commonly held wrong assumptions
At all levels:
· Improved water supply alone leads to better health. There is no need for sanitation.
· Sanitation improvements have minimal health benefits and no socioeconomic benefits.
· All good sanitation options are expensive and difficult to implement.
· Water, air, and soil are free goods and we should not have to pay for improving them.
At the level of donors and implementing agencies:
· Safe and adequate water supply is a pre-condition for good sanitation.
· Message-giving will change behaviours and automatically create demand.
· Sanitation improvements mean simply building latrines.
· People are not willing to pay for sanitation improvements.
· Design and construction of a latrine is simple and does not require expertise.
· There are standard formulas and quick-fixes for achieving sanitation, which can be universally applied.
· There are two right low-cost technologies: VIP latrines and pour-flush latrines.
· Traditional cultural attitudes are a barrier to good sanitation practices.
· Water supply institutions are automatically suitable for developing sanitation.
· The private sector is not interested in sanitation.
· People are not capable of moving fast enough to meet programme goals.
· There is no need for additional specific research since the situation in developing countries today is the same as that of industrialized countries at the beginning of the century. We just apply the same solutions.
At the level of beneficiaries:
· Improved sanitation has no immediate benefits.
· Sanitation systems are never reliable.
· Responsibility for sanitation lies somewhere else.
· Children's faeces are harmless.