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close this bookLife Skills for Young Ugandans- Secondary Teachers' Training Manual (UNICEF, 254 p.)
close this folderSection Four: Sample Activities
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentHEALTH
View the documentWATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION
View the documentFAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS
View the documentCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES
View the documentORAL HEALTH
View the documentSMOKING
View the documentDRUG ABUSE

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Introduction

There are communicable and non-communicable diseases. To develop better health promoting attitudes and values, learners need to know the differences and what action responsibilities to assume in preventing types of diseases.

Objectives

By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. List 7 communicable diseases that are common in their area and how they are spread.
2. Identify behaviours and ways that promote the spread of these diseases.
3. List ways and behaviour that can help to prevent the spread of the listed communicable diseases.

ACTIVITY ONE

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making and problem solving.

Materials

Slips of paper - Activity ‘Communicable and non-communicable diseases’.

Time: 60 minutes.

Procedure

1. Begin the activity by introducing the difference between diseases or sickness we can “give” to each other and those we cannot “give” to each other, and others that may be transmitted to us from other sources.

2. Give out cards or slips of paper and ask the students to write down diseases or illnesses they know. They should write at least two but should not limit their imagination.

3. Collect the slips of paper and have a volunteer read them out one-by-one. As the class decide which category each belongs - communicable or non-communicable (see facilitator’s resource below).

Describe the illness, how we get it (vectors, etc.) and emphasize how we can protect ourselves from communicable illnesses. Brainstorm ideas in small groups. Collect feedback as a whole group and make a list on a large sheet of paper.

4. Conclude the activity with the discussion points below:

(i) Why and how do we get communicable diseases?
(ii) Why and how do we get diseases that are not communicable?
(iii) Why do some communicable diseases become epidemics (for example malaria, AIDS, etc.)?

Facilitator’s resource

The following list is a guide to some communicable and non-communicable diseases and illnesses.

Description

Communicable

Non-communicable

Cold

Yes


Measles

Yes


Sore throat

Yes


Flu (common cold)

Yes


Asthma


Yes

Upset stomach


Yes

Chicken Pox

Yes


Malaria

Yes


Tuberculosis

Yes


Dysentry

Yes


Ear infections


Yes

Cavities (holes) in teeth


Yes

Nose bleeds


Yes

Mumps

Yes


Typhoid

Yes


Allergies


Yes

Scabies

Yes


STDs

Yes


HIV/AIDS

Yes














Make additions to the list. It is not exhaustive.

Hint

· If the class is very big, you may choose to let the children discuss in pairs or groups of 4. You may need to give them more slips of paper.

Learning Points

· Modes of transmission - from human to human, from animal to human, from other vectors (insects, etc.) to humans, air, water, etc.

· Concept of carrier is a person with a disease, who does not suffer from it abut can pass it on. Asthma and sickle cell (anaemia) are passed on genetically. (List a few others you can think of).

· What you and I can do to prevent transmission is maintain healthy practices.

Extension Activities

1. Ask 3 students to talk about their personal experiences with malaria and flu (common cold).

(i) How did they get it?
(ii) How could they have avoided it?

2. Dysentry could be communicable. What situations would lead to this?

3. How can we prevent/protect ourselves from contracting cholera, and malaria as individuals?

4. Have a resource person, from the health centre or clinic nearest to the school, to come and give a talk.

5. Look around in your community and see situations that could lead to the spread of communicable disease. Each person identifies at least 5 situations to bring back to class for discussion.


Figure

ACTIVITY TWO (suitable for boarding schools)

Material

Case study on “Sharing things”.

Time: 60 minutes

Procedure

1. Divide the class into male and female. The sub-divide each group into smaller ones of 6 to 8 people.

2. Explain to the class that this activity is to help understand to a greater detail the concept of communicable and non-communicable diseases, and how our lifestyles may be associated with these diseases.

3. Give out copies of the case study of “Sharing things”. Each group should be given 20 minutes to read and answer the associated questions.

4. Ask the groups to reconvene. Ask 4 volunteers (2 boys and two girls) to share their answers with the rest of the class.

5. Discuss the following:

(i) Why do people (peers) find themselves sharing things (basins, buckets, clothes) in school?

(ii) Do you think people are aware that they might contract diseases/infections? Why not?

(iii) Has any of you been pressured to share your things? What were the circumstances?

“Sharing things”

Ocero had a friend called Alenyo. They were neighbours back home. In school they were in separate houses of residence. When Ocero was in Senior One, his mother gave him a basin, a bucket, plates and all other things to make his life comfortable and self-sufficient.

“Remember not to lose anything, Ocero,” she said before she left.

A few weeks later, Ocero couldn’t find his basin. He had seen the senior boys using it. He wondered how to get it back. He told Alenyo. Alenyo came and helped him look around. A few days later, Alenyo found it in his house of residence. He took it to Ocero.

One day, Ocero noticed a rash on his hand and some whitish spots on his chest. On consulting his neighbour, he was informed that it was a skin disease called ‘ring worms and skin rash.’’

Questions for discussion

(i) How did Ocero get the skin rash?

(ii) What should he do to get rid of it?

(iii) What other diseases or infections could we get from sharing things? What diseases are peculiar to boys? Which ones are peculiar to girls?

(iv) What things do we normally share out amongst our peers that could lead to infections? List at least 5 of them.

(v) Could we get STDs through sharing?

TOPIC

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

Introduction

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) - also known as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) - are on the increase in Uganda. Research reveals that children are sexually active, without the necessary precautions, nor the relevant information. In 1993/94, 31.7% of the girls 15 to 19 years of age were HIV positive compared to boys (of the same age) who were 6.0%. This is from the AIDS Control Programme (ACP) records and figures are different today.

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. List ways in which STDs are spread.
2. Appreciate the need for skills that can lead them out of risky situations.
3. Identify and discourage risk-taking behaviour.

ACTIVITY ONE

Life Skills to be developed

Self awareness, decision making and problem solving.

Time: 60 minutes.

Materials

Copies of the quiz, “What do you know about STDs?” and case study, “Dear Auntie, I think I was tricked!”

Procedure

1. Start the session by introducing the topic, ‘Sexually Transmitted Diseases.’ Ask the students whether they have heard of STDs and ask a few of them to say what they know about STDs. Explain to them that there is a quiz you would want them to fill in, to check how much we know. Emphasize that it is not a test but is rather used for discussion. Explain that you will not ask individuals for their scores.

2. Pass out the quiz, “What do you know about STDs?” and ask each person to fill in the statements individually. This exercise should take about 5 to 7 minutes. A ‘T’ answer will represent ‘true’, and ‘F’ will represent ‘false.’

3. Divide the students into groups of 4 and ask them to share their responses. See if can come out with a uniform list. If they do not agree on certain numbers, that should not worry them. This exercise should be about 20 minutes long.

4. Call the class back to order and ask them to share their responses. Look out for key questions that you may want to discuss. You do not necessarily have to go through the whole list. Suggested numbers for discussion may include the following:

1, 4, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13 - dealing with myths
1, 8, 14, 15 - dealing with how responsible they are.

5. Wrap up the activity by going over some facts about STDs, for example types - gonorrhoea, syphilis, genital warts, vaginitis, herpes, etc. (Consult a medical person).

“What do you know about STD?” handout

Fill in this questionnaire after reading each statement. If you think the statement is true then mark ‘T,’ and ‘F’ if you think it is false.

Statement

True or false

(i)

You cannot get an STD if you have sex only once.


(ii)

Gonorrhoea is an STD.


(iii)

STD stands for ‘Sexually Transmitted Disease.’


(iv)

STDs are easily cured by penicillin.


(v)

Having an STD means you are a strong man.


(vi)

Some STDs can kill.


(vii)

HIV is an STD.


(viii)

If I had an STD, I would tell my partner about it.


(ix)

All STDs can be cured by traditional medicine.


(x)

Condoms reduce the chances of spreading STDs.


(xi)

Only prostitutes have STDs.


(xii)

You cannot get an STD in Senior Two.


(xiii)

You cannot get STDs if you have sex standing up.


(xiv)

I can protect myself from contracting an STD.


(xv)

If I suspected having an STD, I would see a doctor or a nurse.


(xvi)

AIDS has no cure.


* Use this exercise to see how much the students know about STDs. Questions (i), (v), (ix), (xi), (xii), (xiii) reveal the myths and misconceptions the students have, while questions (viii), (xiv), (xv) reveal how individuals would handle a situation personally. These areas can be tackled in group discussions.

Learning points

· Question (i): STDs and number of sexual contacts.

It does not matter how many sexual contacts one has in order to contract an STD. Once is enough. Children should understand this clearly. Note however, that having one partner decreases the risk caused by having multiple ones.

· Question (v): STDs and manhood.

There is often a fallacy that STDs mean ‘manhood.’ Men have been known to boast about having STDs. STDs are a health problem and people should be encouraged to have them treated as soon as possible. Having many partners should not be considered as manhood either. It only increases the risks.

· Question (vx): Seeking for help.

It is wise to seek professional advice and get full treatment for STDs. People have a myth that treating themselves always leads to the cure. This is not true and individuals should be discouraged from diagnosing and treating themselves. They should seek professional help and treatment.

· Question (viii): It is safe to tell your partner when you have an STD.

It is safe to tell your partner when you get an STD. This is because you may have gotten it from him/her or may pass it on to him/her. Communication helps both of you to stay safe and get better and good treatment. It decreases the risks of contracting other STDs including HIV/AIDS.

· Question (xiii): STDs and sexual positions

Youth often argue that if you have sex in this position or that, then yoy may get an STD or avert getting one. STDs are contracted as soon as people have sex. Children need to be clear on this.

· Question (xi): Protection against STDs

It is important that the students realize that they can protect themselves from STDs by their own correct choice of responsible practices.

ACTIVITY TWO

Procedure

1. Each group joins with another to form groups of 8.

2. Pass out the letter, “Dear Auntie...,” and ask each group to read it and discuss the questions.

3. Have the group select one person to share the ideas it came up with in a plenary.

4. Conclude the activity by emphasizing the need for us to always adapt what we hear to our own personal situations.

“Dear Auntie, I think I was tricked...” handout

Dear Auntie,

I am a young girl in Senior Three, I recently went to a party with my best friend. While at the party, my friend encouraged me to dance and introduced me to some boys. I did not want to but she pressured me to do so. Since I did not want to annoy her I talked to three boys.

Many people were drinking (alcohol) but I do not and I managed to refuse. I kept taking Coca-cola. I remember feeling very sleepy after coming back from the toilet. My Coca-cola tasted different. I think I was tricked.

When I was in the dormitory, I overheard somebody say that now I was a woman like everybody else. When I asked my best friend later what this meant, she just laughed.

I have now missed my period. Auntie, am I pregnant? Do I have AIDS? Am I still a virgin? I can no longer eat because I am worried. Please help me.

A desperate girl,

S 3.

Questions for discussion

(i) What do you think happened to this girl?
(ii) What factors exposed her to risk?
(iii) How would you respond to this letter? Write a reply.
(iv) Do these things happen in school? How can we protect ourselves?

Hint

· The climate in the class will determine how much the learners share. If it is too formal, they shall concetrate on trying to develop ‘the right answer.’

Learning points

“Dear Auntie...” is a scenario that helps relate basic facts about STDs and sex to real life situations. It is important that the students realize that they are not invicible and that they too can get an STD. Be specific about the signs and symptoms of the common STDs. Some points for discussion:

· Betrayal

Youth treasure trust. They want to trust and be trusted. That is the essence of peer groups. A betrayal of trust is a very big let-down that can lead to greater emotional problems.

· Pressure vis-a-vis sense of belonging

This age group is subject to pressure. Often those who have had sex want others to be in the same boat. It is advisable that we help children see that they do not have to ‘follow the group’ in order to fit in.

· Skills

The presence or absence of skills is usually manifested by particular behaviour(s). It is crucial that children develop skills so that they are able to analyse their situations, know what they want and be able to resist peer pressure.

· Girl child and gender issues

Society often views women as sex objects. This misconception is usually formed at this stage. Boys need to know that they ought to respect girls but, similarly girls need to know that their role in society is not based on sexual favours. They have a right to say ‘no.’ This resolve needs to be developed this early.

· It is important that the students realize that they are not invicible and that they too can get an STD.

· Be specific about the signs and symptoms of the common STDs.

Hints

· For both activities, it is essential that the children enjoy the completing them. This depends a lot on how you introduce the sessions.

· Ensure that the children discuss and that the talkative ones do not dominate the discussions.

· Pick out highlights of their results and discuss those in plenary. Discussing every thing may not be as effective.

· Do not demoralize. Understand the children and appreciate their points of view.

Extension Activities

Students can do the following:

1. List down 4 STDs that are rampant and their signs and symptoms.
2. Write 4 reasons it is good to tell a partner that one has an STD.
3. Watch the film “Consequences” and ask the youth to look out for the following:

(i) Unsafe behaviour.
(ii) Points where Rita could have said ‘no.’
(iii) The point at which the course of the film could have changed to better results.

4. Find out the types of STDs common in the area and the age groups most affected.
5. Where do youth get their STD treatment?

TOPIC

AIDS

ACTIVITY ONE

SOCIAL FACTORS IN THE SPREAD OF AIDS

Introduction

AIDS is one of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases, as it may have been mentioned by the students during discussions in the previous activities. In Uganda, the onset of HIV/AIDS according to the AIDS Control Programme (ACP) 1994, is the ages of 12 to 15. This means that it is contracted within this age group (Senior 1 and Senior 2).

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. List 4 ways in which HIV is contracted and 4 ways it is not.

2. Name 2 situations or circumstances which could predispose an individual to the risk of contracting HIV.

3. Appreciate the need to and list ways in which one can say ‘no’ to sex.

4. Assess levels of risk, behaviours and categories among peers and community.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, peer resistance, effective communication, empathy, negotiation, assertiveness and coping with emotion.

Time: 60 minutes

Materials

Copies of the activity sheet, “Dealing with our beliefs, values and opinions,” the “ Namata role play” and newspaper clippings on stories that say something about HIV/AIDS, rape and defilement.

Procedure

1. Introduce the topic by telling the students that AIDS is a communicable disease, and that it is also an STD. The reason it is being handled separately is because of the fact that it is an epidemic in the country, as well as a pandemic (pan means ‘across,’ pandemic means ‘an epidemic across nations’). Many of us have lost friends and loved ones and are aware of the effects of AIDS. AIDS has many complicated issues surrounding it. This activity looks at a few.

2. Divide students into groups of 4 or 5 students. Give each group a pair of statements from the activity sheet, “Dealing with our beliefs, values and opinions.” They may pick up a statement of choice. You could write the statements on slips of paper, roll them up and ask one person from each group to pick two pieces.

3. Ask one person to give the group’s input on only one of their statements. Ask the class for any responses to these inputs.

“Dealing with our beliefs, values and opinions” handout

This activity may be used as a discussion starter. Any one of these questions may be used alone.


What do you think?

(i)

Most boys exaggerate their sexual experiences when talking about them.

(ii)

When girls say ‘no’ to sex, they really mean ‘yes!’

(iii)

Girls want sex more than boys, it is only that they fear to ask for it.

(iv)

A boy should have sex before marriage so that he knows what to do. However, women should be virgins at marriage.

(v)

If you do no have sex, your penis shrinks and you suffer from backache.

(vi)

Only careless people get STDs.

(vii)

Clean people do not get STDs.

(viii)

A man cannot be raped, only a woman can.

(ix)

A man should not say ‘no’ to a woman who has asked him for sex. It is cowardly.


Figure

4. Ask these general questions:

(i) Where do we get our beliefs, values and opinions from?
(ii) Are they always right?
(iii) How do we know when to accomodate or change our beliefs and when not to?

5. Summarise using some of the learning points below.

6. Merge two small groups to form large ones of about 8 to 10 children. Give each group a copy of the Namata role play to be discussed for about 5 minutes.

7. The students act out the role play.

8. Lead the students in a discussion about the issues which came up.

“Namata role play” handout

Namata lives in Buyikwe. In her village men think that women should never say “no” to a man who makes a pass (asks for sex). Namata has read a tot about STDs and AIDS in school. She has also read many newspaper articles about how men oppress and take advantage of women. She is determined that this should never happen to her.

Role play

Namata was reading and completing her assignment, when the head prefect walked into the class. He told Namata she had been called by the teacher on duty.

Outside the class, he told her how much he liked her...

Questions for discussion

(i) What did Namata do in that situation?
(ii) Why did she do it?
(iii) Is love shown by having sex?
(iv) What skills does one need to ensure that one does not have sex until s/he is ready?
(v) What skills do boys need to respect a girl who says ‘no’?
(vi) What skills do boys need to appreciate that love and sex are not the I same thing?

Learning points

· Beliefs, values and opinions are formed as we grow. They are a result of our individual background - the homes we come from, our parents’ values, our own experiences as we grow, our friends, religion or beliefs in God and other factors.

· Beliefs, values and opinions should always be handled in a context of others as well as the knowledge and accurate information that we have. It is important that we know our own beliefs and always think about the good of others.

· Myths are twisted ‘truth.’ Very often they are based on selfish ideas and are usually in the interest of one party (individual or group). We should always check what we believe against available knowledge and information.

· Girls should not be looked upon as sex objects. They are individuals like any male, have ambitions, dreams and goals which they should persue.

· There are laws that deal with issues such as rape, defilement and sex with minors (Uganda Penal Code). The following is a quote from “The rights of the child.”

“Parties undertake to protect the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse.”

This means that we are all responsible for the protection of children (under 18) against such behaviour.

Hints

· If the role plays were similar then proceed with the discussion points on the activity sheet.

· If the role plays were not similar, hold a discussion with the youth about some of the differences observed.

· It may be interesting to divide the groups up by gender and see what sort of role plays they come up with. It is most probable that they will be different. (Feel free to use your own discretion to decide which grouping is best).

Extension Activities

1. What behaviour is associated to each of the following different risk categories - high risk, low risk and no risk. Give examples.

2. Give out the AIDS Control Programme (ACP) 1993 graph, “The distribution of AIDS cases in Uganda.” Ask the students to give reasons - contained in the secondary school health kit on HIV/AIDS - why:

(i) AIDS cases seem non-existent in the ages 5 to 9 years?
(ii) AIDS cases start at 12 years onward?
(iii) more girls than boys get HIV/AIDS?

3. Get newspapers (The New Vision, The Daily Monitor, The Crusader, Straight Talk, etc.) and record stories that talk of AIDS, HIV, sex, defilement and rape, etc.

(i) What explanation can you give some of these activities?
(ii) How can girls be protected from sexual exploitation and manipulation?
(iii) Narrate the story that touched you most. Explain why.

4. What is the relationship between AIDS and economic factors? Why do people give sexual favours for economic gifts and rewards?

ACTIVITY ONE

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES AND AIDS

Introduction

In the last activities, students discussed communicable and non-communicable diseases as a foundation point. At this level, more concetration is laid on STDs and AIDS basically because this is meant for a higher and vulnerable age group - Senior Four students. These students are about to go out of school either for long holidays, or even forever and are therefore prone to sexual activity.

Objectives

By the end of the class, students should be able to:

1. Name 5 STDs, explain how they are transmitted and how they can be prevented.
2. Know ways in which they can avoid risky situations and behaviour.
3. Discuss ways for looking after sick people.

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, problem solving, self awareness, assertiveness and peer resistance.

Time: 60 minutes.

Material

Copy of the story, “Can you tell you have an STD?

Procedure

1. Tell the group that while in Senior Two, they learn about STDs. This activity looks at STDs to analyse the factors the surround its transmission and the associated complications.

2. Divide the class into groups of 5 or 6 students and give everybody a copy of the story, “Can you tell you have an STD?” Ask them to read it and discuss one of the stories on each.

3. Let the group reassemble after about half an hour. Ask a volunteer from each group to share what their responses were to each question. Allow a little room for clarification from the other participants of the group.

4. Discuss the following questions:

(i) Could Kato and Nafuna have avoided getting STDs?
(ii) What factors contribute to Nafuna desiring many partners? Is she secure? How could she develop a good self-image and influence her behaviour and attitudes.

“Can you tell you have an STD?”

Below are two stories of young people - Kato and Nafuna - from different parts of Uganda.

Kato

Kato was a great athlete in school and was therefore popular with the girls. When in Senior One, he was one of the best table tennis players and was in the school team. However, being in Senior One, not many people noticed him.

Kato’s popularity started in Senior Two, when he showed more of his skills in sport. By Senior Three, he was the best dancer in the school and a member of the school football team. This made him popular with the girls.

One day when Kato was in the toilet, he noticed that he was having difficulty urinating...

Questions for discussion

(i) What are the commonest signs and symptoms of an STD?
(ii) What symptom did Kato manifest?
(iii) How would he have got the infection? When (duration) would he have contracted it?
(iv) How would he have prevented himself from getting infected? (v) What should Kato do in this situation?

Nafuna

Nafuna was in Senior Two. She was definitely the most beautiful but this did not give her confidence. She was the only daughter from a family of 17. Her mother was the third wife.

To keep friends, Nafuna would easily have sex with them and in fact among the boys she was referred to as ‘school bus.’ They just wanted to use her then drop her.

One night, after bathing she realised that she was having an abnormal discharge.

Questions for discussion

(i) What do you think is the matter with Nafuna?
(ii) What should Nafuna do about her condition?
(iii) If you were Nafuna, who would you confide in?

5. Group leaders present findings to plenary and wrap up activity.

Hints

· Look for ways and means to correct wrong thinking, risky beliefs and particularly myths. Address this by highlighting a few of them and bouncing them back to the group.

· Youth at this age have lots of myths, correction should be done with a lot of tact. Do not moralize!

Learning Points

· Review signs and symptoms of STDs.
· Review local names of common STDs and treatments offered (herbs, etc.).
· STDs are not the only consequences of unprotected sex. Pregnancy is another.


Figure

ACTIVITY TWO

“SEX... IS EVERYONE DOING IT?”

Introduction

Most youth have the belief that everybody is having sex. As a result they think thay are missing out and want to do something about it. This therefore may predispose people to contracting STDs/AIDS. This activity challenges some of these attitudes.

Time: 60 minutes.

Material

Copy of the activity sheet, “Sex... is everyone doing it?”

Procedure

1. Inform the students about the fact that people often make (erroneous) assumptions about sexual activity. We want to explore the social issues surrounding STDs.

2. Divide the class into 2 or 3 groups and give out to each a copy of the activity sheet, “Sex... is everyone doing it?” Tell them that they have 40 minutes to do this activity. Encourage everybody to discuss in their groups and share their independent views.

3. Reconvene the groups for general guided discussions. Ask the groups to explain why they chose to end the dialogue the way they did.

(i) Was it easy to reach concensus (agreement) in the group?
(ii) Did Kapere have sex or not? If not, how did he resist the pressure? What skills did he use?

Hints

· Ensure that the usually quiet students are encouraged to get involved in the discussion and that the loud and talkative ones do not monopolise the discussion. If the likelihood of talkative students dominating the group work is high, seek alternative ways of grouping the class.

· A friendly conducive environment is critical for discussion. Some groups may discuss outside the classroom if that helps.

· Look up the treatment of common STDs so that you direct the discussion with confidence. Find out the rampant STDs in your locality.

“Sex... is everyone doing it?” handout

Kapere and Ongom were good friends since primary school days. Ongom was clever and joined a good secondary school in Senior One. Kapere was not as clever and he joined this school in Senior Three. Ongom was so glad to be re-united to Kapere. “I will show you around,” he promised Kapere.

When the school dance (‘Senior Four Social’) was organised, the school invited a girls’ school to attend. Ongom thought he could introduce Kapere to some facts of life.

Ongom: “Kapere, tomorrow is the school social and 1 want to make sure you know what to do...”
Kapere: “That is kind of you man. What exactly do you mean?”
Ongom: “I am aware that you have not had a lover...”
Kapere: “So...”
Ongom: “So tomorrow I want to get you one...”
Kapere: “But... I do not want...”
Ongom: (angry) “Everybody is calling you a ‘woman’... do you want that? Prove yourself man. I have always been protecting you...”

Questions for discussion

(i) What do you think is happening in the story?
(ii) Does manhood mean having sex?
(iii) What options does Kapere have? What should he do if he does not want to have sex?
(iv) Read through the dialogue again, and write an end to it.

Extension Activities

1. Discuss the following:

(i) What leads young people to get involved in sexual activity?
(ii) What can young girls do to avoid being sexually used and abused by men?
(iii) What are some economic factors that lead people to engage in sexual activity?
(iv) What are the economic implications of HIV/AIDS on the nation?

2. Consider calling a resource person. Ask students whether they have any particular person in mind.

3. Ask the class to collect newspaper clippings on stories that say something about HIV/AIDS. Hold a discussion on their findings (which may be done in groups).

TOPIC

AIDS - SEXUAL TRANSMITTED DISEASE

Introduction

AIDS has been a big issue and crisis in Uganda for more than 10 years. The greatest concern is the fact that it is the youthful population that is most affected. This population therefore needs to be given a supportive physical and social environment and be made aware of the nature and dangers of risky behaviour.

Objectives

By the end of the activity, students should be able to:

1. List 5 ways in which HIV can be contracted (behaviour situations).
2. Clarify situations that are risky and develop skills to get out of them.

ACTIVITY ONE

“WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT AIDS?”

Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, peer resistance, effective communication, negotiation, assertiveness and coping with emotion.

Time: 60 minutes

Materials

Questionnaire, “What do you know about AIDS?”

Procedures

1. Give out the questionnaire on “What do you know about AIDS?” Ask each individual to read through and answer each question. Tell them it is not a test but a way to clarify one’s thinking, and that no one will be asked their individual answers.

2. After this activity, collect all the papers and then redistribute them so that people do not have their own answers.

3. Lead a discussion based on key questions of your choice.

4. Correct the myths surrounding HIV transmission and cure.

(i) Where do we get our values from? Beliefs?

(ii) How do we know whether our opinions are accurate?

(iii) What should we do when we discover that what we held so dear is actually wrong?

(iv) Essay question: What is the role of social relationships, age and money in the transmission of HIV/AIDS.

(v) What skills or behaviours could help stop young people from being at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS?

Handout “What do you know about HIV/AIDS”

This is a quiz to held students assess the information they know about HIV/AIDS scientific and behavioural facts. Please mark ‘T’ for true, and ‘F’ for false” after reading each statement carefully. It is not a test.


Statement

True or false

(i)

AIDS is an STD.

(ii)

You cannot get AIDS from somebody who has AIDS.

(iii)

You cannot get HIV/AIDS if you use a condom.

(iv)

It is easier for a young girl to contract HIV than an older woman.

(v)

You can see and know somebody who is HIV positive.

(vi)

AIDS really means American Invention to Discourage Sex.

(vii)

AIDS can be cured if you eat dog soup.

(viii)

You cannot contract HIV if you have sex only once.

(ix)

You can cure AIDS by having sex with a virgin.

(x)

It is people with HIV, and not people with full-blown AIDS who spread the virus.

(xi)

People with AIDS have signs and symptoms.

(xii)

People with HIV have signs and symptoms.

(xiii)

You can contract HIV/AIDS from a classmate/schoolmate.

(xiv)

It is not possible to abstain from sex till marriage.

(xv)

Sex drive is an appetite that needs to be satisfied like hunger.

(xvi)

You develop health problems if you do not have sex.

(xvii)

Girls have a right to say ‘no’ to boys (their lovers) who ask for sex.

(xviii)

Sex means that a girl loves you.

(xix)

A relationship with no sex does not last for long.

Learning points

· Emphasize the facts about HIV/AIDS (transmission, etc.)

· Emphasize the role of social relationships in the transmission in Uganda is through hetero-sexual transmission.

· Explain the merits of regular medical check-ups, and the role of hygiene in the prevention of STD transmission.

ACTIVITY TWO

“RAPED, DEFILED AND DISGRACED”

Materials

A copy of case study, “Raped, defiled and disgraced.”

Procedures

1. Divide the class into group of 8 to 10 learners. Ask them to read through the case study and to discuss the questions attached. This should take about 25 minutes.

2. Call back the group and have a winding up discussion.

Hints

· AIDS is a social issue and hence a lot of emphasis is laid on sexual activity because of the critical stage at which learners are at. Rape and defilement are ways that some people may contract STDs and/or HIV/AIDS. We want to use this story to explore factors that may lead to rape.

· Encourage a lot of discussion among the learners themselves, before you offer guidance. Unless people talk it is difficult to know what faulty/dangerous information they may have.

Handout “Raped, defiled and disgraced” case study

In the Bible there is a story of a brother who had sex with his stepsister. The boy was Amnon, and the girt, Tamar. They were both children of King David, King of Israel.

Amnon had a beautiful sister whom he desired so much so much that he wanted to make love to her. His desire was so strong that Amnon fell sick. King David was concerned about his sickness and asked what he could do to help. Amnon sent back a message saying that he requested his sister to come and serve him food.

When Tamar came to serve him, Amnon chased everybody away. When she came closer, he grabbed her and made love to her. When he had finished the Bible tells us that, “... he hated her with a hatred stronger than the love he had for her.” Amnon chased Tamar away, “Go away.” Tamar refused. She cried saying he had to take responsibility for disgracing her...

Questions for discussion

(i) How could a girl in Tamar’s situation have got out of such a situation?
(ii) If you were Tamar, who would you tell? What action would you take against Amnon?
(iii) What laws do you know that protect girls from such actions?
(iv) Why do men take advantage of women?
(v) Culture says that, “Such matters between family members are private.” As a result, many abused children do not talk. What do you think about this? What should be done to change that?


Figure

Learning points

· Difference between HIV+ status and AIDS

· Many people feel that they can rely on their eyes to tell who is HIV+ and therefore ‘dangerous’ for sexual activity and who is not. This is not the case. An HIV+ person may be sick for many years before s/he develops regular signs that people can see. Before that time s/he could have infected many more people.

· AIDS is a state where the person is ill and has regular signs and symptoms that can be seen. This is usually the terminal state of the HIV disease. It is rare that people at this stage spread the virus because people are cautious of them.

· The difference between the above two stages is that one cannot be detected by the eyes (HIV+) whereas the second one often can be (AIDS).

· Young girls (14 to 20) and mature women (21 to 29) body differences

· The lining in the private parts of a girl (vagina) is not as well developed as that of an older woman. It is thinner and not ready for sexual activity.

· The chances of a young girl getting HIV than an older woman may be said to be greater because a young girl would get more bruises in sexual activity due to thinner vaginal lining and because there are fewer vaginal secretions intended for sexual activity.

· A young girl of between 14 to 20 years is also not ‘ready’ for child-bearing activity.

· Sex and love

· Many young people feel and think that the test of true love is sex. As a result they may pressure the friends of the opposite sex for love.

· Distinction needs to be made between sex (an activity) and love (a mutual friendship/relationship). It is healthy to have friends of the opposite sex to broaden our understanding of the opposite sex and to fulfil our desire to reate as male and female.

· Premature sexual activity may often ruin friendships and the development of persons, because the interest may be turned to physical intimacy.

· Assertiveness and saying ‘no...’

· Traditional views of sex always have men asking for sex and girls responding. Boys often do not accept ‘no’ for an answer.

· In this era of AIDS both men and women or boys and girls need to appreciate that women are not sex objects to be wooed and conquered for sex. As a result men/boys need to accept ‘no’ as an answer and to respect it.

· Women/girls on the other hand need to develop skills of how to say ‘no’. These skills may need to be practiced. A good ‘no’ is said with confidence, and where both the body language and the words are matching and saying the same thing.

· Some of the reasons why there are more girls with HIV than boys between 12 and 24 years of age may be partly due to the inability of girls/women to say ‘no’ to sexual advances.

· AIDS has no cure

· It is useful that young people know that there is no cure as yet for AIDS. This should be presented in a manner that they see and understand the scientific argument. Take time to find out common local drugs that have been said to cure AIDS and hold a discussion on them.

· Impotence and abstinence

· Children often argue that if they are not sexually active, their private parts (boys’ penises) will shrink and the girls will develop cramps. This is not true. Penises do not atrophy (shrink) because of ‘non-usage’ in sexual activity.

· Abstinence should therefore not be discouraged or thought to be impractical due to the above belief. It is a myth and needs to be presented as a myth and an untruth.

Extension Activities

1. Consider calling in a person living with AIDS to give a talk about how social/economic factors influence the spread of AIDS.

2. Film show on, “Philly Bongoley Lutaaya.”

3. Film shows on, “More Time,” which deals on relationships and, “Making Choices.”

4. School visit to a Post-Test Club - where people living positively with AIDS - may be visited and discussions held.

ACTIVITY THREE

“SHARING THINGS’

Materials

Copies of stories on “Alenyo has a skin disease” and “Regina contracts an STD.”

Procedure

1. Explain to the participants that sharing of clothes is very common in secondary schools, most especially in Senior Four. We are going to examine behaviour and lifestyle that lead people to such situations.

2. Divide the class into 4 groups. Pass out the stories, “Alenyo has a skin disease” and “Regina contracts an STD.” Ask 2 of the 4 groups to handle a similar story, and the other 2 to handle the second same story.

3. Ask the groups to reconvene and ask 2 people to share thoughts from their group (one for the story of the boy and another for the story of the girl).

4. Conclude the discussion with some of the questions below.

(i) What things pressure us into sharing clothes and other items?
(ii) How could we ensure that we stay safe from infection?
(iii) What did you think about Regina getting an STD by sharing items? Did it scare you?

“Alenyo has a skin problem” handout

It was coming to the end of the year and it was a time of excitement. There was a lot of activity. “... socials only for Senior Fours?” one Senior Two boy was heard asking another.

Alenyo was frantic. He did not have suitable clothes, perfume, shoes. How would he impress the girls? Alenyo decided to get a Senior Two boy who came from a rich family. He would strike a deal. If he promised him some food, he would probably agree to lend Alenyo some clothes, a pair of shoes and perfume.

Alenyo enjoyed the social. Three weeks later he was still talking about the two gins he had met. He had even received three letters! Boy, wasn’t he popular.

One day while showering, he noticed some things on his skin. What could it be? Where did it come from?

Questions for discussion

(i) What do you think Alenyo observed on his skin?
(ii) Where do you think he got it from?
(iii) What behaviour could have led Alenyo to get this infection?
(iv) What could he have done to prevent this?
(v) What other things do boys share that could cause them risk?
(vi) What hygienic behaviour could we practice to ensure we do not contract infections?


Figure

“Regina contracts an STD” handout

It was a Senior Four social and Nakalema was in need of good clothing. She sat down and planned what to do. Regina was a Senior Two gin and her father was a Member of Parliament for Akukulu county. They were rich.

On the social day, Nakalema asked Regina for some clothes, including some new under-clothing. Akello was another girl who came to Regina and borrowed her basin and comb. Regina did not want to lend anything but the excitement in the air was so great she could not resist.

One month later, Regina noticed that she had a thick white discharge. “What on earth is happening to me?” she wondered. When it persisted, she decided to go and ask her favourite teacher, Miss Matata. She was told that she had an STD. Regina was shocked, how could this be, she had never had sex. She cried and explained to Miss Matata. Miss Matata believed her.

Questions for discussion

(i) Where do you think Regina contracted the STD from? How did she contract it?
(ii) What other infections could she have got from sharing things?
(iii) What advice would you give Regina in her present situation? How would you advise her to protect herself in the future?

Hints

· Allow the groups time to discuss exhaustively. The discussion, especially the Regina story, may help them address the issue of hygiene, which they perceive as risky.

· Be ready to handle clarification about common infections. You may need to consult the school nurse or another medical person, or in fact ask them to talk with the children.

Extension activities

1. Write a story about what skills and behaviour Regina needs to have in order to help herself stay safe (Do this in the 4 groups).

2. Find out from the Senior Five and Senior Six in your school whether they used to borrow clothes for the Senior Four social. Ask them why they think this practice was in their schools.