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close this bookSanitation Promotion (SIDA - SDC - WSSCC - WHO, 1998, 292 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentAcronyms
View the documentWelcome
close this folderThe challenge - A sanitation revolution
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe problem of sanitation - WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation
View the documentCommonly held wrong assumptions about sanitation - WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation
View the documentSanitation research needs - WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation
close this folderGaining political will and partnership
close this folderPrinciples and guidelines
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAdvocacy for sanitation - Sara Wood1 and Mayling Simpson-Hébert2
View the documentMobilizing the media for sanitation promotion - WHO, Geneva, Switzerland
View the documentMobilizing partners for sanitation promotion - Sara Wood1 and Mayling Simpson-Hébert2
View the documentPrivate-sector involvement in promoting sanitation - Sara Wood1
View the documentSocial marketing for sanitation programmes - Sunil Mehra1
close this folderCase studies
View the documentSecuring political will in Uganda - John Odolon1
View the documentSanitation in Surat - Ashoke Chatterjee1
close this folderPromotion through better programmes
close this folderPrinciples and guidelines
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentImportant elements for a successful national sanitation programme - WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation
View the documentPrinciples of better sanitation programmes - WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation
View the documentPrinciple cards - WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation
View the documentFeatures of better sanitation programmes - WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation
View the documentPrinciples of sanitation in emergency situations (1) - John Adams1
View the documentGuidelines on achieving water supply and sanitation in peri-urban areas - WSSCC Urbanization Working Group
View the documentPrinciples of the strategic sanitation approach - Albert M. Wright1
close this folderEmpowerment
View the documentA gender perspective in sanitation projects - Angela Hayden1
View the documentHygiene behaviour-change: lessons from other sectors - Carol Jenkins1
View the documentParticipatory approaches to community empowerment - John Odolon1
View the documentParticipatory monitoring and evaluation of sanitation projects - Jennifer Rietbergen-McCracken1, Sara Wood2 and Mayling Simpson-Hébert3
View the documentFinancing low-income household sanitation facilities through household credit - Robert Varley1
close this folderChecklist
View the documentChecklist for planning better sanitation projects - WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation
View the documentChecklist for planning sanitation in emergency situations - Mayling Simpson-Hebert1
View the documentChecklist for planning hygiene behaviour-change in sanitation projects - Mayling Simpson-Hebert1 and Sara Wood2
View the documentGender checklist for planning sanitation projects - Angela Hayden1
close this folderPromotion through innovation
close this folderChild-centred approaches
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPromoting sanitation through children - Angela Hayden1
View the documentThe Bal Sevak programme in India - Nandita Kapadia-Kundu and Ashok Dyalchand1
View the documentThe HESAWA school health and sanitation package - Eben S. Mwasha1
View the documentChildren as health and hygiene promoters in South Africa - Edward D. Breslin1, Carlos Madrid2 and Anderson Mkhize3
close this folderParticipatory approaches
View the documentPromoting sanitation through community participation in Bolivia - Betty Soto T.1
View the documentStrengthening a rural sanitation programme using participatory methods in Uganda - John Odolon1
close this folderInnovative technologies
View the documentTowards an ecological approach to sanitation - Uno Winblad1
View the documentPromoting composting toilets for Pacific Islands - Leonie Crennan1
View the documentPeri-urban sanitation promotion in Mozambique - Darren Saywell1
View the documentUrine as fertilizer in Mexico City - Yoloquetzatl Ceballos1
View the documentExperimenting with dry toilets in El Salvador - Ron Sawyer1 and George Anna Clark2
View the documentMeeting demand for dry sanitation in Mexico - Ron Sawyer1
View the documentLow-cost sewerage - Duncan Mara1
View the documentWorm composting and vermitechnologies applicable to sanitation - S. Zorba Frankel1
View the documentBibliography
View the documentBack cover

Sanitation research needs - WSSCC Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation

Sanitation has special features and requirements that distinguish it as a field in its own right. Therefore, research and scientific study specifically on sanitation are necessary to help enable practitioners to make better decisions. Ultimately, this will lead to more successful and sustainable sanitation programmes. Donor organizations can make a significant contribution to improving sanitation programme performance by supporting research aimed at filling the current information gaps. The following areas in which research is urgently needed have been identified by the Working Group on Promotion of Sanitation.

Planning models

- for integrating sanitation into other social programmes (literacy, population, nutrition).

Indicators for monitoring and evaluation

- behaviour-change indicators, health-impact indicators, long-term success indicators;

- the percentage of a population that would need to be covered (“critical mass”) to ensure “full coverage” for purposes of disease control;

- development of criteria and a monitoring and evaluation framework for measuring success at national and community levels;

- development of methods for assisting communities in identifying and using indicators.

Private sector involvement

- the key barriers to private sector involvement;
- the optimal mix of responsibilities between the public and private sectors.

Sanitation technologies

- how to choose an appropriate mix of technologies to suit urban areas with low, middle and high income;

- how to achieve low-cost, culturally-sensitive technologies, including dry-latrine systems;

- critical review of low-cost and least-cost technologies;

- new technologies that recycle nutrients.

Participatory methods, social marketing, and social mobilization

- models for how social marketing and participatory methods can best be combined;
- critical review of methodologies to change hygiene behaviours.

Success stories and models

- through case-studies of countries, determine the characteristics of high achievers and low achievers in sanitation and from these derive lessons learned.

Finance, cost-effectiveness and cost recovery

- alternative financing and cost-recovery mechanisms;

- the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for the control of faecal-borne diseases;

- a critical review of the value of “willingness to pay” (WTP) studies and alternative mechanisms to determine WTP.