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close this bookCasuarinas: Nitrogen-Fixing Trees for Adverse Sites (BOSTID, 1984, 114 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentNotice
View the documentStudy participants
View the documentPreface
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Experiences with Casuarinas
View the document3. The Plants
View the document4. Management
View the document5. Uses
View the document6. Best-Known Species
View the document7. Other Promising Species
View the document8. Recommendations and Research Needs
View the documentAppendix A
View the documentAppendix B
View the documentAdvisory Committee on Technology Innovation
View the documentBoard on Science and Technology for International Development

Appendix A

Selected Readings

A report that complements this one is: Midgley, S. J., J. W. Turnbull, and R. D. Johnston. 1983. Casuarina Ecology, Management and Utilization. Proceedings of an International Workshop. Canberra, Australia, August 17-21, 1981. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 286 pp.
Copies are available from: Division of Forest Research, CSIRO, P.O. Box 4008, Canberra, A.C.T. 2600, Australia.
A newsletter that keeps up with research developments on casuarina is published by the Casuarina Working Group of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations. Copies are available from: M. H. El-Lakany, Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, Egypt.
A bibliography containing 447 casuarina references, with annotation, was prepared for an International Meeting on Casuarina, Canberra, August 17-21, 1981, by Heather Howard, Division of Forest Research, CSIRO. The following is a selection from the bibliography.

GENERAL

Burkill, 1. H. 1966. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Governments of Malaysia and Singapore by the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Conover, C. A., and E. W. McElwee. 1971. Selected Trees for Florida Homes. Florida Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin 182. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. 77 pp.
Little, E. L., Jr., and F. H. Wadsworth. 1964. Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Agricultural Handbook No. 249. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., USA. 548 pp.
Maiden, J. H. 1889. The Useful Native Plants of Australia (facsimile edition of the 1889 edition,) produced by Compendium Pty, Ltd., Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 1975.
Midgley,S. J., J. W. Turnbull, and R. D. Johnston. 1983. Casuarina Ecology Management and Utilization. Proceedings of an International Workshop, Canberra, Australia, August 17-21, 1981. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 286 pp.
Rhoads, A. H. 1952. The destructiveness of Clitocybe root rot to plantings of casuarinas in Florida. Lloyda 15(3):161,184.
Schubert, T. H. 1979. Trees for urban use in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. General Technical Report S0-27. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., USA. 91 pp.
Watt, G. 1889. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India. Printed by the Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta, India.

SOIL AND SYMBIOSES

Diem, H. G., D. Gauthier, and Y. R. Dommergues. 1983. Inoculation of Casuarina using a pure culture of Frankia. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports 1:18-19.
Diem, H. G., D. Gauthier, and Y. Dommergues. In Press. An effective strain of Frankia from Casuarina sp. Canadian Journal of Botany.
Dommergues, Y. 1963. Evaluation du taux de fixation de l'azote dans un sol dunaire reboise en Filao [Nitrogen-fixation rate of a dune soil afforested with Casuarina equisetifolia.] Agrochimica, Pisa 7(4):335-340.
Analysis of the nitrogen content of a plot at the Cape Verde peninsula established 13 years earlier showed an addition of 64 kg to the 80 kg per ha present in the nonafforested soil. Taking into account contribution by rainwater and losses through leaching, the annual fixation is estimated at 58.4 kg per ha, chiefly by the nodules of Casuarina equisetifolia.
Junor, R. S. 1978. Control of wind erosion on coal ash. Journal of the Soil Conservation Service of New South Wales 34(1):8-13.
Coal ash from the Lake Tallawarra power station is sluiced with water from a saline lake and allowed to settle in large ponds. Once dry, it is subject to water and wind erosion. Acacia decurrens and Casuarina glauca were successfully planted on a stabilization trial and have since spread naturally over the site.
Lundquist, R., and J. G. Torrey. In press. the propagation of Casuarina species from rooted stem cuttings. Botanical Gazette.
Zhang, Z., M. F. Lopez, and J. G. Torrey. In press. A comparison of cultural characteristics and infectivity of Frankia isolates from root nodules of Casuarina species. Plant and Soil.

GENERAL BOTANY

Barlow, B. A. 1959. Chromosome numbers in the Casuarinaceae. Australian Journal of Botany 7(3):230-237.
Chromosome numbers of 37 species of Casuarina are reported and found to conform with a suggested division of the genus into major groups. The extra-Australian species (x = 8 or 9) are probably ancient. Somatic chromosome numbers from 28 to 20 occur in Australian stocks.
Narashimhan, M. J. 1918. Preliminary study of the root nodules of Casuarina. Indian Forester 44:265-268.
Preliminary study of root nodules showed that Casuarina trees improved sandy soils so much that inland flora regenerated.

SYSTEMATIC BOTANY

Doran, J. C., and N. Hall. 1981. Notes on fifteen Australian Casuarina species. Division of Forest Research, CSIRO, Canberra, A.C.T., Australia. 34 pp.
Notes are provided for 15 Australian Casuarina species and subspecies with value or potential for planting. The description of each species includes a map of geographical distribution and photos showing tree, habit, "cone," and bark. The main characteristics of each species are tabulated.
Godfrey, A. L. 1979. Casuarina - the neglected tree. Victoria's Resources 21(4):31-33, 35. Describes species occurring in Australia and covers some of their useful qualities.
Johnson, L. A. S. 1982. Notes on Casuarinaceae II. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens 6:73-87.
Terry, M. 1941. Desert oak. Australian Timber Journal 7(2):82-83, 85.
A popular account of Casuarina decaisneana, which is widely distributed in dry sandy country in south central Australia. It grows 35-50 ft in height and has a tough wood that is apparently highly resistant to termites.
Treub, M. 1891. Sur les Casuarinees et leur place dans la systeme naturelle. Annales du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg 10:145-231. Article describing the Casuarina. Text in French. No English summary.
Troup, R. S. 1921. Order LVII. Casuarinaceae. Casuarina, Forst. Pp. 900-908 in Silviculture of Indian Trees, R. S. Troup, ed. Clarendon Press, Oxford, England. Describes distribution, habitat, reproduction, and plantation methods for Casuarina equisetifolia.

PLANT ECOLOGY

Becking, J. H. 1970. Plant-endophyte symbiosis in non-leguminous plants. Plant and Soil 32(3):611-654.
This review includes a survey of the non-leguminous plant species (14 genera of 7 families) that bear root nodules and are capable of nitrogen fixation. Most of these plants are woody and are important to the colonization of bare soil. The particular roles of Alnus glutinosa and Casuarina equisetifolia are described, with quantitative data on nitrogen fixation.
Dommergues, Y. 1976. Mycorrhizes et fixation d'azote. [Mycorrhizae and fixation of nitrogen.] Anales de Edafologia y Agrobiologia 35(11/12):1039-1056.
A literature review, drawing attention to the lack of knowledge about the reasons why nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation occurs in the mycorrhizosphere of some plants but not others. Suggests lines for further research into known cases of tripartite associations between plant host, nitrogen-fixing bacterium, and mycorrhizal fungus; for example, in Casuarina.
Gauthier, D., H. G. Diem, and Y. Dommergues. 1981. In-vitro nitrogen fixation by two actinomycete strains isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia nodules. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 41(1):306-308.
Lawrie, A. C. 1982. Field nodulation in nine species of Casuarina in Victoria. Australian Journal of Botany 30(4):447.
Mendoza, V. B. 1978. Adaptability of six tree species to cogonal areas: additional information on the possible role of phenols and sugars. Sylvatrop 3(1):1-7. A leaching experiment was conducted to investigate whether lmperata cylindrica produced compounds that may be harmful to plant growth. Casuarina equisetifolia displayed the best height growth in Imperata grass.
Torrey, J. G. 1978. Nitrogen fixation by actinomycete-nodulated angiosperms. BioScience 28(9):586-592. Describes the infection process in the root system and the ultrastructure of the hostendophyte relationship. Evaluates the significance of actinomycete-nodulated plants in providing nitrogen through mixed plantations, succession plantings, and other forestry management practices.

REGENERATION AND FORMATION OF STANDS

Anonymous. 1954. Research studies: the mountains; shallow loam problem area. Carribbean Forester 15(1/2):8-9.
Of the trees tested on the shallow, erodible soils of Puerto Rico, Casuarina equisetifolia displayed the best growth.
Barr, D. A. 1965. Restoration of coastal dunes after beach mining. Journal of the Soil Conservation Service of New South Wales 21(4):199-209.
Restoration procedures include stripping, stockpiling, and replacement of topsoil levering of tailings, and revegetation. After initial stabilization with brush matting primary stabilizers (grasses) are sown, followed by secondary stabilizers (creepers and shrubs) and tertiary stabilizers (trees: Casuarina equisetifolia).
Esbenshade, H. W., and A. Grainger. 1980. Bamburi reclamation project. International Tree Crops Journal 1(2/3):199-203.
Eighty acres of the Bamburi limestone quarry near Mombasa, Kenya, have been reclaimed since 1971 and 30,000 trees have been planted. Conocarpus lancifolia and Casuarina equisetifolia are grown for timber and fuelwood on the quarry floor. The quarry sides grow fodder for bees and livestock.
Geary, T. F., and C. B. Briscoe. 1972. Tree species for plantations in the granitic uplands of Puerto Rico. USDA Forest Service Research Paper ITF No. 14. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., USA. 8 pp.
Gives details of the survival and growth of 32 tree species tested for adaptability in Puerto Rico's humid granitic uplands, a region of sandy, well-drained erosive soils. Casuarina equisetifolia is recommended for post and pole crops.
Husain, A. M. M., and P. K. Ponnuswamy. 1980. Propagation of Casuarina junghuhniana by planting shoots and root suckers. Indian Forester 106(4):298-299.Casuarina junghuhniana does not produce seeds, as the original stock is only male. Therefore, it is essential to propagate only be vegetative means. This paper describes rooting of sprigs and root suckers vegetatively.
Karschon, R. 1960. Effects of spacing and irrigation on yield of eucalypts and Casuarina. La-Yaaran 10(1/4):9-11, 61-58.
Shows the advantage of wider spacing and irrigation in the production of wood chips, posts, pulpwood, and poles. With 9-year-old Casuarina spp., irrigation improved the volume m.a.i. almost twofold.
Karschon, R. 1962. Casuarina introduction trials (preliminary results). La-Yaaran 12(2):41-43, 69-67.
Some results of small-scale trials, in Ilanoth and the northern Negev, of 15-16 species of Casuarina. Most successful are C. cunninghamiana, C. decaisneana, C. fraseriana, C. glauca, C. Iepidophloia, C. Iuehmanni, and C. torulosa.
Le Roux, P. J. 1974. Establishing vegetation in saline soil to stabilise aeolian sand at Walvis Bay, South-West Africa. Forestry in South Africa 15:43-46.
Describes the climate and soil conditions of the area and reports on trial plantings on sand dunes and saline wet silt since 1970. Casuarina equisetifolia failed on saline silt and dune sand irrigated with seawater. Casuarina equisetifolia grew well under irrigation with sewage water.
Maheut, J., and Y. Dommergues. 1959. Fixation par le reboisement des dunes de la presqu'ile du Cap-Vert et ['evolution biologique des sols. [Sand dune fixation by afforestation on the Cape Verde peninsula and the biological development of the soil.] Bois et Forets des Tropiques 63:3-16.
Describes successful afforestation with Casuarina equisetifolia, including topography, climate, and soils of the site; nursery techniques, spacing, irrigation, and protection.
Malcolm, C. V., and S. T. Smith. 1971. Growing plants with salty water. Journal of Agriculture of Western Australia, Series 4 12(2):41-44.
For those using saline irrigation water, this article gives some hints on how to reduce salt damage to plants. Includes a table of plants that may be irrigated with water of specified degrees of salinity and lists precautions to be taken with each group. Casuarina cristata and Casuarina glauca are listed.
Mitchell, B. A. 1957. Malayan tin tailings - prospects of rehabilitation. Malayan Forester 20(4): 181-186.
Describes conditions to be dealt with and research into possible methods of rehabilitation and afforestation, as well as improved methods of dumping tin tailings. Species trials show that Casuarina equisetifolia is promising on very infertile tailings.
Patro, C., and R. N. Behera. 1979. Cashew helps to fix sand dunes in Orissa. Indian Farming 28(12):31-32.
An outline of pilot dune-stabilization and shelterbelt trials with plantations of Casuarina/cashew and cashew/coconut. Details are given of establishment and tending methods.
Somasundaram, T. R., and S. S. Jagadees. 1977. Propagation of Casuarina equisetifotia Forst. by planting shoots. Indian Forester 103(11):735-738.
Although Casuarina equisetifolia is usually produced from seed, cuttings taken from young lateral shoots, with a heel smeared with Seradix 2 and planted under mist, showed up to 90 percent rooting success (maximum with July plantings). Shoots without treatment did not survive.
Spurway, B. J. D. 1950. Ru Ronang (Casuarina sumatrana) as a plantation crop. Malaysian Forester 13(2):73-74.
A successful experiment was made in planting wildling seedlings of Casuarina sumatrana at a spacing of 7 ft x 7 ft in prepared lines. The seedlings averaged 8 in. from root tip to top shoot, and survival was good. This species is considered suitable for establishing fuel plantations.
Toth, J. 1965. Aspect forestiere d'une plantation Saharienne. (Forest aspect of a plantation in the Sahara.) Revue Forestiere Franse 17(10):674-695.
Describes and illustrates the establishment, since 1959, on coarse and fine sands with pH 8 near the surface of 35 ha of shelterbelts and amenity blocks in the north Sahara. Casuarina torulosa has been planted as windbreaks. Propagation by seeds and cuttings, and natural and artificial regeneration under the plantations, are briefly discussed. van der Westhuyzen, J. J. N. 1957. Combating sand dunes at Port Edward: trees and shrubs used in reclamation. Farming in South Africa 33(7):37-39.
Recommendations for the fixation of sand dunes (probably the result of overgrazing) at Port Edward on the south coast of South Africa include the control of livestock and the planting of at least three zigzag rows of Casuarina equisetifolia 4-6 ft apart and 30-50 yards to windward.

COMBINATIONS OF FORESTRY WITH AGRICULTURE AND PASTORAL HUSBANDRY,

IRRIGATED WOODLAND FORESTS, AND SHELTERBELTS

Anonymous. 1980. Planim diwai yar. [Grow Casuarina.] Mapping Branch, Office of Forests, Papua New Guinea. 18 pp.
Booklet with illustrations showing how the indigenous population plant and grow Casuarina with their other crops.
Badran, O. A., and M. H. El-Lakany. 1978. Breeding and improving Casuarina for shelterbelt plantations in Egypt. Pp. 573-578 in Third World Consultation on Forest Tree Breeding, Volume 2. CSIRO, Canberra, A.C.T., Australia.
In Egypt, and in many countries with no natural productive forests, Casuarina spp. are receiving increased attention because of their superiority as windbreaks and their high salt and drought resistance. Gives some primary results of a program to provide fast-growing, drought-resistant casuarinas that have desirable stem, crown, and branch characteristics.
Brockway, G. E. 1959. Tree establishment in the wheatbelt. Bulletin, No. 2616. Department of Agriculture, South Perth, Western Australia. 21 pp.
Examines the problems of establishing trees, mainly for cover, recreation, and fodder is semiarid areas in Western Australia. Includes a comprehensive tabulated planting guide listing requirements and uses of four Casuarina species.
Leigh, J. H., A. D. Wilson, and W. E. Mulham. 1979. A study of sheep grazing on a belah (Casuarina cristata)-rosewood (Heterodendum oleifolium) shrub woodland in western New South Wales. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 30:1223-1336.
Koki, Z. 1978. Studies on flying salt in Okinawa from the viewpoint of seashore conservation. Science Bulletin of the College of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus 25:429-554.
As part of a study on the distribution and effects of wind-borne salt, salt deposition was measured on various trees. Casuarina equisetifolia with needle-like leaves collected more salt than the broad-leaved trees examined. It was estimated that tree shelterbelts should reduce downwind salt deposition by 60 percent, as compared with 40-50 percent for nets. Text in Japanese.
Morton, J. F. 1976. Pestiferous spread of many ornamental and fruit species in South Florida. Proceedings, Florida State Horticultural Society 89:348-353.
The massive invasion of large tracts of South Florida by Casuarina equisetifolia and other introduced species is an environmental problem now receiving serious attention. Further plantings are being discouraged to reduce the maintenance load of cultivated grounds and the threat to undeveloped areas being overrun by vigorous alien vegetation.
Sanger, C., G. Lessard, and G. Poulsen. 1977. Trees for people, an account of the forestry research program supported by the International Development Research Centre. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada. 52 pp.
Describes 10 different projects including breeding and improvement of Casuarina spp. for shelterbelts in Egypt.
Wilson, A. D., and W. E. Mulham. 1980. Vegetation changes and animal productivity under sheep and goat grazing on an arid belah (Casuarina cristata)-rosewood (Heterodendrum oleifolium) woodland in western New South Wales. Australian Rangeland Journal 2(2):183-188.

ARBORICULTURE FOR ORNAMENTAL PURPOSES

Garnet, J. R. 1965. Casuarina. Australian Plants 3:185-187.
Descriptions of casuarina as street trees.
Ratnasabapathy, M. 1974/75. Acacia auriculaeformis and Casuarina equisetifolia - the urban invaders. Malayan Nature Journal 28(1):18-21.
Presents notes on the ecology, propagation, and pests (relatively few) of these two popular street trees in the new town of Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, which are also the dominant trees in pioneer vegetation on disturbed sites in the same area.
Weinstein, A., and G. Schiller. 1979. Afforestation and tree planting in Sinai. II. Northwestern Sinai. La-Yaaran 29(1-2):12-16, 32.
A list of species planted in agricultural and urban settlements between Rajah and El Arish is presented. Casuarina glauca and Casuarina cunninghamiana are among the ornamental species successfully grown under irrigation.

FOREST PRODUCTS AND THEIR UTILIZATION

Bawagan, B. O., and A. A. Faulmino. 1978. Qualities of agoho del monte dissolving pulp. Forpride Digest 7(1):12-17.
A good-quality dissolving pulp was obtained from Casuarina rumphiana wood using the pre- hydrolysis-sulfate process. Describes physical and chemical properties.
Guha,S. R. D., and R. N. Madan. 1963. Chemical pulps for writing and printing papers from Casuarina equisetifolia. Indian Forester 89(5):365-367.
Laboratory experiments in sulphate pulping of Casuarina equisetifolia are described. Mean fibre length of the pulp was 1.08 mm and mean fibre diameter 0.011 mm. Easybleaching pulps in good yield could be prepared, and the species is regarded as promising raw material for writing and printing papers.
Guha, S. R. D., Y. K. Sharma, R. Pant, and S. N. Shoundiyal. 1970. Chemical, semichemical and mechanical pulps from Casuarina equisetifolia. Indian Forester 96(11):830840.
Laboratory-scale experiments indicate that Casuarina equisetifolia is a suitable raw material for chemical and semi-chemical pulps. It is unsuitable for mechanical pulps.
Labate, P. J. 1973. [Industrial use of the wood of Casuarina.] Folleto Tecnio Forestal No. 32. Instituto Forestal Nacional, Argentina. 38 pp.
Describes some characteristics of wood of Casuarina cunninghamiana from three different sources in Argentina and offers information on the suitability of the wood for flooring, packing cases, and veneer. Text in Spanish.

FORESTS AND FORESTRY FROM THE NATIONAL POINT OF VIEW

Alston, A. S. 1981. Fiji timbers and their uses. (Available from Department of Forestry P.O. Box 2218, Suva, Fiji.) 6 pp.
Nolan, C. 1980. Loss of a treescape - a report from Bermuda. Quarterly Journal of Forestry 74(3):165-176.
An account of the destruction of the natural tree species by scale insects. Casuarina equisetifolia was successfully used to replace tree cover quickly, despite insufficient spacing and pruning.
Shatta, H. 1969. Forestry proceeds in Saudi Arabia. World Wood, San Francisco 10(9):9,28.
A short, illustrated note on forestry in the less-arid parts of the country. In trials of exotic trees, Casuarina spp. have shown promising results.
Williams, L. 1969. Forest and agricultural resources of Dahomey, West Africa. Economic Botany 23(4):352-372.
The forest resources of Dahomey have been much reduced by excessive exploitation and clearing for agriculture and are now sufficient for only 75 percent of the country's domestic requirements. Casuarina equisetifolia has been found useful as a fuel species.