|Environmental Handbook Volume II: Agriculture, Mining/Energy, Trade/Industry (GTZ, 1995, 736 p.)|
|Mining and energy|
|42. Power transmission and distribution|
Numerous different authorities, associations, public and private bodies both corporate and individual must be involved in defining the rights of way and the locations of substations. The process must include appropriate consideration of environmental interests.
Suitable structural measures (e.g., to prevent erosion) and technical measures (e.g., to prevent the escape of transformer oil) must be taken to avoid pollution of the soil and/or water.
Optical impairment of the landscape is unavoidable but should be minimized. The extent of impairment depends both on how the land is used (work - recreation) and on its optical complexity. The right of way can be visually assessed with the aid of a computer.
Detriment to flora and fauna must be appraised with a view to the protection of endangered species and in consideration of local, national and international standards and regulations. Determination of the local and regional significance of biotopes must be based on a large-scale survey in which suitable measures for the protection of birds are included.
Internationally recognized and harmonized, detailed standards on safety clearances, protective measures against contact with and entry to, in addition to working on, live systems [e.g., the German Standards DIN 0800, DIN 0848, DIN 57106, Association of German Electrical Engineers' VDE guideline 0106, accident prevention provisions and implementing instructions for electrical equipment and operating equipment issued by the Verband gewerblicher Berufsgenossenschaften ("Elektrische Anlagen und Betriebsmittel" - VBG 4)] should be consulted in connection with the planning of power transmission and distribution facilities.
The use of PCB in closed systems (transformers, capacitors, etc.) has been prohibited in the EC since 1985, although the continued operation of existing PCB-filled equipment is permitted for the duration of its service life. In the interest of environmental protection, however, such equipment should be replaced and properly disposed of (sodium-base dechlorination of the oil). Its incineration would produce dioxins!