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close this bookSourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Small Island Developing States (UNEP-IETC, 1998, 230 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
close this folderPart A - Introduction
View the document1. Background
View the document2. Purpose of the source book
View the document3. Structure of the source book
View the document4. How to use the source book
close this folder5. Methodology for the identification and classification of small islands
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View the documentHydrological characteristics
View the documentClimate
View the documentPhysiography
View the documentGeology and hydrogeology
View the documentSoils and vegetation
View the documentRelative location
View the documentHuman-induced impacts
View the documentRegion of interest
View the document6. Results of the discussions at the workshop on augmenting freshwater resouces
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close this folderPart B - Technology profiles
close this folder1. Technologies generally applicable to Island States
close this folder1.1 Freshwater augmentation technologies
View the document1.1.1 Rainwater harvesting technical description
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close this folder1.2 Water quality improvement technologies
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View the document1.2.1 Rapid sand filtration
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View the document1.2.2 Slow sand filtration
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View the document1.2.3 Disinfection
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close this folder1.3. Wastewater treatment technologies and reuse
View the document1.3.1 Alternative (dry) sanitation
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close this folder1.4. Water conservation
View the document1.4.1 Water resources planning and management
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View the document1.4.2 Water conservation and protection measures
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View the document1.4.3 Groundwater assessment technologies
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View the document1.4.4 Irrigation systems
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close this folder2. Technologies applicable to very small, low coral islands
close this folder2.1 Freshwater augmentation technologies
View the document2.1.1 Dug wells technical description
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View the document2.1.2 Infiltration galleries technical description
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View the document2.1.3 Pumps
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close this folder3. Technologies applicable to small high, volcanic islands
close this folder3.1 Freshwater augmentation technologies
View the document3.1.1 Boreholes
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View the document3.1.2 Runoff collection using in-stream structures
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View the document3.1.3 Runoff collection using surface structures technical description
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View the document3.1.4 Spring capping
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close this folder4. Technologies applicable to small islands with specific problems or circumstances
close this folder4.1 Freshwater augmentation technologies
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View the document4.1.1 Importation using sea transport/barging technical description
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View the document4.1.2 Submarine pipelines technical description
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close this folder4.2 Water quality improvement technologies
View the document4.2.1 Desalination technical description
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close this folder4.3 Wastewater treatment technologies and reuse
View the document4.3.1 Wastewater reuse
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close this folder4.4 Water conservation
View the document4.4.1 Dual distribution systems
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close this folderPart C - Case studies
close this folder5.1 Augmenting freshwater resources in Kiribati
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View the documentOperation and maintenance
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View the documentSuitability
View the documentAdvantages
View the documentDisadvantages
View the documentCultural acceptability
View the documentFurther development of the technology
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close this folder5.2 Seawater/brackish water desalination by reverse osmosis in the British Virgin Islands
View the documentTechnical description
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close this folder5.3 Solar-powered pumping in the Federated States of Micronesia
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close this folder5.4 Composting toilet trial on Kiritimati, Kiribati
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close this folder5.5 Sam lord's castle hotel treated wastewater reuse scheme, Barbados
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close this folderPart D - Annexes
View the documentAnnex 1 - Acknowledgements
close this folderAnnex 2 - Design of infiltration galleries
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close this folderAnnex 3 - Cost comparisons
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close this folderAnnex 4 - Groundwater assessment technologies
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close this folderAnnex 5 - Water legislation
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View the documentAnnex 6 - List of organisations and institutions
View the documentAnnex 7 - Table of conversion factors for metric and U.S. Customary Units
close this folderPart E - Institutional profiles
View the documentThe UNEP water branch
View the documentSouth Pacific applied geoscience commission (SOPAC)

Foreword

The Small Island Developing States of the world have seen growing pressure on water resources, with increasing demand and costs, for agricultural, domestic and industrial consumption. This has brought about the need to maximize and augment the use of existing or unexploited sources of freshwater. There are many modem and traditional alternative technologies for improving the utility and augmenting the supply of water being employed in various countries, but with limited application elsewhere due to the lack of information transfer among water resources managers and planners.

The "Source Book of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Small Island Developing States" was prepared by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission as part of the joint United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Water Branch and International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC) initiative to provide water resource managers and planners, especially in developing countries and in countries with economies in transition, with information on the range of technologies that have been developed and used in the various countries throughout the world. UNEP wishes to thank the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission and those individuals involved in the preparation of the Source Book. The final revision of the Source Book was assisted by V. Santiago, C. Strohmann and E. Khaka from UNEP IETC and Water Branch respectively.

This information was gathered through surveys carried out on a regional basis - in Africa, Western Asia, East and Central Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Small Island Developing States. The results, including this Source Book, will be compiled into a Global Source Book on Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation to be used throughout the countries of the world.

It is hoped that the technologies summarized here will be useful in the sustainable development of Small Island Developing States and other regions.

John Whitelaw
Director
International Environmental Technology
Centre
United Nations Environment Programme

Terttu Melvasalo
Director
Water Branch
United Nations Environment Programme

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

AGDHC

Australian Government Department of Housing and Construction

AusAID

Australian Government Aid Agency

BHTA

Barbados Hotels and Tourism Association

BOD

Biological Oxygen Demand

BWA

Barbados Water Authority

CIF

Charge in freight

CMI

Caribbean Meteorological Institute

EED

Environmental Engineering Division

ED

Electrodialysis

EDR

Electrodialysis - reversal

ENSO

EL Nino Southern Oscillation

ESCAP

Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

FOB

Free on board

GARNET

Global Applied Research Network in Water Supply and Sanitation

HDPE

High Density Polyethylene

ETC

International Environment Technology Centre

IRC

International Water and Sanitation Centre in the Netherlands

IRCSA

International Rainwater Catchment Systems Association

IWSA

International Water Supply Association

kWh

kilowatt hour

MED

Multiple Effect Distillation

MPPT

Maximum Power Paint Tracker

MSF

Multistage Flash

PE

Polyethylene

PNG

Papua New Guinea

PVC

Polyvinyl chloride

PWD

Public Works Division

RO

Reverse Osmosis

SIDS

Small Island Developing States

SOPAC

South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission

SPC

South Pacific Commission

SS

Suspended Solids

TDS

Total Dissolved Solids

UNCDF

United Nations Capital Development Fund

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNICEF

United Nations Children's Fund

UNDTCD

United Nations Department for Technical Cooperation and Development

UNDDSMS

United Nations Department for Development Support and Management Services

UK

United Kingdom

USA

United States of America

VC

Vapour Compression

VIP

Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine

WERI

Water and Energy Research Institute of the University of Guam

WHO

World Health Organisation

LIST OF UNITS

BOD

Biological Oxygen Demand

°C

degrees Celsius

COD

Chemical Oxygen Demand

g

gram

ha

hectare(s)

km

kilometre (s)

ml

millilitre (s)

mm

millimetre (s)

m/day

metre (s) per day

m3/day

cubic metre (s) per day

mg/l

milligram per litre

NTU

Nephelometric Turbidity Unit

l

litre(s)

lpd

litres per person per day

ms/cm

microSiemens (micromhos) per centimetre

mm

micrometer

kPa

kiloPascals

kWh

kiloWatt hour(s)