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close this bookGATE - 4/89 - 1/90 - GATE's Cooperation Partner Programme (GTZ GATE, 1990, 40 p.)
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March 1990

ISSN 0723-2225

Deutsches Zentrum fwicklungstechnologien


Deutsche Gesellschaft
fhnische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ)
(German Agency for Technical Cooperation)
Post Box 5180
Dag-Hammarskjold-Weg 1
D-6236 Eschborn 1
Federal Republic of Germany
Telephone: 06196/79-0
Telex: 41523 - 0 (gtz d)

Editorial Committee:
Peter Baz, Hans-Wilhelm v. Haugwitz.
Wolfgang Morbach, Thomas Neumaier,
Berthold Pilz
Beate Worner
Editorial Assistant:
Henriette Mende

Cover photo:
Ulrich Schwarz

Printed by:
Klausstrafe 31
0-6430 Bad Hersfeld
Federal Republic of Germany

"gate" appears quarterly; It is distributed free of charge.

Named contributions do not necessarily represent the views of the publisher or the editorial staff

Reproduction is permitted after consultation; copies should be supplied.
ISSN 0723-2225

Dear Readers,

This issue of »gate« is devoted entirely to cooperation partnerships. There is a topical reason; for this, namely the recent meeting of representatives of all the I groups concerned with GATE staff, representatives of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation (BMZ) and the churches (FAKT, MISEREOR). The first meeting of this kind was in Berlin in 1985.

This second seminar, in Bad Herrenalb was seen as a major milestone in the tradition of fruitful cooperation among the individual organizations, not only by GATE staff but by the cooperation partners as well. And the results of the seminar bear this out.

GATE's cooperation partners would like to contribute more of their knowledge of, and expertise in AT to GTZ's development effort. This was one result of the seminar. The other was that the I partner organizations themselves should in future have more say in the planning and organization of the GATE Cooperation Partner Programme. This would make it possible to support the partners more effectiveIy than hitherto.

Because GATE realized years ago that only close cooperation with its partners would lead to success. And this was why the Cooperation Partner Programme was set up. The number of partners has meanwhile increased to more than twenty.

Last but not least, I should mention that in the course of recent discussions on development policy we at GATE have also realized just how important non-governmental organizations and self-help groups are. But the subject in general is not whitout its controversial aspects, and it will no doubt give us food for thought for some time yet.

The articles in this issue will give you an idea of how GATE's I Cooperation Partner Programme is developing and of the progress it has made so far.

Dr. Peter Baz

Appropriate technology -An alternative approach to development

by Peter Baz

"... In 1978, GATE was founded as a division of GTZ by the Federal Ministries for Economic Cooperation (BMZ) and Research and Technology (BMFT). GATE was assigned the task of promoting Appropriate Technology on a broad scale on behalf of the Federal Government and, owing to this institutional anchoring, the concept of Appropriate Technology became an offical, established part of Technical Cooperation (TC) with the developing countries (DCs).

Even today, 10 years later, we find that the AT concept and the ideas associated with it have only slowly begun to influence Technical Cooperation in everyday practice.

This makes it quite clear that, in our country at least, a wide gap still exists between the claims that are made for practicing the AT approach and what has actually been achieved in this area to date.

Question-and-Answer Service an important instrument

GATE created the Question-and-Answer Service in 1978 in an effort to meet the DCs' demands for access to technology-related information and at the same time to help Appropriate Technology become a fully-accepted and effective instrument of Technical Cooperation in practice.

In terms of development policy, the Question-and-Answer Service was based on the basic needs strategy formulated by the Federal Government. It focusses on three key aspects:

1. The countries of the Third World are not to develop according to models of development imposed on them from the outside, but rather in line with their own models of progress. Therefore, development policy cooperation promotes cooperation among the DCs and every measure is examined with a view to the cultural and social impacts it can be expected to have.

2. The principal goal of cooperation is to combat absolute poverty and thus to satisfy basic needs. For this reason, the least developed countries (LLDCs) are the first to receive consideration. The promotion of rural development as well as conventional and renewable energy sources and the preservation of natural resources are accorded the highest priority.

3. An increasing amount of support is being provided to those countries which have concentrated their own efforts on combatting absolute poverty, especially those which have demonstrated a willingness to undertake necessary structural reforms.

GATE's Question-and-Answer Service did not adopt these important, fundamental principles of development-policy cooperation after the fact. Rather, the service made them the conceptual basis of its activities even before they became an official part of government policy.

When the Question-and-Answer Service was first set up, its tasks consisted primarily of answering requests for technical information, guided by an orientation to AT, basic needs and village target groups.

However, it soon became apparent that the instrument of providing written replies to enquiries was not sufficient, and that local intermediary organizations were necessary in order for the inputs in terms of technical know-how to be applied in a manner that would promote the development process.

Close cooperation with partners essential for success

Experience gained in the transfer of technology to DCs, as well as the attempt to integrate AT approaches into GTZ projects, showed that technology options cannot simply be assimilated and transferred, without taking into account the specific conditions of the context in which they are to be applied. Rather, successful transfer presupposes the existence of long-term cooperation relationships, since only in this way is it possible to create the multitude of linkages between the technical, economic, ecological and social systems, which are required in order for a technology to function properly. Moreover, we found that the sustainability of measures over the long term is a criterion which is crucial for an effective strengthening of self-help activities:

"Simply dispatching options' has only rarely resulted in success. It was realized that cooperation with DC partner organizations had to be continuous and long-term in nature. "

Since 1981, for the reasons presented above, the Cooperation Partner Programme has been expanded into a major focus of the Questionand-Answer project, in addition to the handling of requests for information.

It should be noted here that the Question-and-Answer Service does not create partner organizations as such, but rather supports the work of existing organizations and their efforts to become established by providing advisory assistance in the planning and implementation of specific projects.

The Cooperation Partner Programme preconditions and goals

In order to be considered for such assistance, the groups and organizations must already exist as viable entities which, moreover,

· have sources of financing other than GATE,
· are involved in development work oriented to basic needs,
· maintain close ties with local target groups,
· conduct project activities that are varied and long-term in nature,
· exhibit democratic and participatory decision-making processes.

The specific goals of partner cooperation are:

1. Direct holistic and project-related support of autonomous AT centres that work with the target group(s) at the grassroots level

2. The creation of efficiently operated centres as bases for regionally independent cooperation networks with the aim of expanding them into regional and international networks

3. Learning from the partners by collecting, processing and supplying technical data, information and know-how in a form which is relevant to the application of technology.

The long-term measures for achieving these goals serve to directly promote rural development programmes in the cooperation partner's respective area of responsibility.

What the programme offers

The Cooperation Partner Programme includes a broadly designed package of individual measures geared to the respective partner's needs and capabilities:

· the exchange of know-how and technology transfer/adaptation
· the exchange of project-specific experience and information
· support for the expansion of the technical, organizational infrastructure through

- the establishment and development of AT documentation centres
- the initiation of regional question-and-answer services
- management support and organizational assistance
- administrative assistance

· the provision of assistance and support in the implementation of projects
· the provision of support in organizing local target groups and target group meetings
· joint preparation and editing of publications
· support for joint participation in important local/regional exhibitions
· the assignment of short-term onsite experts
· further education and training measures for specialized personnel of the partner organization
· advisory assistance and regular visits by the desk officer of the Question-and-Answer Service.


Most assistance for AT dissemination

A rough evaluation of the activities undertaken with 21 cooperation partners since 1981 yielded the following findings:

1. Most of the approximately 300 assistance measures served the dissemination of AT options (AT dissemination). Roughly the same number of measures were implemented to strengthen the partner organization and inform the target groups. Only a relatively small number of measures for the development of AT hardware received support.

2. In recent years, a few partners have increasingly asked for support to conduct evaluations of the work performed thus far and to prepare a medium-term strategy for the continuation of activities based on the relevant findings. Together with Helvetas, for example, we assisted SIBAT with an evaluation, and we also worked with SPATF in the preparation of a five-year plan.

3. With regard to the handling of formal, organizational aspects, a multitude of problems invariably arise which are not to be underestimated. In many cases, these problems result in misunderstandings, delays, and in many cases high inputs in terms of time and labour. I would like to mention only a few of the more important problems:

- Delayed and inadequate reporting on the supported measures
- Frequent failures to submit requests for funds
- Problems encountered in the transfer of funds
- Problems in preparing and submitting project applications.

Does the programme reach the target groups?

Apart from these experiences, there are a number of questions we ask ourselves with regard to our own work, including those activities specifically commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation. Perhaps it will be possible in the course of the seminar to find answers to one or the other of these questions.

One of the main questions, which is also the theme of the seminar, is:

Does the Cooperation Partner Programme actually reach the target groups? . . .

Further questions of importance, especially in working with our partners, are:

· What contribution can NGOs effectively make to the development process in their respective countries?

· How much support should be provided and for how long?

· How do the problems posed by limited financing of measures, low salaries of local staff, lack of career prospects, high fluctuations in personnel, etc., affect the quality and long-term viability of the partners' activities?

· What steps have to be taken to improve assistance measures in order to make them more effective?

Further development of the Cooperation Partner Programme and the outlook for future activities

After eight years of experience in working with NGOs, the goals we have set out to achieve with renewed effort in the near to medium term future are

· firstly, to evaluate and process this experience in order to make the resulting information available not only to GTZ, our partners and NGOs in general, but to other institutions as well.

This is to be accomplished by converting the existing store of relevant know-how and experience into designs, methods and instruments which will then be made available.

We shall offer advisory services and conduct workshops in order to transmit this knowledge and provide the necessary training; and

· secondly, to support the partner organizations with whom we cooperate in such a way that they will acquire the capabilities and qualifications to develop and implement their own medium-term strategies and medium- and long term planning activities.

In conjunction with those efforts, we also consider it particularly important for the cooperation partners to develop an ability to involve the donor agencies in their planning processes and to work with GTZ projects while maintaining their own identity and sense of autonomy."


It is now a good ten years since GATE's Question-and-Answer Service was set up, as a means of helping developing countries to obtain technological information. At the same time, however, the service was intended to promote widespread acceptance of the concept of AT. It soon became clear, however, that success can only be achieved in this field by working in close cooperation with partners. This led to the creation of the Cooperation Partner Programme. But despite the success of this programme the question repeatedly has to be asked whether the target groups are in fact reached.


Le service question-reponse de GATE a mis en place il y a une dizaine d'ann pour permettre aux pays en vole de dloppement d'avoir acca des informations en mati de technologie. La crion de ce service avait simultannt pour but de contribuer a la reconnaissance du concept de la technologie appropripar un large public. On a cependant trrapidement constate que le travail dans ce domaine ne pouvait e fructueux qu'en collaboration oite avec des partenaires. Cette constation a men la crion du programme de coopnts qui regroupe actuellement 21 organisations partenaires. Nmoins, en dt du succremporte par ce programme, il faut continuellement se demander si les groupes cibles vent vtablement touches.


El servicio de consulta de GATE fue creado trace mas de diez arlos pare proporcionar a los paises en vias de desarrollo el acceso a la informaciobre tecnolog Pero al mismo tiempo se queria conseguir con es te servicio el reconocimiento general para el concepto de la tecnologia apropiada. Pero pronto pudo comprobarse que smediante una estrecha cooperacion los oros interlocutores era possible un trabajo exitoso en este sector. Esto Ilevla creaciel programa de cooperacique actualmente comprende 21 organizaciones. Pero a pesar del to de este programa hay que preguntarse una vez msi alcanza realmente a los grupos a los que estestinado.


The cooperation partner programme-An innovative programme of mutual benefit

by Gunter Daniel

"... This seminar which has brought you all here together can be regarded on the one hand as the result of many years of successful cooperation. On the other hand, however, it should also serve to help us gain knowledge which can be used to continue and to design the programme in the future, and to learn from mutual experience. This seminar is of particular interest for us, because you represent 19 different partner organizations from 19 different countries in three continents, with very comprehensive and certainly different experience in the field of appropriate technology.

For a long time, the value of appropriate technology was underestimated; it was viewed with great reserve and considered rather second-rate. There were some very confused ideas about what appropriate technology really meant:

· traditional technology
· simple technology
· middle technology
· context-related technology?

The same was true as regards the acceptance of appropriate technology.

People with much experience in development cooperation, such as E.F. Schuhmacher for example, farsighted enough to see the importance of appropriate technology for the development of each individual country, have served us well in this field, making things clearer by defining the material better and by intensively promoting the application of appropriate technology. Countries such as India and China, for example, began promoting appropriate technology at a quite early stage.

First beginnings in the mid-1970s

In the mid-1970s, BMZ policy began to explore the possibilities and implications of introducing appropriate technology into development cooperation.

Today, after quite a long learning process on all sides, appropriate technology is seen predominantly as a holistic approach to a specific development problem, which has to be solved by using appropriate and context-related instruments and technologies. Participation and self-help have high priority.

The participation of those directly affected and their shared responsibility in the joint activities play an important role in all this, also and in particular with regard to the sustainability of the measures.

Since the 1970s we have taken a series of steps to implement and disseminate appropriate technology which have led to some special research programmes. The founding of GATE, which has a particular function here as a catalyst, should be mentioned in this context, and likewise the Question-and-Answer Service, of which the Cooperation Partner Programme is an integral part; then there are the special programmes, e.g. in the field of renewable energy and for disseminating appropriate technology such as biogas and stoves.

Within the framework of bilateral development cooperation, which usually takes place between official institutions, appropriate technology was not always received with enthusiasm. In this respect prejudices, the confusion of terms already mentioned and, not least, the impression that appropriate technology is second-rate technology have certainly played their part.

However, concerned individuals and organizations in these countries have realized the need to adapt technology and have organized themselves to research, develop and promote appropriate technology. NGOs have developed very rapidly over the past two decades and have ventured deep into the field of appropriate technology.

Important role of NGOs

The NGOs are extremely important for the introduction and dissemination of appropriate technology, because they satisfy certain essential preconditions: for example, they have close contacts with target groups, motivated co-workers and flexible forms of organization.

My Ministry realized the need to actively support NGOs in promoting the use of appropriate technology, because local NGOs seem better equipped to establish close contact with target groups and to observe the socio-cultural environment in question, both of which are needed for a successful approach.

These considerations led to the introduction of the Cooperation Partner Programme, which has now been running for eight years with 21 partners in 21 countries.

The results prove its success. To mention just a few examples of its remarkable achievements:

· partners have developed new technologies, such as wind pumps, soil block presses and walkabout saw- mills

· partners have introduced new products and ideas, such as medicinal herbs and rabbit breeding

· they have qualified as international partners for donor agencies and

· they have produced widely read newsletters and publications.

Appropriate technology as a conceptual and technological approach has become firmly established in German development cooperation. It has come into its own, and is being applied more and more in our bilateral Technical Cooperation. However, cooperation with NGOs in the field of appropriate technology remains an essential element in our development policy.

Non-governmental sector increasingly important

Governments in developing countries are increasingly faced with financial and managerial constraints. The importance of the non-governmental sector, including the private sector, in initiating and implementing development activities has grown continuously.

My Ministry therefore established a working group to discuss and explore ways of increasing the role of self-help groups and NGOs in general in German development cooperation. Today these aspects are firmly established within the organizational structure of the BMZ and GTZ.

As a consequence of this development, the Ministry has continuously increased the financial allocations for German NGOs, such as church based development organizations or political foundations, which are the primary cooperation partners of southern NGOs. In 1987, DM 579 million was allocated to German NGOs for this purpose.

In addition to the support of German NGOs, official development cooperation can provide useful assistance to Southern NGOs. It has been a policy of the Ministry to increase funds for such programmes as long as they are limited to certain sectors and aspects.

The Cooperation Partner Programme is an excellent example of an approach where technical, organizational and managerial assistance has been provided to NGOs in an innovative programme of mutual benefit.

The Ministry has therefore decided to continue with this programme for the next few years.

I expect you have realized from my remarks that direct cooperation with NGOs and self-help groups as a part of official development assistance is relatively new and, as far as fitting it into the existing structures is concerned, not without its problems and difficulties, and finally that this type of cooperation only represents a small part of the total. We are therefore in the process of improving ways, which have been shown to be sensible and useful, of extending tried and tested measures and seeking new possibilities. In my experience, new ways which are also promising rarely arise on a purely theoretical basis. As a rule they generally grow out of needs perceived and experience gained at the practical level. We just need to recognize them and have the courage to implement them...."


The speech includes a brief retrospective covering the origins of GATE and the advent of Appropriate Technology as a normal part of official development cooperation. No one, including the BMZ (Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation), questions the importance of the NGOs as the first organizations to approach in AT matters. The increasing significance of the non-governmental sector is stressed, and in this context it is also pointed out that giving direct support to self-help groups and non-governmental organizations is not without its problems.


Le discours comporte une br rospective sur les dts de GATE et sur l'entrde la technologie appropridans le travail quotidien de la cooption gouvernementale pour le dloppement. Le rimportant des organisations non gouvernementales, principal interlocuteur lorsqu'il s'agit de technologie appropriest incontestable, m pour le minist fral de la cooption nomique. L 'importance croissante du secteur non tique est mis en dence, et il est rappelu'une aide directe apportaux groupes d'entraide et aux organisations non gouvernementales n'est pas exempte de probls.


La conferencia contiene une breve restrospectiva de los comienzos de GATE y de la incorporacie la TecnologApropiada en les actividades corrientes de la cooperacistatal pare el desarrollo. El importante papel de las organizaciones no gobernamentales, principal interlocutor cuando se trata de tecnologia apropiada, es indiscutido tambipare el Ministerio Federal de Cooperacicona. En el informe se subraya la creciente importancia del sector no gobernamental y se advierte que el apoyo directo de grupos de autoayuda y organizaciones no gobernamentales no esta exento de une cierta problemca.

Current state of affairs

A Statement Issued by the GATE Partner Groups

Third World countries are suffering at the moment from increasing indebtedness, poverty, inability to support themselves and general confusion deriving from the prevailing mentality. This is based on the motive of extracting economic gains in the shortest possible period, disregarding the need for proper exploitation of natural resources and concentrating profits in the hands of a few, thus failing to achieve welfare for the people.

In the historical origins of under-development in our countries it is possible to identify a common denominator of failure to achieve social and economic welfare for our people. Even worse, most of our basic natural resources, on which economic activity is based, have been unwisely exploited, to the point of causing serious damage, putting the survival of our environment at risk. Thus in most cases it is not possible to use these natural resources as a basis for further economic development.

This failure is due to many factors in the global process of accumulating capital. In most cases the reason is that the goals of economic projects have always been defined in terms of private interests and thus in very short terms, to secure a return on capital investment in the shortest possible time, disregarding all other social and ecological considerations.

On the other hand, in view of the explosive situation in most of the Third World, there is an urgent need to invest in projects with a major social impact. This is a paradoxical situation for NGOs, which should not think only in terms of short-term projects: otherwise we will repeat the history of failure.

Alternative approach to development

In view of the current state of affairs, in which a number of nations are sinking ever more deeply into poverty, the following comments are proposed as an alternative approach to development. The planning methods adopted for such an approach should be appropriate. The most urgent task is to reconcile the long-term objectives of a given project with the short-term goal of making a social and economic impact: we want to achieve these goals immediately.

A sustainable improvement in the quality of life for the majority of the world's population would be achieved only if all nations could agree on production methods and a lifestyle which were environmentally sound. Sectorial agreements should be encouraged as pilot projects, which could provide scope for experiments with ecological models before a world agreement is reached.

In order to achieve a sustainable improvement in the quality of life it is very important to provide effective support for the role played by NGOs and community-based grass-roots groups, stressing self-management capabilities. These two types of groups are the principal actors in this model of development work.

Basic concepts of development

One of the most common definitions of development is improvement of the quality of life for the majority of the population and satisfaction of basic needs. Nevertheless, development cannot be reduced to merely economic considerations; it should be oriented towards holistic welfare for individuals, society and the environment.

At least four aspects of development must be considered:

a) Culture: One of the most important aspects is respect for people's cultural identity. Popular groups should be encouraged to upgrade their participation in the defence of their common interests.

b) Technology: Transfer from other locations where the technology in question has proved successful, and recuperation of indigenous technologies that are still useful for the population, should both be considered. New technologies could also be developed, or a combination of modern and traditional ones, always with a view to long-term sustainability.

c) Ecology: Improvement in the quality of life should be sought as a long-term environmental process, assuring the survival of nations and the world in general by rescuing natural resources and using them wisely. Lifestyles based on excessive and unbalanced exploitation of resources should give way to a more appropriate way of life, thus relieving the pressure on the environment.

d) Participation: This is the most important key to sound development work and should be considered at three levels: in the fair distribution of profits, in the practice of democratic methods, and in the realization of individual potentials.

Relationships between projects and social environments

Projects at the micro level should have a working relationship with macro strategies, aiming at:

1) strengthening the links between initiatives at local and provincial level;

2) promoting regional and national planning based on local needs;

3) increasing awareness of social issues, among both NGOs and grass-roots groups as well as government officers;

4) integrating democratic methods both in measures taken and in the planning of projects;

5) providing services, suggestions, information and support to organizations at the community level;

6) exchanging information among different communities and between these and agencies dealing in macro issues.

Project financing

Financing of NGOs should include investment in long-term projects such as those using revolving funds, building up infrastructures or ensuring education and training. These activities should be assisted primarily by supporting basic NGO operations.

To ensure the success of projects, efforts should be directed towards influencing policy-makers in order to secure their awareness, coordination and support. Interaction between NGOs and their national governments should include mutual respect, evaluation and assistance.

The complete background of the project should always be taken into consideration, including the economic, political, cultural, historical and environmental context.

In order to be relevant to the broad issues, projects should include scientific and technological research aimed at satisfying basic needs through pilot projects.


The present economic plight of Third World countries is briefly described and the reasons for it are given. The authors of the paper believe that it will only be possible to achieve a lasting improvement in living conditions in these countries if effective support is given to self-help groups and non-governmental organizations. The paper stresses that there are other important factors apart from the economy, including culture, technology, ecology and participation. It also argues that project financing should be long-term, because this is the only way to ensure the effectiveness of training measures and improvements to infrastructures.


Br description de la situation nomique actuelle des pays du tiers monde et cation des faits grateurs d'une telle situation. Les auteurs de cet expose vent d'avis que les conditions de vie dans ces pays ne peuvent connaitre une amoration durable que si l'aide apportaux groupes d'entraide et aux organisations non gouvernementales est efficace. Il est souligne que les autres ments importants, outre l'nomie, vent la culture, la technologie, I'logie et la participation. Il est ensuite ajoute que, par ailleurs, les financements de projets devraient e a long terme, car c'est le seul moyen en garantir l'efficacites amorations infrastructurelles et des mesures de formation.


En el informe se analiza la situacicona actual de los paises en vies de desarrollo y se exponen les causes que han llevado a la misma. Los autores opinan que une mejora duradera de les condiciones de vida en estos paises solo puede alcanzarse mediante el apoyo eficaz de los grupos de autoayuda y de les organizaciones no gubernamentales. Como factores importantes, aparte de la economia, destacan la cultura, la tecnolog la ecology la participaciAdemas, continua el informe, les financiaciones de proyectos deber planificarse a largo plazo, ya que solo asi pueden garantizarse medidas de capacitaci mejoras de les infraestructuras eficaces.

Partner Organizations More Interested in GTZ Projects

Results of an International Seminar in Bad Herrenalb
by Joachim Prey

GATE's cooperation partners want to contribute their knowledge of, and experience with appropriate technologies on a larger scale in local work on GTZ projects. This is one of the results of the second international GATE Cooperation Partners Seminar held in Bad Herrenalb (FRO) from 17 to 30 August 1989. GATE has now been supporting cooperation partners in Africa, Asia and Latin America for eight years.

Cooperation partners are non-governmental organizations (NGOs) whose aim is to promote the development of rural regions in their countries by introducing and disseminating appropriate technologies. The Cooperation Programme began in 1981 with one partner, in Ecuador. Today there are 21 partners in as many countries.

The seminar for the cooperation partners had two goals. The first was to promote exchange of experience between individual partners; the second was to consider the question "How to work with target groups", e.g. small-scale farmers and village artisans. What the seminar wanted to establish here was how the NGOs themselves saw the problem. This was also very much in GTZ's own interest, because many NGOs cooperate very closely with their target groups and might thus be in a position to support GTZ in its project work. The NGOs could contribute their diverse experience with a wide variety of technologies, and in particular with the process of adapting these to the needs of the respective target groups. They could also contribute their specific knowledge of countries and conditions by participating in appraiser missions, working locally on GTZ projects, or simply setting up contacts with other NGOs.

In order to make the experience and knowledge of the individual partners available both to all other partners as well as to GATE, exchanges of staff, reciprocal visits, joint further training programmes
and guest attendance of courses were proposed. The same applies for the partnership relations with GATE. Taken seriously, partnersip means that the partner organizations should play a greater part in the planning and arrangement of the GATE Cooperation Partner Programme. As a first step in this direction it was suggested that a joint working party should be set up to establish criteria for evaluating and analyzing the impact of the partners' work. These criteria could then form a basis for reporting and monitoring the progress of the programme.

Furthermore, these criteria and instruments could also be put at the disposal of other GTZ units, especially as it is intended that NGOs will play a greater role in GTZ projects in future.

Until now, the GATE Cooperation Partner Programme has been limited to supporting individual NGOs in 21 developing countries. Now, after the seminar, the programme can be developed into an effective net work with 22 equal partners.


GATE's cooperation partners want to contribute more of their knowledge of appropriate technologies to GTZ projects. At the seminar, exchanges of staff, reciprocal visits, joint further training programmes and guest attendance of courses were proposed. In addition, the partner organizations will in future be involved to a greater extent in the planning and arrangement of the GATE Cooperation Partner Programme.


Les coopteurs de GATE veulent intensifier l'apport de leurs connaissances en mati de technologie appropridans la mission de dloppement de la GTZ. Au cours du snaire, il a propose de procr a des anges de collaborateurs, d'organiser des visites rproques, de mettre en oeuvre des programmes commune de perfectionnement et des stages. Par ailleurs, les organisations partenaires pourront, a l'avenir, participer dans une plus grande mesure a l'boration et a la conception du programme des partenaires de GATE a la cooption.


Los interlocutores de cooperacie GATE desean une mayor incorporacie sus conocimientos sobre tecnologapropiada en las actividades de politica de desarrollo de la GTZ. En el seminario se ha propuesto el intercambio de colaboradores, de visitas reciprocas, programas de capacitacionjuntos y la participacin curves. Ademas las organizaciones colaboradoras tendran en adelante une mayor participacin la planificaci organizaciel programa de cooperacie GATE.

''Night of Different Cultures''

The "Night of Different Cultures" was how the participants jokingly (and aptly) referred to one evening at the seminar when everyone presented something typical of his or her country. It was a source of hearty amusement and applause - a well-deserved change from the strenuous work during the day. Work and pleasure - GATE staff member Joachim Prey captured both on celluloid.

''How to Work with Target Groups'' - Part One:

Retrospective by the Seminar Organizer
by Ulrich Schwarz.

GATE was planning a seminar for its cooperation partners. The participants were to include 21 partners from 21 countries, plus members of the GATE staff. The duration of the seminar was given as about 10 to 14 days. No definite topic was laid down, merely that it ought to be connected with "appropriate management". As regards time and place, the seminar was to be held in Autumn 1989 in the Federal Republic of Germany.

Early in 1989, armed with this information, I started planning a seminar which was to become the second meeting of all NGO partners of GATE. The first meeting of this kind took place in Berlin in September 1 985.

Initially, the main priorities were to fix the venue, invite the participants and prepare a programme for the seminar.

A suitable conference centre was soon found, in southern Germany. Compared to other conference centres the building in Bad Herrenalb, in the northern part of the Black Forest, has several advantages: it is set in magnificent landscape at the edge of a small town, yet only a few minutes' walk from the town centre. The quiet setting, the large number of conference rooms, and the very helpful and tolerant staff made an atmosphere possible which I have rarely experienced in other centres.

The invitation included a request to ail participants to prepare a poster illustrating and describing their organizations and to bring it along to the seminar as a "wall newspaper". In this way, all the partners invited to the seminar were able to introduce themselves in a different way. In addition, the wall newspapers made it possible to study the presentations individually and in detail.

"Open" seminar

In developing the programme I collaborated very closely with GATE and Burkhard Krupp, who acted as moderator of the seminar. In the planning team there were at first two conflicting opinions as to how the seminar should be designed. The one opinion was that the topics dealt with should be as concrete as possible, and well prepared. The other side wanted very little prestructuring of the contents, or none at all - as a means of allowing the participants more freedom to arrange things their own way. In the end the latter opinion was adopted, and it proved effective during the seminar. The participants were thus able to draw on their entire wealth of experience, as well as dealing with their individual concerns (see also the article by Burkhard Krupp, page 20.). It was decided that the central theme of the seminar would be " How to work with target groups " .

After another series of organizational details had been dealt with, the time finally came to welcome the first participant, from Papua New Guinea. He arrived in Frankfurt at 6.25 p.m. on 15 August. Many of the participants arrived in Frankfurt a few days before the seminar was due to start; the last just made it in -time for the welcoming dinner on the evening of the 17th.

For me, this period before the official start of the seminar was an ideal opportunity to get to know the individual participants.

Tolerance, motivation, willingness to cooperate

Even during the presentation of the posters brought along by the participants it became clear what remarkable and interesting personalities were gathered here, in terms of both tolerance and motivation.

And later on, as well, for the entire duration of the seminar, tolerance, motivation, willingness to cooperate and mutual trust were the driving forces that resulted in the seminar developing a completely unsuspected dynamic. Perhaps it can be described thus: the energy curve very quickly reached a climax, which was maintained up to the very last day of the seminar.

On the one hand a great deal of tireless work was done. (Some participants could sometimes even be found working in the seminar rooms at night, finalizing details.) On the other, the evenings were a popular time for singing, dancing and games. Surprisingly, however, all the participants were always full of energy the following morning, regardless of whether their night's rest had been long or short (some of them often had to manage on only 4 - 5 hours' sleep).

All in all, it may be said that not only were the topics covered; the partners also got to know each other much better. As regards building up an international network and increasing cooperation by promoting south-south dialogue this seminar was definitely a success.

Many of the participants then extended their stay in Europe and visited other development aid organizations and partners in the Federal Republic of Germany and other European countries.


This article describes the preparations for the seminar and how it subsequently turned out. Apart from the basic organization of the seminar the author also looks at other aspects, including, for example, how it was designed. The organizers decided that it should be only minimally prestructured, i.e., it should be "open". The group dynamics and the general atmosphere are also briefly described.


L'article proc une escription des travaux prratoires du snaire ainsi que de leur dulement. Outre celui relatif a l'organisation, bien d'autres aspects y vent abordes, ainsi - par exemple - celui de la conception du snaire. La forme choisie a celle du snaire «ouvert», c'est-a-dire ne se conformant pas n plan rigide etabli a l'avance. La dynamique de groupe ainsi que l'ambiance du snaire vent lement briment qu.


En el informe se describen los trabajos preparatorios del seminario y su desarrollo. Junto a la organizacie analizan tambiotros aspectos, como, por ejemplo, el contenido del seminario. Se eligi contenido poco estructurado previamente, es decir, lo que puede llamarse un seminario abierto. Se expone brevemente tambila dinca de grupo y la atmra del seminario.

“How to Work with Target Groups'' - Part Two

Retrospective by the Group Moderator
by Burkhard Krupp

For a start, the participants in the seminar (representatives of various NGOs from twenty countries) abolished the term "target group": they didn't see themselves as a target group ("it sounds too military") but as "self-help groups".

We took this as confirmation that we had chosen the right concept for the seminar. The fact was that, together with GATE, we had given a lot of thought to the question of how to work with the participants. Should we simply get the subject-matter across and present them with facts? Or should we put our money on the participants' creativity and their self-organizing potential, and risk an open seminar, with a minimum of pre-structuring?

In the end we opted for the "open" form, although we were well aware that a largely unplanned, unstructured seminar can only succeed if both participants and organizers are highly motivated. Seminars of this kind can be a flop! And if that happened, the participants would be disssatisfied, it would be hard to justify the costs, and our image would suffer...

On the other hand it would have been inconsistent with the idea of self-help groups to adopt a classic seminar style, with prepared lectures and papers, leaving only limited scope for development, creativity and free organization.

Participants took initiative

So the seminar began with the participants and ourselves experiencing and practising methods of moderating discussions and group work. And in doing so, they increasingly took the initiative in arranging and organizing topics and methods.

At the beginning we guided the group in identifying topics. It was important to us that the participants should find and develop their own themes. At this stage, each individual should see that he could talk about what concerned him, and link it to the ideas of other participants.

As soon as the participants were convinced that they themselves were determining the topics there was an endless flow of ideas and contributions. Now it was a question of systematically channelling the energy thus unleashed. Here the participants gladly adopted the moderation method proposed by us, because they of course needed a tool with which they could organize their work effectively.

They very quickly learned to work efficiently with groups of different sizes. They evolved their own way of working and developed the "moderation" idea further. After three days the seminar group moderator was superfluous and was able to leave the groups to manage on their own.

That means, he could have left them to manage on their own if it had not been for the (German) visitors and experts who turned up out of the blue as "seminar observers". Suddenly there were not 20, but 40 people taking part in the sessions. They were a nuisance. Not only for the moderator, but also for the participants, who felt like actors who had been disturbed and were increasingly unhappy about it. One of the participants made the point rather bluntly: "It makes you feel like some rare animal in a zoo."

Something had to be done about it; otherwise this interference by (German) visitors would ruin the seminar, which had begun so well. And so the moderator split the participants into two groups - a not altogether easy task, because some of the "seminar observers" protested.

But it succeeded. Topics which complemented one another were agreed on. One topic was discussed by the NGO representatives, the complementary topic by the German group.

And then came the big surprise. After hours of working separately the two groups presented their results in plenary session. The NGO representatives had worked very hard on their topic and the results were impressive. The German group's results, by contrast, were rather woeful. Perhaps the "seminar observers" had been forced into the role of active participants too fast. Perhaps, as a group, they were also too heterogeneous to discuss their topic in detail in only a few hours. Whatever the reason, the contrast between the two groups was obvious.

Naturally enough, the self-assurance of the NGO representatives soared! One of them wrote on the notice board: "It looks as though we're the real experts".

Equal partners

This unexpected imbalance had started something. And Peter Baz of GATE knew how to make the most of it: without displaying any of the "helper" attitude, and clearly deeply moved by what had happened, he got up to answer the NGO representatives' questions. There followed a very open, committed, honest dialogue.

It was this dialogue that broke the barriers. From then on it was clear that GATE was accepted in the NGO network as a legitimate partner (and not just as a sponsor). It goes without saying that from this point onwards Germans and NGO representatives got along easily with one another, both in groups and in the plenary sessions.

Following this change of course the seminar once again developed a tension and a force that could almost be physically felt. After all, we had reached the stage where the results of the seminar had to be processed and presented to the GTZ management in Eschborn.

It was an exciting, professional presentation. However, it remains to be seen whether the GTZ management were actually convinced that the NGOs' ideas are right and their commitment is real. Sometimes it was impossible to escape the impression that bureaucratic organizations like GTZ tend to be at a loss when confronted with unconventional ideas and methods. But this experience is also one of the realities that NGOs have to live with.

The ideas that were developed and the contacts made during the seminar are still very much alive. This is shown by the letters from participants in the workshop and their willingness to cooperate closely in the future. With GATE as a welcome and equal partner.


Given the "open" style of the seminar in Bad Herrenalb, the participants were quick to develop their own ideas and discuss them. And as a result there was a never-ending flow of contributions and ideas. The people who participated as observers, however, turned out to be a problem. Splitting the participants into two working groups was the solution, as well as the cause of a big surprise. The end result was that the representatives of both the NGOs and GATE came to appreciate one another as equal partners.


Au cours de ce snaire ouvert, les participants ont trrapidement dloppeurs propres id et ont discute aussi bien entre eux que les uns avec les autres. Le flux des exposes et des id it «intarissable». En revanche, les observateurs du snaire se vent rre une source de probls. La solution - et en m temps la surprise du snaire - a consiste a cr deux groupes de travail. A Bad Herrenalb, les reprntants des organisations non gouvernementales et ceux de GATE ont appris a s'apprer en tant que partenaires ux.


Los participantes desarrollaron rdamente sus propias ideas en el seminario abierto y las discutieron y an alizaron conjuntamente.El flujo de aportaciones e ideas no se agot ningmento. Los problemas se presentaron, en cambio, por lo que se refiere a los observadores del seminario. La soluciue una divisin dos grupos de trabajo, que al mismo tiempo fue la sorpresa del seminario. En Bad Herrenalb los representantes de las organizaciones no gobernamentales y los de GATE aprendieron a respetarse colaboradores de igual categoria.

GTZ and Non-Governmental Organizations- Highlights from a topical discussion

by Achim Steiner.

In recent months, in connection with the topic of direct financing of NGOs, a lively discussion has developed as to the whys and wherefores of promoting non-governmental organizations (NGOs) as a part of government development cooperation (in particular GTZ and KfW - the Kreditanstalt fderaufbau). The aim of this brief article is to present a summary of both sides of the argument.

GTZ is currently holding intensive talks with representatives of German NGOs with a view to formulating criteria for future cooperation with non-governmental organizations. It is intended that these talks should focus on concrete experience gained in practical work.

However, the topic also provides an opportunity for a critical appraisal of our own approaches and standards in our local cooperation with NGOs. Nobody whould deny that we in GTZ have made mistakes in this area in the past. In most cases there may be reasons and explanations, but they must not be allowed to become justifications. Government development cooperation bears a special responsibility, because NGO structures in our partner countries are often still in their early stages of development and in many cases their very existence is threatened. To use them as ends in themselves, i.e. as a means of carrying out GTZ projects more efficiently, would also be a mistake for GTZ as a partner of the NGO movement.

Ruinous competition

In the last few months German NGOs have repeatedly drawn attention to the dangers of so-called direct financing of southern NGOs by government development aid organizations. In this context, there has been a tendency to use banner headline phrases such as "Trojan horse" or "ruinous competition" in an otherwise very serious discussion. And in addition to the BMZ (the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation), GTZ has become one of the main targets of this ciriticism.

At the heart of this debate, initiated by the central Church agencies (EZE-MISEREOR) and the Bensheimer Kreis (an association of "free" NGOs), is the fear that the southern NGOs, after many laborious years spent building them up and promoting them, could now be engulfed in a flood of money, the effects of which - with certain qualifictions - are regarded as negative and counterproductive. It cannot be denied that these warnings are well founded: the first negative experience in an international context has made this plain.

The arguments

Right in the forefront of German NGOs' attitudes to this question is the fear that governments are attempting to replace "non-conformist" NGOs with those that comply with government policy, and that closer cooperation between government donor organizations in the north with NGOs in the south is promoting this kind of monopolization. The arguments put forward to support this view are as follows:

· NGOs often play a latent or open role in opposition - offers of government finance put this autonomy at risk.

· NGOs are turned into substitute organizations to fill the gap where government services are lacking.

· Small NGOs can overestimate their capabilities. That is, they are 'overtaxed' and lose their links with the grass roots.

· Government financing could lead to southern NGOs being set up for a particular purpose, and thus merely strengthen the interests of certain elites.

· Southern NGOs are suspected of being instruments of foreign governments.

· Northern NGOs are losing competent partner organizations in increasing numbers.

· While southern NGOs need long term partners, direct financing is subject to political fluctuations in the donor country.

· Intensive cooperation between GTZ and southern NGOs could also result in less government money being made available to German NGOs for their work in partner countries.

Thus it appears that success - and a benefit for the target group - can only be achieved if the donors do not falsify the character of NGOs, if they respect the autonomy of the NGOs and help preserve their traditional conception of themselves, as elements which must be protected and promoted within a system. However, it is feared that in many cases precisely this cannot be guaranteed by government development cooperation and hence not by GTZ either. The conclusions drawn from this are not yet definitive, but they range from a categorical "no" to cooperation, through "yes, but only with the approval of German NGOs" to a qualified "yes", i.e. on certain conditions (e.g. with the approval of a German NGO if one is involved).

Potential dangers

The present state of the debate in GTZ can be summarized as follows:

· The term "direct financing" is rather misleading. GTZ does not have a fund for direct financing of NGOs. Where there is cooperation with (and in some cases also financing of) southern NGOs, it is in the context of an ongoing Technical Cooperation project and is usually the result of a dialogue conducted locally within the project environment.

· The risk of southern NGOs losing their autonomy by being integrated in government projects is recognized. Therefore, direct promotion of socio-political organizations is not considered a task for Technical Cooperation (TC). However, non-governmental institutions in partner countries cover an extremely broad range, from private enterprise through cooperative to non-profit organizations.

· The above-mentioned fundamental risks of cooperation with southern NGOs are not, however, limited to TC; they are potentially a part of any form of external promotion, i.e. they should not lead to this form of cooperation being rejected. Rather, they should be taken into account in the concrete design of instruments for and approaches to cooperation between GTZ and southern NGOs.

· The experience gained in development work over the last thirty years, the increasing importance of non-governmental organizations in the development process, and the realization that target group-oriented and participatory development cooperation is only possible with the involvement of all social groups and organizations, have helped bring about a situation where government development cooperation is increasingly taking non-governmental organizations into account and involving them in its conceptual and instrumental orientation.

· The principal goal of such an orientation is to improve the development conditions and the necessary freedom for self-help initiatives by the poor and the non-governmental organizations promoting them. The spectrum of such activities ranges from the government counselling level to the promotion of forms of village organization. Here, cooperation with southern NGOs is not only desirable, but a necessary part of practice-oriented counselling.

· An approach of this kind is justifiable as long as it does not restrict the scope for forms of self help independent of the state, or paralyze the motivation of the target groups to find forms of their own, or obstruct organically developed partnerships with northern NGOs.

· Therefore, cooperation with southern NGOs should also be coordinated with any German NGOs affected (where possible with local representatives). This does not mean that one organization has a right of veto with regard to the partnerships entered into by another, nor, in particular, that decisions of partners in the south are taken for them; rather, it aims at putting the conception of complementarily and joint responsibility between governmental and non-governmental development cooperation into practice. In this context, as the ongoing debate has shown, GTZ must display particular sensitivity in its dealings with southern NGOs.

This synopsis of the arguments is not definitive. The aim of the current dialogue is to find practicable ways of coordination and cooperation with non-governmental organizations, with the approval of the BMZ. At the same time, this should be accompanied by a critical appraisal of experience gained so far in our projects. For this reason readers are asked to regard this article also as an invitation to contribute to this policy formulation process by discussing the issues raised above and to inform us of the results and for recommendations they may have reached.


This article looks at the ongoing debate as to whether non-governmental organizations in the Third World should be financed directly, as a part of the federal Republic of Germany's official development cooperation. The debate is of prime concern to GTZ as the instrument of this form of cooperation. In coordination with the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation (BMZ), GTZ is attempting to find practicable ways of cooperating with NGOs.


L'article que la discussion actuellement en cours sur le pour et le contre du financement direct d'organisations non gouvernementales dans les pays du tiers monde dans le cadre de la cooption au dloppement apportpar le gouvernement de la Rblique frale d'Allemagne. En tant qu'instrument de cette cooption au dloppement de la part du gouvernement fral alemand, la GTZ est tout particuliment concernpar cette discussion. Celle-ci aspire a trouver, en accord avec le minist fral de la cooption nomique, des formes praticables de collaboration avec des organisations non gouvernementales.


El informe se ocupa de la discusie actualidad sobre los pros y los contras de la financiaciirecta de organizaciones no gubernamentales en paises en vias de desarrollo en el marco de la cooperacistatal pare el desarrollo de la Repa Federal de Alemania. Como instrumento de la cooperacistatal pare el desarrollo en la Repa Federal esta discusifecta tambiprincipalmente a la GTZ. La sociedad aspira, en colaboracion el Ministerio Federal de Cooperacicona, a hallar formas de cooperaciracticables con organizaciones estatales.

GATE's Cooperation Partners Introduce Themselves


The ANADEGES Group is a network of some 20 autonomous NGOs working mainly in Mexico's rural sector, supporting peasant (campesino) and Indian groups, communities and organizations. The group was formed in 1982 by the amalgamation of three existing NGOs.

Theoretical framework

A new social phenomenon emerging in the South is the mass shift from traditional poverty to modern deprivation. The economy of the people involved may be compared to a barrel they keep trying to fill up with water - the fruits of their labour. Adverse socio-economic foces have bored many holes in the barrel, so that water flows out as soon as it is poured in. The barrel is al ways empty. Resources flow elsewhere: "modern" urban industry, the flight of capital, transnational corporations, government corruption and international transfers are some examples. Generally speaking, every type of campesino interaction with modern economic forces opens up a new "hole in the barrel". As a result the production capacity of the rural sector is close to zero and a social macro-crisis has ensued.

Invalid solutions

Many "rural development" projects simply try to pour more water into the empty barrels without plugging the holes first- a waste of time. Still worse, the holes usually get bigger. On the other hand, gigantic development programmes - many financed with foreign aid - are like tornadoes: they completely destroy the campesino economy' washing away the barrels, so to speak. In both cases the poor become even more deprived.

A different approach

Each one of the ANADEGES organizations tries to act as a plug that compesinos can use to counteract adverse forces - to plug the holes in the barrel. The results so far have been encouraging. Freed from these drains on resources, people are in a better position to satisfy their basic needs and define their own lifestyle.


After years of working in rural regions, ANADEGES has confirmed that campesinos are

1) generally well organized for whatever is possible at any given moment;

2) aware of their plight, and trying very hard to "plug the holes in their barrel";

3) not always in a position to do this successfully, and therefore in need of additional external assistance, on their terms and for their own purposes, especially in their dealings with the "modern" sector.


Anadeges has designed a number of specific programmes to provide this external support, including appropriate technologies (AT). However, it never promotes campesino participation in its projects. On the contrary, Anadeges informs campesinos and their local advisor(s) of the menu of programmes, and waits. If invited to join the campesinos' in their efforts to "plug holes in the barrel", Anadeges does its best to respond quickly and efficiently, but always in a subordinate position and keeping a low profile.

Internal organization

The Anadeges Group includes both regional and specialized organizations: credit, AT, marketing of produce, training and technical assistance in agriculture, husbandry, forestry, legal advice etc. Activities are coordinated around specific campesino-controlled projects. Women and the environment are two areas of special concern.

On the following pages our cooperation partners introduce themselves and their work. The brief descriptions of the individual groups, which they sent us at the request of gate's editorial staff, differ just as widely as the groups themselves. However, since we did not have datailed descriptions of all of the groups at the time of going to press we compiled "mini-portraits" of some of them (see page 37). The profiles of the partner groups are presented in alphabetical order.

APICA, Cameroon

APICA (Association for the Promotion of African Community Initiatives) was founded in 1980. It is an international, private, non-profit association registered in Switzerland, with headquarters in Douala, Cameroon, and operates throughout Central Africa. The association's objectives include provision of technical, organizational and administrative support to local organizations, private voluntary organizations, ad-hoc groups and NGOs engaged in development projects in various fields, e.g. public health, sanitation, agriculture, food production and food processing; the study of appropriate technologies with a view to improving traditional methods and developing innovative alternatives; dissemination of research findings and information in an effort to assist development programmes by proposing, evaluating and testing solutions to problems; maintaining contacts and channels for exchanges of information with development organizations; and providing training in management and organizational skills.

APICA's activities focus on supporting a variety of local development initiatives, in particular those of local non-governmental and private voluntary organizations. The type of support given falls into five broad categories:

1) Research into the improvement of traditional technologies, in order to perfect prototypes adapted to users and their environments. Commercial production of these prototypes is handled by small and medium-sized enterprises to which APICA transfers the production know-how.

2) Support and training of local authorities, development personnel and village-level participants in development work. The topics dealt with include organizational skills, basic management and technical training, in order to facilitate technology transfer.

3) Dissemination of documentation and information on locally appropriate and environmentally sound technologies. Information on technology and development activities for grass-roots communities goes hand in hand with this purpose and should permit the creation of networks among leaders and development personnel.

4) Studies on and research into development problems.

5) Finally, to furnish organizations which support grass-roots communities and their initiatives with the direct assistance needed to help them organize or plan their activites. This assistance can also be in the form of studies or evaluations of the projects of such communities.

ATA, Thailand

The Appropriate Technology Association (ATA) is a private nonprofit development organization dedicated to research and the promotion of grass-roots technology for rural development. It was officially established in 1981 in response to a growing need for services related to village-level technology. ATA's members and personnel are specialists in various fields: engineering, economics, socio-anthropology and community development. The improved infrastructure and expanded base of activities make more effective and efficient programmes possible for the development, adaptation and dissemination of technological inputs among disadvantaged people.


· To create an awareness of AT among GOs and NGOs.

· To research and develop AT for the community: the technology should be cheap, easy to produce and maintain, and should reinforce the community's capacity for self-reliance.

· To obtain technological know-how from local and international sources and provide a question and-answer service for individuals and groups.

· To adapt and develop technology, test it, and disseminate in communities via training, demonstrations and publications.

· to provide technical assistance and basic technological knowledge to those in need of it.

Target groups and coverage

Individuals and groups in rural and urban areas, partners of GOs and NGOs, educational institutions, public organizations, newspapers, industrial enterprises, banks.


· Water resource technology, rower pump design and deep well digging machine (rotary rig).

· Sustainable agriculture system; soil and seed improvement and botanical pest control; integrated farming and fish-farming in paddy fields.

· Improvement of soya seed.

· Energy technology: micro-hydropower, electricity from biogas.

· Development of local weaving industries; improvement of sericulture, natural colour dyeing and cloth design techniques.

Information centre

· Provision of reading and research facilities and documents (films, video tapes, microfilms and slides are already available).

· Provision of consultation and advice; monitoring; question-andanswer service.

· Publication of quarterly journals, brochures, slides, video tapes and posters to support all of ATA's activites.

· Organization and implementation of training courses and workshops.

· Setting up of a mobile dissemination team to provide service for the rural population.

· Assisting and cooperating with other NGOs as resource individuals.

Operational strategies

The guiding principle on which ATA's work is based is cooperation with other NGOs, focussing on intensive technical development, by

· identifying the needs of rural populations and helping to solve their problems;
· investigation, experimental work on technological development and selection of target groups.

BASE - ECTA, Paraguay

BASE-ECTA is an NGO that works with organized self-help groups such as peasants and the urban poor in order to support their efforts to improve their own self-managed organizations and raise their living standards.

The Alternative Technology Area (ATA) of BASE attempts to support the work of the self-help groups in order to improve their quality of life and their capability for self management.

The work of the ATA focusses on the following: a) alternative energy: firewood cookstoves and gasifiers b) alternative construction: fibre concrete rooftiles (tejas), soil blocks and water filters c) microindustries: hand oil-presses, grain mills d) flood protection (soil dams).

The ATA has its own Alternative Technology Experimentation Center (completed in October 1989), a Documentation Center (bibliography with SATIS classification, using MICRO ISIS software), a Diffusion Department and a Consultant Department (to advise self-help groups on technological projects.

The ATA also works in close cooperation with the other areas of BASE-ECTA (education, communication, documentation and studies).


CCA-ONG (Comite de Coordination des Actions des Organisations non Governamentales - Coordinating Committee for the Activities of Non-Governmental Organizations) is a consortium of local and international NGOs working in Mali. The consortium currently has 83 members.

Since December 1985, the focus of CCA-ONG's work has shifted from relief to long-term development.

CCA-ONG has served as a major intermediary in the administration of funds from Trocaire, Band-Aid and Canada-Sahel Solidarity. Its logistics and information units have also been important resources for the Malian NGO community.


CCA-ONG will continue to play several key roles in Mali's development. It provides a forum where NGOs can exchange information and coordinate their response to the Malian government. Its information service includes a data base covering the activities of all member NGOs in Mali. And last but ot least, its logistics service hires heavy and light trucks and other equipment to member NGOs at reasonable rates.

Main goals

· To improve communication and coordination among NGOs in Mali.

· To provide information via data bases, documentation/publications and meetings.

· To provide training according to members" needs.

· To provide logistical support for NGOs in project implementation.

· To facilitate the information exchange and the discussion of issues relevant to the NGO community.

CEMAT, Guatemala

The Center for Mesoamerican Studies on Appropriate Technology (CEMAT), is a private non-profit organization based in Guatemala City. CEMAT's main purpose is to help promote economic development, technical cooperation and social progress in Guatemala and other Central American countries. In order to accomplish this purpose CEMAT is pursuing the following objectives:

a) To promote and systematize the transfer of appropriate technical knowledge to Guatemala and the Central American region from countries with more technological experience.

b) To promote and systematize local scientific investigations and appropriate technologies throughout the region.

c) To develop and implement projects involving appropriate technologies and training systems for specific target groups.

d) To promote communication and an exchange of experience related to appropriate technology at regional, national and international level.

CEMAT owes its foundation to the initiative of individuals, groups and institutions who considered it important to create an instrument which would specifically promote, in Guatemala and the Central American region, appropriate technologies necessary for the socio-economic development of rural and suburban areas.

Sustainable Development Model

Today CEMAT can look back on 12 years of active participation in the testing, evaluation and dissemination of various technologies offered as alternatives for rural development. The experience gained during this time includes several ways of utilizing bioenergy systems, with which CEMAT has been successfully experimenting. Within this framework a Sustainable Development Model has been devised, with three levels of action - domestic, entrepreneurial and communal.

Appropriate Technology

There are two different concepts of appropriate technology:

1) technology suited to human, financial and material resources and conditions in the poor regions of developing countries;

2) technology which is affordable by low-capital rural and/or suburban communities.

The first concept addresses technology directed towards local collectivities; the second addresses it as a goal of community action, reached through a process of appropriation. The area between these two concepts in CEMAT's frame of reference.

CORT, India

Consortium on Rural Technology (CORT) was established in 1980 by a group of dedicated individuals motivated by Gandhi's ideas and actions. The consortium's aims are to reach and help develop rural areas using technologies appropriate for local situations and local people. India is a huge country with many different cultures and languages, and where agro-climatic conditions vary from one region to another. Such technologies should therefore fit into the cultural and rural setting in different areas.

CORT is a non-profit, non-governmental organization. It provides an NGO forum for scientists, technologists and grass-roots organizations to discuss different technologies.

Technical panels have been constituted within the various groups to appraise some of these technologies.

To ensure that development work reflects established scientific and technical knowledge, CORT has been providing training help to voluntary groups based in rural areas.

As far as dissemination of these technologies is concerned, demonstrations have been organized at village level in different parts of the country.

To support these activities and develop communications CORT has published many technical manuals and do-it-yourself guides. It also regularly publishes a journal entitled "Changing Villages".

In addition, a resource centre has been established to promote technical knowledge and to answer technical enquiries received from different grass-roots organizations.

As a participant in and contributor to the Special Energy Programme and the programme for environmentally compatible sanitation, CORT was designated a "focal point" by the Foundation for Woodstove Dissemination of Kenya, for improved cookstoves, and by Approtech Asia, of the Philippines, for water and sanitation.

As one of GATE's Cooperation Partners, CORT has been able to establish relations and share experience and knowledge with similar organizations in Latin America, Africa, Asia and the Pacific region. These relationships have been further strengthened by CORT's member ship of SATIS.

DTC, Zimbabwe

The Development Technology Centre (DTC) is a small multidisciplinary information and resource centre based at the University of Zimbabwe in Harare. The Centre's purpose is to provide appropriate technology, or development technology as it is often called in Zimbabwe, to men, women or young people who need it.

Started by a university lecturer in the mid-1970s, the Centre has grown rapidly since Zimbabwe's independence in 1980. With assistance from GTZ/GATE, UNESCO and ITDG, it now has a staff of five and is a non faculty department of the University and is available for use by anyone, both inside and outside the University.

With its mixed economy, Zimbabwe has a complex infrastructure. The country's institutions range from central government through local government, rural councils, quasi government parastatals, non government organizations, schools, cooperatives and training centres to industrial and commercial organizations. Many of these are interested in various aspects of small-scale technology but often do not know where to find it.

The Centre provides information and expertise, sometimes directly, from in-house sources, but often through referral to other specialists and researches. Where information is scarce the Centre facilitates and encourages new research and development, especially relating to local needs and conditions.

The Centre provides a technical question-and-answer service and operates a resource room with a microfiche information unit and a selection of books, documents and local publications. Users come from the University, from all over Zimbabwe, from the SADCC/PTA region, other Third World countries, and more recently also from universities and research and aid organizations throughout the world. Seminars and one-day training courses on selected topics are provided on request.

Recent projects include cookstoves, bread-baking, small carpentry tools, a low-cost wheelchair, home soap-making, rabbit breeding, affordable housing, alternative energy applications and school curriculum development.

GSS, Sri Lanka

Gami Seva Sevana (Rural Service Centre) is a brainchild of the Christian Workers' Fellowship (CWF). On 28th July 1979, the CWF Working Committee endorsed the following as its basic objectives:

· A programme of development education including the training of people for service in farming and rural work. To begin with, the Centre will give basic training in the practical aspects of animal husbandry and agriculture, and later hold courses covering management techniques and motivation, elementary book-keeping and any other skills that may be required. Follow-up courses and seminars will also be planned.

· A viable model farm unit to promote new methods and forms of farming.

· A place where people can come together for adult education, health programmes and other educational and cultural programmes of interest to inhabitants of rural areas. This Centre will also serve as a meeting place for inter-religious dialogue and meditation, open to people of all faiths and races. It will seek to foster community-bulding activities and programmes.

On 7th January 1981, Gami Seva Sevana was registered as a limited company.

Gami Seva Sevana is based at Galaha, a small village in the mid country plantation area of Sri Lanka, in the Kandy District. A hundred years ago the British selected the area to begin planting tea. Today, the land has no topsoil and tea can no longer be grown economically. Hence the plantation estates have been fragmented and used for village expansion. Most villages do some backyard farming (dairy, poultry, goats) and grow vegetables and spices. The marketable produce of the area includes milk, eggs, meat, black pepper and vegetables. The objectives outlined above are aimed at helping these village communities develop on a self-reliance basis.

Since 1979, the programmes initially implemented have evolved according to local needs. The farm operated by the Centre has provided a place for practical training of young people. In response to popular demand a milk cooperative and a credit council were set up and a handloom workshop was established. Educational and cultural programmes have developed. The emphasis placed on using locally available resources to develop the soil has been of major importance, leading Gami Seva Sevana into organic farming and the study and use of appropriate technologies. With the experience thus gained, the Centre is now able to disseminate information on integrated organic farming and rural technologies appropriate to farming communities by way of seminars, workshops and a reference library with a question-andanswer service.

At Gami Seva Sevana trainees, instructors and other workers live together as members of an inter-faith, multi-ethnic community which emphasizes sharing and mutual responsibility.


Ghana's first Intermediate Technology Transfer Unit (ITTU) was launched in 1980 at Suame Magazine, Kumasi by the Technology Consultancy Centre (TCC). It was such a success that the Ghana Government decided to establish the Ghana Regional Appropriate Technology Industrial Service (GRATIS) for the purpose of setting up ITTUs in each of the country's ten regions.

The GRATIS Project was established under the aegis of the Ministry of Industries, Science and Technology. Government aproval was granted in February 1987 and the Board of Directors took up their duties on 25 March 1987.

The GRATIS Project is an autonomous body controlled by its Board of Directors, with headquarters at Tema. The Director, Dr. J.W. Powell, is assisted by a Co-Director, Dr. K. Praka - Asante. In September 1987 a busy programme of action was implemented to achieve the aims of the project, initially with eight Ghanaian professional staff and three British VSO workers. More Ghanaian professionals have since joined the Project.

Objectives of the ITTU

The ITTU is a group of production workshops where new production methods are demonstrated. The unit attempts to transfer technology to small-scale industrialists and entrepreneurs who are seeking to introduce new products or employ new manufacturing techniques. The technology transferred is new in the sense that it is not widely known or used by the small-scale and informal-sector industrialists in the locality. The unit selects, adapts or develops an appropriate technology that is more advanced than the technology generally employed, but not so advanced that it is beyond the skills and horizon of the local people.

GRATIS, as its acronym implies, is a free service. The range of services it can offer include the following:

Free training on the job, to develop skills ranging from weaving to welding, from carpentry to casting; and teaching of cheap, modern methods to masters and apprentices to help maximize production.

Free information on how and where the best and cheapest machines, tools and materials can be obtained.

Free advice on how best to turn business dreams into reality. Whether a client is planning to set up a small-scale industrial enterprise, or is planning to expand an existing business. GRATIS and the ITTU have the experience and expertise to help.

Each ITTU which is set up has machine tools and equipment to enable it to cater for the training aspect of the project. The expertise for the training is supplied by the individual ITTU and GRATIS at Tema.

The Operations, Socio-Economic, Rural and Women's Industries, and Finance Division at GRATIS headquarters in Tema are capable of providing all the information and advice needed by the service's clients.

SEMTA, Bolivia

SEMTA (Centre for Multiple Appropriate Technology Services) was founded in 1980 with the aim of promoting the social, economic and cultural development of Bolivia by giving support to inhabitants of both rural and urban communities.

At present SEMTA is running a regional rural development programme in the El Alto district in the province of Pacajes (Department of La Paz), and a technical-organizational programme in Achocalla, advising associated urban-suburban groups and communities. Similar services are being provided in other parts of La Paz Department and of the country in coordination with other institutions.


Rural programme:

Planning of self-sustaining agricultural systems. Technical assistance to communities, establishment of self-managed revolving funds compatible with intensive (vegetables, fodder) and extensive farming methods (tubers, beans, grain) and livestock farming (cattle, sheep, llamas).

Urban programme:

Artisanal weaving, basic nutrition and services (laundries and public showers, solar-powered/manually operated), family dry latrines.

Study programme:

Socio-economic studies and coordination of these with technical-scientific studies, economic analysis of profitability and feasibility, evaluation and selection of technological alternatives etc.

Information and documentation:

Documentation through approx. 5,000 specialized documents on AT and other documents classified using the SATIS system; computerized searches for bibliographic and documentary information; reading room; question-and-answer service by mail.

Technological-social support:

Transfer of technology and basic knowledge relating to organization and self-administration to rural and urban dwellers.

Communication - dissemination:

Production of educational packages, socio-economic, technical and scientific studies, catalogues (bibliographic material, technological products), technical manuals, audiovisual materials, radio programmes etc.

Technological development:

The metal-timber workshop designs and makes the following products: windmills (air pumps), manually operated water pumps, drilling equipment, micro-turbines, tripods, laminated plastic sheet, tools for the artisanal wool industry (looms, silkspinners, carders etc.).

The construction workshop builds greenhouses, silos, stables, wells, water reservoirs, latrines, reinforced concrete (reservoirs and tanks), micro-hydropower plants, manual water pumps and windmills.

SIBAT, The Philippines

SIBAT, Sibol ng Agham at Teknolohiya, or Spring of Science and Technology, is a non-stock, nonprofit, non-government network of Philippine regional organizations supporting people's socio-economic activities through the application of science and appropriate technology. The common goal is to develop and disseminate appropriate and alternative production, manufacturing and processing technologies and systems with the grassroots.

The network was established in April 1984 to coordinate research, training and cooperative efforts in organic agriculture and appropriate technology. Since then, SIBAT has promoted numerous technologies that enhance people's capacity for self-development and self-reliance.

Its network secretariat, based in Manila, is responsible for network coordination and integration. It has three major programs:

1) Appropriate Technology (AT),
2) Science and Technology Resources Information Program (STRIP) and
3) Projects Development and Evaluation (PDE).

The AT program conducts sustainable agriculture projects with network members. STRIP maintains a library, a question-and-answer service and a publications unit. PDE administers project funds for the network's small-scale livelihood projects and conducts pilot projects that are integral to developing sustainable agricultural models.

The network secretariat also provides regular services through training, technical support and hosting of fore, symposia and conferences.

Starting in 1989, SIBAT embarkes into research-inventory, verification and replication of appropriate farming systems in lowland rainfed, irrigated and upland rice-growing areas in the Philippines.

Yayasan Mandiri, Indonesia

Yayasan Mandiri means "the foundation for self-reliance". It is a private, non-profit organization founded on December 21, 1979 by a group of students at Bandung Institute of Technology.

The founders of Yayasan Mandiri believed that the philosophy and methods of appropriate technology were particularly suited to facing the urgent challenge of finding efficient and socially acceptable solutions to the problems faced by Indonesia's rural inhabitants (who make up 80 per cent of the country's population of 170 million).


1) To increase prosperity, in particular that of the Indonesian people.
2) To develop self-reliance and the ability of the Indonesian people to solve the problems they face.
3) To improve appropriate technology to suit the Indonesian character and Indonesian culture.


Yayasan Mandiri has two institutional levels. The top level is the Board of Directors, the second the executive institutions.

Board of Directors: This is Mandiri's "parliament". It functions as a forum where members can study, discuss and develop ideas. The Board controls all the organization's activities. It has five members and is re-elected every two years.

Executive institutions: These are organizations which were specially developed to implement Mandiri's programme of activites. They function as a link between the 47 members of Mandiri and the communities, and between the members and other institutions.

Lembaga Pengembangan Masyarakat Dan Teknologi (LPMT)

LPMT (Technology and Community Development Institution) is at present Mandiri's most important institution. It is a non-profit organization whose aims are as follows:

1) To promote and participate in every activity designed to help the poor in Indonesia to improve their living standards by their own efforts.

2) To cooperate with participant groups on a basis of solidarity and a shared determination to achieve goals.

3) To consistently encourage self-reliance and avoid dependence on instiutions and participant groups.

Scope of acitivities

LPMT's acitivities focus on a programme of community development through the development of appropriate technology. The basic aims of this programme are as follows: satisfying the needs of the local population, using local natural resources, improving local human resources, and conserving local natural resources and local culture.

This appropriate technology development programme is implemented via four types of activity, namely application of appropriate technology, education and training, research and development, and an information service.


Main fields of activity

CCTA (Comisie coordina- cie Tecnologia Andina), Peru

· Coordinating the work of nine of the best-known Peruvian NGOs for rural development in

- watershed management

- Andean livestock farming and grazing management

- simple food technologies

CETEC (Corporaciara Es- tudios Interdisciplinarios y As- esoria Tecnica, A.C.), Colombia

· Cooperation with self-help groups

· Setting up of small-scale rural industries and workshops

· Regional networking of AT groups

· Agricultural advisory service

· Health programmes

CITA (Centro de Ingenieria de Tecnologias Adecuadas), Ecuador INDES (Instituto de Desarrollo Social y Promociumana), Argentina

· Provision of technological advice at village level

· Promotion of small-scale farmer's organizations

· Improvement of rural production by small loans and procurement of seed

· Training of small-scale farmers

· Appropriate technology in agriculture

PTA-FASE (Centro de Pes- quisa e Assesoria/Federacao de Orgaos pare Assistencia Social e Educacional), Brazil

· Appropriate technologies for agriculture in Brazil's semi-arid north-eastern region

· Organic agriculture and horticulture

· Water raising and water-saving farming methods

· Recording of AT solutions adopted by small-scale farmers

RIP/RIIC (Rural Industries Pro- motion/Rural Industry Innova-tions Centre), Botswana

· Adaptation of adopted technologies to local conditions

· Commercial dissemination of appropriate technologies and setting up of

small-scale rural industrial enterprises

· wide-ranging village artisan programme with basic and further training courses

· Dissemination of AT information in close cooperation with the Botswana

Technology Centre (BTC), on a joint newsletter etc.

SPATF (South Pacific Appropriate Technology Foundation) Papua New Guinea

· Development and dissemination of AT (Products: portable sawmills, coffee dehuskers, various agricultural implements, driers)

· Advice, service for and training of user groups

· Question-and-answer service and publications ("Liklikbuk")

· Promotion of small and medium-sized industry (metalworking, woodwork ing, leather goods)

UNDUGU Society, Kenya

· Social work and community development

· Appropriate primary school education and training in craft trades

· support of self-help initiatives

· Setting up of small-scale enterprises

· Management training

· Implementation of special education programmes in slums

List of Addresses

Tabasco 262, Col. Roma
C.P. 06700
Mexico, D. F.

P.O. Box 5946
Douala- Akwa

1431171-2 Pinklao
Nakornchaisiri Rd.
Bangbumru, Bangkok- Noi
Bangkok 10700

Montevideo 822
Casilla de Correo 1308

B.P. 1721

Apartado 14-0426
Lima 14

Apartado Postal 1160
Guatemala, C.A.

Calle 4 B No. 38 -35
A.A. 27279
Cali - Valle

Avda. Hurtado de
Mendoza 10 - 41,
Ca. 1024

P.O. Box 9236
D 320 Laxmi Nagar
Delhi - 110 092

University of Zimbabwe
P.O. Box MP 167
Mount Pleasant, Harare

Office Junction
Sri Lanka

GRATIS Project
P.O. Box 151

Pte Luis Saenz Pena 277
5 piso “X”
Buenos Aires

Rua Bento Lisboa, 58 3.0 andar
Catete CEP 22221
Rio de Janeiro

P.O. Box 2088

Casilla 20410
La Paz

P.O. Box 375

P.O. Box 6937
Port Moresby/Bosoko
Papua New Guinea

Undugu Society
P.O. Box 40417

Yayasan Mandiri
Jl. Cimandiri 26
Bandung 40115

About the Illustrations in This Issue

Most of the illustrations on pages 3 to 24 are photos taken at GTZ headquarters in Eschborn during the presentation of the results of the seminar.

The illustration on pages 2535 are posters which the partner organizations brought along to the seminar to introduce themselves and their activities. (Page 33 shows a detail of one of the posters). Unfortunately we can only present a selection here, since not all the posters were available for reproduction purposes once the seminar had ended.


Building Animal Traction

New GATE Publications The Community Builders

If we are to promote real development we have to accept that creating self-sufficiency means people will want to decide for themselves. Building WITH the community is, however, inherently more difficult than providing FOR.

The guide describes the whole process of building a clinic together with the community and it is illustrated with a story set in rural community health care in Lesotho.

We follow the doctor from his first idea for re-organizing a mission clinic, right through to its completion when the nurse is in charge of the new building.

Iliff Simey: " The Community Builders. A Practical Guide where People Matter." GATE/Vieweg, 1989. 188 pp DM 29,80 ISBN 3-528-02043-1. For orderers from developing countries free of charge.

Harnessing and Implements for Animal Traction

This generously illustrated book contains a comprehensive study of harnessing techniques and animal traction implements. Harnessing options for oxen, horses, donkeys, camels and buffaloes are reviewed, together with a wide spectrum of tillage implements, seeders, animal-drawn carts and other draft animal technologies. For each of these topics, the reader is guided through definitions and terminology, recent developments, technological choices, design options and assessments of practical advantages and disadvantages in actual farming systems. The author also tackles the vital issues of the selection or design of implements, research strategies and the supply and manufacture of equipment.

The reader is encouraged and stimulated to see animal traction technology through farmer's eyes, and to reappraise future priorities for development projects, research institutions and extension programmes in the light of the past experiences in this field.

Several hundred carefully selected photographs and line drawings ensure that each subject is clearly illustrated, and make the publication attractive to a wide range of readers. Despite the wealth of information contained within this volume, the book constantly encourages readers to delve yet deeper into the subjects that interest them. Thus for every topic covered there are specific suggestions for further reading, together with the names and addresses of organizations with special interests in that field. This makes the book not only an authoritative reference work but also an invaluable resource book.

Paul Starkey: "Harnessing and Implements for Animal Traction",

GATE/Vieweg, 1989 245 pp. DM 36.
ISBN 3-528-2053-9. For orderers from developing countries free of charge.

The new GATE publications described here may be ordered from booksellers or direct from the publisher:


Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn GmbH
P.O. Box 300 620
5090 Leverkusen 3


German Appropriate Technology Exchange
Centro Aleman pare Tecnologias Apropiadas
Centre allemand d'inter-technologie appropriBR>Deutsches Zentrum fur Entwicklungstechnologien

GATE is not only the name of this quarterly. It also stands for German Appropriate Technology Exchange, founded in 1978 as a special division (Division 4020) of the government-owned Deutsche Gesellschaft fhnische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH (German Agency for Technical Cooperation).


GATE is a centre for the dissemination and promotion of appropriate technologies for developing countries. GATE defines "appropriate technologies" as those which appear particularly apposite in the light of economic, social and cultural criteria. They should contribute to socio-economic development whilst ensuringoptimalutilizationofresourcesandminimaldetrimenttotheenvironment. Depending on the case at hand a traditional, intermediate or highly-developed technology can be the "appropriate" one.


GATE focusses its work on the following areas

- Technology Dissemination: Collecting, processing and disseminating information on technologies appropriate to the needs of the developing countries; ascertaining the technological requirements of Third World countries; support in the form of personnel, material and equipment to promote the development and adaption of technologies for developing countries.

- Research and Development: Conducting and/or promoting research and development work in appropriate technologies.

- Cooperation in Technological Development: Cooperation in the form of joint projects with relevant institutions in developing countries and in the Federal Republic of Germany.

- Environmental Protection: The growing importance of ecology and environmental protection requires better coordination and harmonization of projects. In order to tackle these tasks more effectively, a coordination centre was set up within GATE in 1985.


GATE offers a free information service in appropriate technologies for all public and privet development institutions in countries dealing with the development, adaption application and introduction of technologies.

Deutsches Zentrum fur Entwicklungstechnologien
Dag-Hammarskjold-Weg 1
D-6236 Eschborn 1
Federal Republic of Germany