|Environmental Handbook Volume II: Agriculture, Mining/Energy, Trade/Industry (GTZ, 1995, 736 p.)|
|32. Fisheries and aquaculture|
Activities in the fisheries and aquaculture sector can be combined with agricultural production and with water resources development. The following are examples of the ways in which fisheries and aquaculture can be integrated with agricultural production:
- combining fish farming (or artisanal fisheries) with plant
production and animal husbandry in an agricultural production system without
physical integration of the individual components
- combining fish farming in ponds with keeping of poultry, pigs or other livestock above the ponds
- fish farming in swamp-rice fields
The following are examples of the ways in which fisheries and aquaculture can be combined with water resources development:
- fishing in artificial lakes of all kinds (including those
designed to provide drinking-water supplies)
- fish farming in small, shallow irrigation reservoirs
- fish fattening in large irrigation canals
- cage fish farming in adequately large and deep artificial lakes not used to provide drinking-water supplies
(cf. environmental briefs Large-scale Hydraulic Engineering, Irrigation and Rural Hydraulic Engineering).
Fisheries and aquaculture also have extensive links with agriculture through the use of waste products, by-products and (in exceptional cases) main products of agriculture as food or fertiliser in aquaculture and through the use of fish meal in the production of livestock fodder (cf. environmental brief Livestock Farming).
Links with the forestry sector exist by virtue of the wood required for making boats and fishing gear, for preserving and processing fish by means of smoking and for making cages. The close ecological links between forests and waters are of particularly far-reaching significance and must be taken into account in both forestry and fishery activities.
Fisheries and aquaculture also have links with the energy sector through the operation of boats, ships and sophisticated fishing gear, fishing ports, refrigeration plants and industrial processing facilities, technically complex aquaculture installations and vehicles for transporting people, equipment, supplies and products.
Attention has already been drawn in the text to links with other sectors.