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close this bookResidential and Non-Residential - Drinking water installations and drainage requirements in Nepal (MTC - SKAT, 1988, 188 p.)
close this folderPART 2 - DRAINAGE REQUIREMENTS
View the document1. SCOPE
View the document2. FIELD OF APPLICATION
View the document3. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
View the document4. PRINCIPLES OF INSTALLATION
View the document5. PRINCIPAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PARTS OF PIPELINE
View the document6. PRINCIPAL REQUIREMENTS FOR DRAINAGE APPLIANCES
View the document7. PRINCIPLES FOR THE PLANNING AND FITTING OF DRAINAGE PIPES
View the document8. SANITARY APPARATUS (Fixture, Appliance)
View the document9. VENTILATION
View the document10. RAIN WATER
View the document11. MATERIALS
View the document12. PRINCIPLES OF CALCULATION
View the document13. DIMENSIONING
View the document14. INSPECTION AND TESTING

14. INSPECTION AND TESTING

14.100

INSPECTION


Work should be inspected during installation and tests applied on completion, care being taken that all work to be encased or concealed is tested before it is finally enclosed.

14.110

Range of inspection - Pipe systems should be tested for tightness and for hydraulic performance. Inspection should be carried out to ensure the following:



a) Work accords with the drawings and specifications;



b) All pipe brackets, clips, etc., are securely fixed;



c) Fixings are correctly spaced;



d) Pipe is protected where necessary by insulation;



e) Embedded pipework is properly protected before sealing-in;



f) All access covers, caps or plugs:




- are so made that the internal faces truly complete the internal bore,




- are accessible,




- cause no obstruction in the pipe bore, and




- are well jointed.

14.200

TESTING OF THE SYSTEM


The water test must be applied before the appliances are connected and prior to concealing of pipes.

14.210

Hydraulic performance - Discharge tests should be made from all the appliances, singly and collectively. Obstruction in any of the pipelines should be traced and the whole system examined for proper hydraulic performance, including the retention of an adequate water seal in each trap.

14.230

Defects - Any defects revealed by the tests should be repaired, and the tests repeated until a satisfactory result is obtained.

14.300

Efficiency - When testing the efficiency of the design of soil and waste water pipe systems they should withstand any condition of discharge of appliances which may occur in practice. The discharge from one appliance must not be forced up into another, and every siphon should retain at least 25 mm of its seal under these conditions. The tests should be designed to make full allowance for the maximum suction and pressure effects which may occur as given below:



a) in small installations when all the appliances are discharged together, and



b) in large installations when sufficient appliances are simultaneously discharged to simulate peak conditions.

14.310

Testing of siphons - When testing the seals of siphons fitted to appliances, they should be filled to overflow level (where applicable, e.g. wash basins, kitchen sinks, etc., and allowed to discharge in the normal way.

14.320

Similar tests - Tests similar to the above should also be carried out by discharging some appliances, while others are empty with plugs out.

TABLE 2/1 - PARTS OF SOIL AND WASTE WATER SYSTEMS


Figure

PARTS OF SINGLE STACK SYSTEM


Figure

TABLE 2/2 - PRINCIPAL REQUIREMENTS ON STACK SYSTEMS

ALL APPARATUS (INCLUDING FLOOR DRAINS, FUNNEL OF SAFETY VALVE, ETC) CONNECTED TO A STACK DRAINAGE SYSTEM MUST HAVE A SIPHON.


Figure

Note:

1 For a height up to 1 0m, a min. distance of 10 m is required for buildings above 10.0m a min. Distance of 1.5m is necessary.

2 Ground pipelines to be of min. 100 mm i.d.

3 Diameters of clean-outs to be of min. 100 mm 0

TABLE 2/3 - GROUNDFLOOR CONNECTION OF APPARATUS


Figure

TABLE 2/4 - DIMENSIONING EXAMPLE

SINGLE STACK SYSTEM: SOIL AND WASTE WATER DRAINAGE

VENT PIPE ABOVE ROOF LEVEL: EACH HOUSE MUST HAVE AT LEAST ONE VENT PIPE OF 100 mm iÆ. WHETHER FOR SINGLE OR MULTISTORY BUILDINGS


Figure

TABLE 2/5 - DIMENSIONING EXAMPLE

SINGLE STACK SYSTEM: SOIL AND WASTE WATER DRAINAGE


Figure

TABLE 2/6 - DIMENSIONING EXAMPLE

Dimensions of leader pipes depends on the numbers of connected apparatus resp. their S-values, but at least 57 mm Æ (when without WC)

When with WC diameter is at least 100 mm Æ (up to max. 14 WC and/or max. 70 SV) (Single stack system)


Figure

TABLE 2/7 - PRINCIPLES ON STACK VENTILATION

SINGLE STACK SYSTEM: SOIL AND WASTE WATER DRAINAGE


Figure

Each house shall have at least one main vent of 100 mm Æ. However additional single connections may be used for example:

Watercloset and washbasin can be fixed to an existing sewerage system and there dimension of the vent pipe can in this case be (not less than) 50 mm Æ

TABLE 2/8 - DIMENSIONING EXAMPLE

Divided Stack System:

a) Soil Stack:

The water closet is led to the septic tank

b) Waste Stack:

Other apparatus, free from human faeces, are led into a separate septic tank



Note:

- It might be advisable to incorporate a grease arrestor, in order to retain the kitchen wastes from the drainage pipes.
- Ventilation: each house requires at least one ventilation pipe (100 0)
- All ground pipelines to be of min. 100 mm inner diameter


Figure

TABLE 2/9 - DIMENSIONING EXAMPLE

Divided Stack Drainage System:

a) Soil Stack:

Pipe line to which water closets are fitted and led to the septic tank with straight ventilation above roof

b) Waste Stack:

Washbasin, bathtub and kitchen, having a separate stack, which is led to a separate septic tank it requires a vent pipe above roof level.

Note:

This system is optional e.g. where houseowner asks for the same - however, single stack systems are similor in function.


Figure

TABLE 2/10 - DIMENSIONING EXAMPLE

Divided Stack Drainage System:

a) Soil Stack:

all water closets, to be lead into septic tank

b) Waste stack:

washbasins and bathtubs into waste stack, to be lead into separate septic tank
alternatively vent pipe could lead into soil stack


Figure

TABLE 2/11 - MANHOLE EXAMPLE (EXTERIOR)


Figure

Note: Wall thickness have been indicated in brick lengths to provide for use of modular bricks or traditional bricks in the figure, B = one brick length, 6 B = six bricks

TABLE 2/12 - H.D.P.E. PIPES MATERIAL LIST

BUILDING SITE______________________________________________________________________________

SECTION:

DATE

SIG

ARTICLE

i.d. 44Æ
44/50

57Æ
57/63

83Æ
83/90

100Æ
100/110

PIPES HOPE






























PIPES TOTAL





BRANCH 90°











BRANCH 60°











BRANCH 45°











BRANCH 90°
RED 100Æ

100/44

100/57

100/83








BRANCH 90°
RED. 83Æ -

83/44

83/57









BRANCH 90°
RED 57-44Æ

57/44










BEND 90°











BEND 45°











BEND RED. 90°

57-44




Y-TEE





REDUCER 100Æ-

100/44

100/57

100/83








REDUCER 83Æ-

83/44

83/57









REDUCER 57/44

57/44










HDPE
WASTE COUPLING

44x5/4”

44 x 1 1/2









WASHBASIN
SIPHON SOCKET

44










WC SOCKET
W. RUBBER SEAL





RING SEAL
SOCKET











SCREW-THREADED
SOCKETS











CLAMPS












CEMENT FIXATION











SADDLE CLAMP






SCREW/DOWEL