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close this bookWHO Information Series on School Health - Document 3 - Violence Prevention: An Important Element of a Health-promoting School (UNESCO - WHO, 1999, 61 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentFOREWORD
close this folder1. INTRODUCTION
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View the documentWhy did WHO prepare this document?
View the documentWho should read this document?
View the documentWhat is meant by ''violence''?
View the documentWhat are the causes of violence?
View the documentWhy focus efforts through schools?
View the documentHow should this document be used?
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentRationale: Violence affects the well-being and learning potential of millions of children around the world
View the documentRationale: Violence is a social and economic problem for all nations
View the documentRationale: Violence is learned and therefore capable of being unlearned
View the documentRationale: Schools offer an efficient, practical and timely means to prevent and reduce violence
View the documentRationale: Evaluations of school-based violence prevention efforts show promising results
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close this folderWho is going to make this happen?
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View the documentThe School Health Team
View the documentCommunity Advisors
close this folderWhere should we start?
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderSituation Analysis
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View the documentNeeds assessment
View the documentResource assessment
View the documentData collection
close this folderCommitment needed
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View the documentPolitical acceptability
View the documentCommunity and family commitment
View the documentTeachers and school staff
View the documentYouth involvement
close this folderWhat should we do?
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View the documentGoals
View the documentObjectives
View the documentActivities
close this folderHow will we know how well we are doing?
View the documentEvaluation design and monitoring
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close this folderSchool health education
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View the documentTiming
View the documentTeaching Methods
View the documentYouth involvement
View the documentParent education
close this folderBuilding the capacity of administrators, teachers and other school staff
View the documentPre-service training
View the documentIn-service training
View the documentWhere can you look for good training?
close this folderSchool health services
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View the documentScreening/Diagnosis/Treatment
View the documentTraining for health service providers
View the documentReferral
close this folderA healthy school environment
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View the documentOverall school climate
View the documentSupportive school policies and practices
View the documentHealth promotion for school staff
View the documentPhysical environment
View the documentSafety and security
View the documentYouth development activities
View the documentSchool/community projects and outreach
View the documentCoordinating mutually reinforcing components
close this folder5. EVALUATION
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderTypes of evaluation
View the documentFormative evaluation
View the documentProcess evaluation
View the documentOutcome evaluation
View the documentANNEX 1: Declaration and Integrated Framework of Action on Education for Peace, Human Rights and Democracy
View the documentANNEX 2: Examples of educational interventions for violence prevention
View the documentANNEX 3: Examples of Grade-Specific Objectives for Violence Prevention Skills
View the documentANNEX 4: Resources to help you in your health promotion and violence prevention efforts
View the documentANNEX 5: Recommended UNESCO documents and publications for the promotion of peace and prevention of violence through schools.
View the documentREFERENCES

What is meant by ''violence''?

Violence takes many forms and is understood differently in different countries and among different cultures. While there is no universally accepted definition of violence, the following is a working definition of violence that encompasses the broad range of understanding:

"Violence is the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation."(3)

Three main categories of violence can be identified: (4)

Self-inflicted violence refers to intentional and harmful behaviours directed at oneself, for which suicide represents the fatal outcome. Other types include attempts to commit suicide and behaviours where the intent is self destructive, but not lethal (e.g., self mutilation).

Interpersonal violence is violent behaviour between individuals and can best be classified by the victim-offender relationship. For example, interpersonal violence may occur among acquaintances or among persons who are not acquainted. Interpersonal violence may also be specified according to the age or sex of the victim. Violence against women is an important example and is occurring worldwide, often unrecognized. The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women defines violence against women as, "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life."(5) Such violence may occur in the family or within the general community, and may be perpetrated or condoned by the state.

Other types of interpersonal violence include child abuse, bullying, harassment and criminally-linked violence such as assault and homicide.

Organised violence is violent behaviour of social or political groups motivated by specific political, economic or social objectives. Armed conflict and war may be considered the most highly organised types of violence. Other examples include racial or religious conflicts occurring among groups and gang or mob violence.