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close this bookLife Skills for Young Ugandans- Secondary Teachers' Training Manual (UNICEF, 254 p.)
close this folderSection Four: Sample Activities
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentHEALTH
View the documentWATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION
View the documentFAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS
View the documentCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES
View the documentORAL HEALTH
View the documentSMOKING
View the documentDRUG ABUSE

HEALTH

Introduction

The WHO definition of health states that... “health is a state of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity..”

This section addresses health in all its diversity. The students are at a stage of transition and experiencing many physiological, mental, psychological, social and spiritual changes. As a result their characteristics and needs are changing also and unless they are addressed, it can lead to confusion and internal conflicts. This section gives a variety of suggestions on how to address their needs while, at the same time, fullfiling the syllabus requrements.

Details of characteristics and needs of the students are contained in the table on page in the manual.

TOPIC

CONCEPT OF HEALTH

Objectives

By the end of the topic students should be able to:

1. Explain the meaning of health in relation to their social, physical, mental and spiritual environment.

2. Demonstrate an awareness of their health and how to promote it.

3. Put into practice critical thinking skills in making health realted decisions.

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, decision making, critical thinking.

Materials

Handouts containing pictures and descriptions of the four characters, case studies.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide the students into groups and ask them to read the handout and discuss the questions below.

(i) Who is more healthy and why?
(ii) How could each character improve her/his health?
(iii) What factors lie within the control of each character and what factors do not?

2. Groups present their answers to the whole class for discussion.

Learning Points

Some definitions of Health

· Health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and not simply the absence of disease or infirmity. (WHO, 1964).

· Our bodies are very complicated structures made of many parts each with its job. As long as each part performs its job correctly, at the right time, we are healthy. (School Health Text 1984).

· A process of adaptation... the ability to adapt to changing environments, to growing up and ageing, to healing when damaged, to suffering and to the peaceful expectation of death. (Illich 1976).

Hints

· The aim of the first activity is to evaluate the perspectives from which the students view health in its broadest sense and to use the examples to build on that knowledge. Therefore, the tutor should bring out issues of mental, social and spiritual health if the students fail to do so.

· Summary table of health characteristics.

Character

Social

Mental

Physical

Spiritual

Mr. Kizito

Womaniser
Rich
Drinks a lot

Commanding/ bully

Fights
Bad eating habits
Fat with big stomach

Religious?

Mrs Kaggwa

Widow
Poor
Peasant farmer

Badly dressed

Religious

(complete the table)

· To avoid repetition, each group should report one major point as they go around the class (refer to section of dealing with large classes).

· Tutors should bring out issues of mental, social, spiritual and physical health if the students

Extension Activities

1. Ask students to work in their groups to define health and what is needed in order to maintain good health.

2. What advice would you give to each of the four characters?

Picture 1:

Mr Kizito: He is a fat man, obviously rich wearing expensive clothes. Although he is fairly old, a young woman is hanging on to his arm.

Description:

Mr Kizito is 45 years old and he works in a parastatal. He is rich and lives with his family in a big house he has built just outside Kampala. In the morning he has no breakfast but when he gets to work he orders some welt salted mchomo which he eats while he reads the newspaper. In the afternoon he usually has a leg of chicken and one beer. In the evening he drops into the local bar for ‘a few beers’ and discussion before going home. Sometimes he takes another girl but he insists on wearing a condom. On Sundays he goes to church and tries to stay with his family the whole day. At work, Mr Kizito is not popular because he always like to command the other workers. He has even been known to hit one of them.



Picture 2:

Mrs Kaggwa: She is a peasant woman wearing a long colourless dress and a headscarf. She is not wearing shoes.

Description:

Her husband was killed during the liberation war. She has a small farm of bananas, sweet potatoes, beans and green vegetables. She has four children who all go to school. Although Mrs Kaggwa works very hard, the children have a sweet potato before going to school and then the main meal is in the evening. In the middle of the day they cannot eat.

The family eats green vegetables every day but Mrs Kaggwa keeps a few hens so that they can eat chicken on Sundays after going to church. She feels very lonely and abandoned without her husband. She gets her strength from her faith in God and her faith in her children who are all doing well at school.



Picture 3:

Mr Okello. About thirty years old, well dressed and thin.

Description:

He is the LC1 in his village. He used to work hard for the village but he has changed recently, since he believes that he has not received recognition for all the hard work he does. So he has taken to pocketing some of the village contributions for himself. He doesn’t drink but, ever since he was in the liberation war he has been smoking 20 cigarettes a day. Recently he divorced his wife and married a young girl in the village.



Picture 4:

Martina: She is dressed in a secondary school uniform. She looks very smart.

Description:

Martina is in S3. She is one of the best students in the class and everyone expects her to go to high school. She hates boys and refuses to go to any dances or other social activities. She spends all her time with the books. Maybe one reason why she hates boys is that she has a twisted leg which makes her feel that she looks ugly and so she is afraid that all the boys are laughing at her.


Picture 1


Picture 2


Picture 3


Picture 4

ACTIVITY THREE

HOW DO I REMAIN HEALTHY?

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Explain the meaning of health in relation to their social and physical environment.
2. Demonstrate the ability to think creatively in making decisions relating to their health.
3. Identify and analyse factors in their environment that currently affect their personal health.

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, decision making, creative thinking

Materials

Case studies for role plays, large sheets of paper, markers.

Time: 40 minutes

Procedure

1. Students brainstorm on all the factors in the physical and social environment that affect health.

2. In the same groups as in the previous activity, students analyse which factors lie outside their control (NC), which they can partly control (PC) and which they have a great amount of control over (LC).

3. Tutor explains that life skills are those skills that enable individuals to have more control over their health and their lives.

4. In groups, students prepare role plays on the following situations (one for each group).

(i) Paulina is in S2. She was Richard’s girlfriend for one year before agreeing to have sex with him when she realised that Richard was going out with one of her friends. Now she is pregnant with Richard’s baby. He is in S4. She goes to confront him.

(ii) Kato has been rejected by his girl friend, Rose, because he drinks too much. As a result, he starts drinking even more. He meets Rose on the road and tries to convince her forcibly to come back to him.

(iii) Mariamu is in S3. She comes from a poor family and has been going to discos every weekend in the hope of finding men to give her money. Her best lover was a 45 year old manager. She meets him on the street and he is very thin and obviously very ill.

(iv) Atieno left school in P7 to get married to a rich young man in the village who paid a big bride price to her father. She was soon pregnant. On her last visit to the clinic she was told that because she is still very young, she is in danger of losing her baby. She goes home to tell her husband (and her/his parents).

5. For each of these role plays, the students should discuss the following:

(i) What are the health or health related problems outlined?
(ii) To what extent are the problems caused by the situations in which they live?
(iii) What measures could they have taken to avoid their problems?
(iv) What life skills will be needed by each of the characters in order to improve their health and/or behaviour.

Learning Points

· A health problem is the actual illness e.g. malaria.

· A health related problem is an adverse/undesirable situation which, if not prevented or dealt with effectively will lead to actual illness e.g. in an under-five child, shortage of an adequate balanced diet is a health related problem.

· Clarify physical, mental, social and spiritual well being and the relationship between them.

Hints

· Each role play should not be more than 5 minutes. The aim is to start the students thinking themselves into the situations, not produce full dramas.

· Ensure that the classroom discussion focuses on all aspects of health and is open.

· You should be aware of the diversity of opinions and help students accommodate varying and divergent views.

· Focus on helping students internalise what they would do in that situation.

Extension Activity

1. Groups develop plays around the situations they role played, for later presentation to the class/college/community.

TOPIC

HEALTH AND GENDER

ACTIVITY ONE

WHO IS MORE AFFECTED?

Objectives

By the end of this activity, the students should be able to:

1. Identify differences in health problems facing men and women and reasons for them.

2. Explain their own feelings concerning gender roles and how they are changing/may change.

3. Take steps to address current imbalances in their own lives and environment.

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, creative thinking, empathy.

Materials

Questionnaires, large sheets of paper, markers, handouts.

Time: 30 minutes

Procedure

1. Hand out the following questionnaire. Each student places their answer on a scale of 1 to 5. 5 means that they fully agree and 1 means that they don’t agree at all.

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

(i)

Boys are stronger than girls.

1

2

3

4

5

(ii)

Cooking is a girl’s job.

1

2

3

4

5

(iii)

Girls don’t have time to study because of all their chores.

1

2

3

4

5

(iv)

Girls wake up before boys.

1

2

3

4

5

(v)

At school, girls do more work than boys.

1

2

3

4

5

(vi)

Boys are more intelligent than girls.

1

2

3

4

5

“Girls don’t have time to study because of all their chores”


Figure

“Boys are stronger than girls”


Figure

2. Each person shows her/his answers to her/his neighbour and discusses it with her/him.

3. Students divide into groups according to sex and write down the different activities they do:

· on schooldays.
· at weekends.
· in the holidays.

4. Each group presents a list of what each does.

5. Tutor asks the follow-up questions:

(i) What do we learn from these lists?
(ii) What does it tell us about the health of boys and girls?
(iii) The Convention on the Rights of the Child, it states that:

· States should ensure that no child is discriminated against on the basis of status, ethnic origin, religion, sex etc. (Article 2)

How is this relevant to the above discussion?

Learning Points

· In Uganda men are generally considered heads of families and decision making is largely dominated by them.

· There are gender disparities in access to education, economic opportunities and health care in the country.

· There is bias in favour of education for boys coupled with issues of early pregnancy resulting in the high drop-out rate of girls from school.

· There are imbalances in employment by sector and sex. Within the agriculture sector, women are the major food producers.

· Women perform most of the household chores and are concentrated in low paying jobs.

· As a basic human right, there is need to improve women status, raise the level of income of individuals and family.

· People are born female or male, but learn to be girls or boys who grow into women and men.

· They are taught what the appropriate behaviour and attitudes, role and activities are for them, and how they should relate to other people. This learned behaviour is what makes up gender identity and determines gender roles.

Hints

· Gender issues are sensitive and therefore the ground rules should be strictly observed in order to ensure that it is not just a fight between the boys and the girls.

· Help both sexes appreciate the dilemmas and choices of the opposite sex.

Extension Activities

1. Ask students to identify the gender issues that affect the health of an individual, family and community.

2. Ask students to suggest types of communication activity which promote the behaviour change towards healthy living.

ACTIVITY TWO

MRS SEMPALA IS LATE

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. Identify gender stereotypes and associated health problems facing men and women.
2. Analyse their own feelings in relation to gender roles.
3. Take steps to address current gender imbalances in their lives and environment.

Life Skills to be developed

Empathy, problem solving, critical thinking

Materials

Large sheets of paper, markers

Time: 40 minutes.

Procedure

1. Prepare a few students to do the role play before the class.

2. Ask the students to do the role play.


Figure

Mr Sempala is busy cleaning the house. He is carrying a baby on his back and a small child is pulling at his legs wanting something. He is obviously tired but dinner is also cooking on the fire. He talks about his problems as he works, that there may not be enough food when his wife comes home from work in the council.

After his situation is made clear, his wife returns. She is a little drunk and is angry that dinner is not ready. The children hide behind their father.


Figure

3. Students discuss in groups the following questions:

(i) What do you think about this situation?
(ii) How did you feel when you were watching the role play? Why?
(iii) What do our feelings show about how we view roles of men and women in society?
(iv) If the role play were the other way round, would we have felt differently? Why?

Learning Points

· Gender describes those characteristics of men and women which are socially determined in contrast to those which are biologically determined.

· The distinction between sex and gender is made to emphasise that most of the so-called differences in roles are socially determined.

· Many of the students’ reactions come from the way they have been socialised which leads to an unconscious gender stereotyping.

· Many aspects of division of labour change from one place to another and one time to another. For example, men do cook when it is paid employment or the food is not regarded as traditional (such as roast meat and chips).

More learning points

· Women and men must be given equal opportunity at all levels of health and development activities because it is both a matter of justice and a recipe for faster development.

· We usually see contradictions when we are asked to play another person’s role. Women often carry more of a burden than we think.

· Health is not only the absence of disease or informity. Mental health can be affected by the way society views and treats us.

Hints

· Gender roles are very sensitive and therefore ground rules should be strictly observed.
· Avoid reinforcing stereotypes of men and women.
· Be aware of your own, as well as your students’ assumptions about gender.
· Students may think there is one right answer and wait to know your own personal stance. Be objective and facilitate open discussion rather than providing your own opinions early on.

Extension Activity

1. Students read the dialogue from the beginning of The Special Gift:

IN THE COUNTRYSIDE NEAR A SMALL TOWN IN AFRICA THE HOT MID-DAY SUN IS BURNING FIERCELY. WOMEN AND GIRLS ARE GATHERING NEEDED FIREWOOD. SARA AND HER FRIEND AMINA. TWO SCHOOL GIRLS, HAVE COLLECTED AS MUCH FIREWOOD AS THEY CAN FIND AND ARE HEADED FOR HOME WHERE MORE WORK AWAITS THEM. SARA’S PET MONKEY, ZINGO, IS ALSO GATHERING WOOD TO HELP SARA.


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure

2. In groups, discuss how Sara and Amina could convince their relatives to allow them more time for homework.

3. Role play the discussions.

4. Plenary discussion:

(i) How did you feel trying to convince your mother/uncle?
(ii) How easy is it to do so? Why? What other methods could they have used to convince their relatives? (eg calling in another adult, the teacher etc)

TOPIC

INTRODUCING THE SARA COMMUNICATION INITIATIVE

Objectives

By the end of this topic students should be able to:

1. Explain the process of translation from knowledge to behaviour.
2. Identify and analyse factors that hinder the translation of knowledge into behaviour.
3. Introduce the Sara Communication Initiative as a role model for health promotion and development of equity and empowerment of the girl child.

ACTIVITY ONE

KEEPING THE MESSAGE

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, self-awareness.

Materials

Handouts on Sara, Amina, Juma.

Time: 30 minutes.

Procedures

1. Divide students into groups of 6 people according to their mother tongue. Ask them to stand in lines.

2. Explain to the class that this is a translation competition from English to vernacular and back to English.

3. Call a member from each group and give them the same English statement to translate.

4. S/he will then call forward the next team member and give his/her translation to him/her who has to translate it back to English. This process goes on till the last person in the group does the final translation.

5. Ask the last member of each group to write their translation on the board. After they have finished, write original message on the board too.

6. Groups discuss the following questions:

(i) How did you feel when you were doing the exercise? Was it easy or difficult? Why?
(ii) Why is translation so difficult?
(iii) What can we learn about communication from this activity?

Learning point

· Translation exercise reveals how easy it is for messages to be lost. This has implications on why people have not translated knowledge to behaviour

Hints

· If dividing class into mother tongue groups is sensitive you could form 2 groups using a language understood by all.

· Make sure that the other members of the team are far enough away not to hear the translations to earlier members in the team.


Figure


Figure

Sara handout

Sara is 14 years old. She lives with her mother and younger brothers and sisters in the compound of her uncle who is a farmer. Her father is in town where he is trying to save money to buy a farm and build a house. He sends money home for his children’s education. He is very proud of Sara because she is his first child and is doing so well in school.

Sara is determined to be a scientist in her life and she has already shown that she can be. Together with her friends, Amina and Juma, she has built a smokeless stove which has become the model for the whole village because it improves the kitchen environment by reducing the amount of smoke and also reduces the amount of time women and girls have to spend looking for firewood. She says that her aim it to be either a doctor or an animal doctor so that she can help her village in the future.


Figure

Amina handout

Amina is an orphan. Both her parents died three years ago and she lives with her sister who works in the local bar. Amina is very good at mathematics but she sometimes get discouraged at school because of her home problems. Recently she decided to go to town to look for a job as a domestic worker but she was cheated by a lorry driver and, if Juma and Sara had not arrived in time to save her, she was in danger of being raped. Since then, she helps Juma’s brother with his accounts for which he helps her with her school fees. At the same time, she has set up a health club, together with Sara in order to discuss how they can best develop their lives and health.


Figure

Juma handout

Juma lives with his parents and his elder brother Themba who drives a pick up truck. His mother also runs a shop. He is very good at languages and is one of the best footballers in the school. Some students say that he wastes his time playing football but he argues that people who are fit or who have healthy bodies can study better.

Maybe because Juma does not have a sister, he and Sara are like sister and brother and they do most of their homework together. Last year they did a joint project on the jobs done by different member’s of the family which won first prize at the school.

ACTIVITY TWO

FROM KNOWING TO DOING

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, creative thinking, self awareness and self esteem.

Materials

Handouts of Sara, Juma and Amina

Time: 30 minutes.

Procedure

1. Remind the class of what was learnt from the translation exercise.

2. Divide the class into groups and give them the handouts. Ask them to read and answer the questions that follow.

3. Discuss the groups’ answers in plenary.

4. Explain the Sara Communication Initiative to them, show them the materials and invite them to borrow the book etc.

Learning points

· These children are good examples of how to translate knowledge into practice.

· They are also good examples for student teachers that their pupils or students already have a lot of knowledge in their heads.

· Sara and her friends are to be uses as role models for students and will appear throughout the course.

Questions for group activity

(i) What picture do you get of these three children?
(ii) To what extent do you think they translate knowledge into practice?
(iii) Would you like such students to be members of your class? Why/why not?

ACTIVITY THREE

WHY DON’T WE TRANSLATE?

Time: 40 minutes.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, creative thinking, self awareness

Materials

Four cartoons on sheets of paper, large sheets of paper, markers.

Procedure

1. Divide the students into groups and give each group a set of cartoons.

2. Groups discuss the following questions:

(i) What is the message being given by the character in each cartoon?
(ii) What do you see from the character giving the message in each case?
(iii) Why do you think they are not putting their knowledge into practice?

3. Groups report back to the plenary for further discussion.

4. Wrap up the activity by saying that the main aim of life skills training is learning how to put knowledge into practice.

Learning Points

· Having knowledge does not always translate into behaviour.

· We need life skills in order to bridge the gap between what we know and how we relate. We need to first appreciate that what we know and what we learn actually has relevance to the world we live in and can therefore be applied practically.

Hints

· In case of a large group please refer to ‘dealing with large classes/groups’.

· The more the students discuss, the more they will explore factors that influence their behaviour and/or change of behaviour.

Extension activity

1. Students develop their own cartoons based on the same idea of knowledge not being translated into practice. These can be put on the classroom walls.


Cartoon One


Cartoon Two


Cartoon Three


Cartoon Four