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close this bookSourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in some Asian Countries (UNEP-IETC, 1998)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
close this folderPart A - Introduction
View the document1. The freshwater imperative
View the document2. Objectives
View the document3. Organisation of the source book
View the document4. Survey methodology
View the document5. Results of the survey
View the document6. Recommendations of the workshop
View the document7. Information sources
close this folderPart B - Technology profiles
close this folder1. Water conservation technologies
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1.1 Dual water distribution system
View the document1.2 Evaporation reduction
View the document1.3 Coconut pick-ups
close this folder2. Wastewater treatment and reuse technologies
View the document2.1 Sewage reclamation using conventional wastewater treatment
View the document2.2 Sewage reclamation using reverse osmosis
View the document2.3 Wastewater treatment using wetlands
View the document2.4 Wastewater treatment using duckweed
View the document2.5 Wastewater treatment using lagoons
View the document2.6 Other technologies of wastewater treatment and reuse
close this folder3. Freshwater augmentation
View the document3.1 General rainwater harvesting technologies
View the document3.2 Rainwater harvesting for drinking water supply
View the document3.3 Rooftop rainwater harvesting for domestic water supply
View the document3.4 Rainwater harvesting for agricultural water supply
View the document3.5 Rainwater harvesting for irrigation water supply
View the document3.6 Rainwater harvesting for community water supply
View the document3.7 Rainwater harvesting for multiple purpose use technical description
View the document3.8 Open sky rainwater harvesting technical description
View the document3.9 Rainwater harvesting in ponds
View the document3.10 Artificial recharge of groundwater technical description
View the document3.11 Fog, dew and snow harvesting
View the document3.12 Bamboo pipe water supply system
View the document3.13 Hydraulic ram technical description
View the document3.14 Development and protection of natural springs
View the document3.15 Restoration of traditional stone spouts
close this folder4. Upgrading water quality
View the document4.1 Desalination
View the document4.2 Pond sand filtration
View the document4.3 Biological pretreatment of raw water
close this folderPart C - Case studies
View the document5.1 Water conservation and recycling - Gujarat State fertilizer corporation, India
View the document5.2 Traditional methods of soil and water conservation - coconut pick-ups, India
View the document5.3 Use of reclaimed water - Hindustan petroleum corporation limited, India
View the document5.4 Reclaimed city sewage as industrial water - Madras fertilizers limited, Madras, India
View the document5.5 Rainwater harvesting - the Thai rainwater jar
View the document5.6 Daungha rainwater collection water supply project, Nepal
View the document5.7 Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater - Krishna Delta, India
View the document5.8 Artificial groundwater recharge - India
View the document5.9 Integrated water conservation - Bhilai steel plant, India
View the document5.10 Drip irrigation - India
close this folderPart D - Annexes
View the documentAnnex 1 - Additional references
View the documentAnnex 2 - Table of conversion factors for metric and U.S. customary units
close this folderPart E - Institutional profiles
View the documentThe UNEP water branch
View the documentDanish hydraulic institute (DHI)

The UNEP water branch

The UNEP Water Branch was established on 1 January 1996, with the consolidation of the former Freshwater Unit and the Oceans and Coastal Areas Programme Activity Center (OCA/PAC).

A main function of the Water Branch is to promote and facilitate integrated water management, focusing on rivers, lakes and other freshwater systems, groundwater, and the coastal and marine waters into which they ultimately drain, including their living resources. The Water Branch integrates UNEP's water activities across (i) physical boundaries, (ii) disciplines, and (iii) types of water (fresh and marine waters). Particular attention is directed to internationally-shared water systems, including promotion of mechanisms for enhancing international cooperation for their sustainable management and use, as well as assisting riparian countries to undertake trans-boundary diagnostic analyses and to develop comprehensive management action plans. The focus is on both the scientific and technical issues (water supply and demand, pollution sources, flora, fauna, etc.) And the social, economic, institutional, legal and political issues that fundamentally shape the way in which humans use their water resources.

The Water Branch is UNEP's focal point for its role as secretariat of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, including its Technical Coordination Office in The Hague, The Netherlands. The Water Branch also administers and supports UNEP's 13 Regional Seas Programme involving more than 140 coastal States throughout the world, as well as UNEP's activities in support of such initiatives as the Barbados Programme of Action for Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, the International Coral Reef Initiative and the Global Plan of Action for the conservation. Management and Utilization of Marine Mammals.

The activities of the Water Branch reflect the objectives and goals of Chapters 17 and 18 of Agenda 21, as well as other chapters of Agenda 21 relevant to the sustainable management and use of water resources, and to the direction provided by UNEP's Governing Council. The Water B ranch supports activities of the International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC) and the Office of Industry and the Environment (IE) of UNEP on matters related to the development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies (EST's) aimed at water resource management. It also participates in inter-agency initiatives involving common UN agency water issues.

To address its tasks and responsibilities, The Water Branch brings together expertise in river and lake limnology, groundwater hydrology, hydrologic engineering, coastal zone management, marine biodiversity, resource economics, monitoring and assessment, environmental technology, environmental law, capacity-building and public awareness. It also works with partner UN agencies, inter-governmental bodies, and international and non-governmental organizations on integrated freshwater and coastal water resource issues.